Understanding the impact of Content Translations tools at it's best

Contribution no 4

step into Machine Learning

Contribution no 5

See keyword extraction

Importing of different Modules and explore their usages

Pandas is an extensively data manipulation tool, built on the Numpy package and its key data structure called DataFrame allows to store and manipulate tabular data in rows of obseravations

import pandas as pd

NumPy is for scientific computation,a general-purpose array-processing package

import numpy as np

json is javascript object notation,lightweight data-interchange format I have ran multiple examples to get acquinted with the json format, it's syntax and datatypes like string, number, object (JSON object), array, boolean, nul

import json

re is Python's inbuilt library to work with regular expressions. I learnt different functions of re and sequences

import re

Seaborn and Matplotlib are imported to perform some visualizations as Analyses results can be shown well as the infographics have an impulsed and quick impact than the text paragraphs describing the results Data visualisation is an essential part of analysis since it allows even non-programmers to be able to decipher trends and patterns.

import seaborn as sns
import matplotlib as plt
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt 

I have imported mediawiki API and have referred through all the sections and actions that can be performed -Quering etc

import mwapi

Interaction with API

session = mwapi.Session(host='https://en.wikipedia.org',
                        user_agent='Miriiyala Pujitha Jaji')
hi_session = mwapi.Session(host='https://hi.wikipedia.org',
                        user_agent='Miriiyala Pujitha Jaji')

#Translated form English to Hindi ,Our National Language here in India
parameters = {'action':'query',
              'format':'json',
              'list':'cxpublishedtranslations',
              'from':'en',
              'to':'hi',
              'limit':500,
              'offset':200}
res = session.get(parameters)

To know how the data looks like I have run following

res['result']['translations'][:15]
[{'translationId': '104628',
  'sourceTitle': 'Jain monasticism',
  'targetTitle': 'जैन मुनि',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'sourceRevisionId': '697821792',
  'targetRevisionId': '2995713',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'sourceURL': '//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jain monasticism',
  'targetURL': '//hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/जैन मुनि',
  'publishedDate': '20160110184902',
  'stats': {'any': 0.19009086688333,
   'human': 0.061219075412881,
   'mt': 0.12887179147045,
   'mtSectionsCount': 8}},
 {'translationId': '105194',
  'sourceTitle': 'Wikipedia:WikiProject Medicine/Translation task force/RTT/Simple measles vaccine',
  'targetTitle': 'खसरे का टीका(वैक्सीन)',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'sourceRevisionId': '653739996',
  'targetRevisionId': '2996646',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'sourceURL': '//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject Medicine/Translation task force/RTT/Simple measles vaccine',
  'targetURL': '//hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/खसरे का टीका(वैक्सीन)',
  'publishedDate': '20160112155454',
  'stats': {'any': 1.0132774283718,
   'human': 0.77917540181691,
   'mt': 0.23410202655486,
   'mtSectionsCount': 1}},
 {'translationId': '105305',
  'sourceTitle': 'List of earthquakes in 2016',
  'targetTitle': '2016 आए में भूकम्पों की सूची',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'sourceRevisionId': '699475804',
  'targetRevisionId': '2996667',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'sourceURL': '//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List of earthquakes in 2016',
  'targetURL': '//hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/2016 आए में भूकम्पों की सूची',
  'publishedDate': '20160112165117',
  'stats': {'any': 0.98091603053435,
   'human': 0.36641221374046,
   'mt': 0.61450381679389,
   'mtSectionsCount': 4}},
 {'translationId': '105719',
  'sourceTitle': 'Nimr al-Nimr',
  'targetTitle': 'निम्र अल-निम्र',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'sourceRevisionId': '699462541',
  'targetRevisionId': '2997383',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'sourceURL': '//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nimr al-Nimr',
  'targetURL': '//hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/निम्र अल-निम्र',
  'publishedDate': '20160113191205',
  'stats': {'any': 0.34254974984012,
   'human': 0.035398562991385,
   'mt': 0.30715118684874,
   'mtSectionsCount': 1}},
 {'translationId': '106456',
  'sourceTitle': 'J. F. R. Jacob',
  'targetTitle': 'जे॰एफ॰आर॰ जैकब',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'sourceRevisionId': '699970333',
  'targetRevisionId': '2999440',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'sourceURL': '//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J. F. R. Jacob',
  'targetURL': '//hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/जे॰एफ॰आर॰ जैकब',
  'publishedDate': '20160115180314',
  'stats': {'any': 0.15827460303982,
   'human': 0.02241657467946,
   'mt': 0.13585802836036,
   'mtSectionsCount': 1}},
 {'translationId': '106992',
  'sourceTitle': 'Toplessness',
  'targetTitle': 'धड़ निरावरण',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'sourceRevisionId': '699007501',
  'targetRevisionId': '3000442',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'sourceURL': '//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toplessness',
  'targetURL': '//hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/धड़ निरावरण',
  'publishedDate': '20160117000107',
  'stats': {'any': 0.26409060042496,
   'human': 0.05211276861405,
   'mt': 0.21197783181091,
   'mtSectionsCount': 3}},
 {'translationId': '107061',
  'sourceTitle': 'Tripurantaka Temple',
  'targetTitle': 'त्रिपुरान्तकेश्वर मन्दिर',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'sourceRevisionId': '648100317',
  'targetRevisionId': '3000482',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'sourceURL': '//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tripurantaka Temple',
  'targetURL': '//hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/त्रिपुरान्तकेश्वर मन्दिर',
  'publishedDate': '20160117035201',
  'stats': {'any': 0.3125,
   'human': 0.21912955465587,
   'mt': 0.09337044534413,
   'mtSectionsCount': 2}},
 {'translationId': '107075',
  'sourceTitle': 'Bandha (Jainism)',
  'targetTitle': 'कर्म बन्ध',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'sourceRevisionId': '700083932',
  'targetRevisionId': '3000535',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'sourceURL': '//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bandha (Jainism)',
  'targetURL': '//hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/कर्म बन्ध',
  'publishedDate': '20160117053801',
  'stats': {'any': 0.77460901563937,
   'human': 0.37442502299908,
   'mt': 0.40018399264029,
   'mtSectionsCount': 4}},
 {'translationId': '107084',
  'sourceTitle': 'Samvara',
  'targetTitle': 'संवर',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'sourceRevisionId': '642055132',
  'targetRevisionId': '3000562',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'sourceURL': '//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samvara',
  'targetURL': '//hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/संवर',
  'publishedDate': '20160117062624',
  'stats': {'any': 0.54980392156863,
   'human': 0.27333333333333,
   'mt': 0.27647058823529,
   'mtSectionsCount': 5}},
 {'translationId': '107150',
  'sourceTitle': 'Ajiva',
  'targetTitle': 'अजीव',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'sourceRevisionId': '683049890',
  'targetRevisionId': '3000672',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'sourceURL': '//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajiva',
  'targetURL': '//hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/अजीव',
  'publishedDate': '20160117091641',
  'stats': {'any': 0.25737100737101,
   'human': 0.13677313677314,
   'mt': 0.12059787059787,
   'mtSectionsCount': 3}},
 {'translationId': '107233',
  'sourceTitle': 'Wikipedia:WikiProject Medicine/Translation task force/RTT/Simple mumps vaccine',
  'targetTitle': 'विकिपीडिया:WikiProject Medicine/Translation task force/RTT/Simple mumps vaccine',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'sourceRevisionId': '651727167',
  'targetRevisionId': '3022867',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'sourceURL': '//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject Medicine/Translation task force/RTT/Simple mumps vaccine',
  'targetURL': '//hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/विकिपीडिया:WikiProject Medicine/Translation task force/RTT/Simple mumps vaccine',
  'publishedDate': '20160302105005',
  'stats': {'any': 0.99924442765395,
   'human': 0.78730638458632,
   'mt': 0.21193804306762,
   'mtSectionsCount': 1}},
 {'translationId': '107678',
  'sourceTitle': 'Nirjara',
  'targetTitle': 'निर्जरा',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'sourceRevisionId': '700452418',
  'targetRevisionId': '3001522',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'sourceURL': '//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nirjara',
  'targetURL': '//hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/निर्जरा',
  'publishedDate': '20160118162934',
  'stats': {'any': 0.25880955523294,
   'human': 0.13620166292728,
   'mt': 0.12260789230566,
   'mtSectionsCount': 4}},
 {'translationId': '107864',
  'sourceTitle': 'Bajna, India',
  'targetTitle': 'बाजना, भारत',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'sourceRevisionId': '698692197',
  'targetRevisionId': '3001696',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'sourceURL': '//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bajna, India',
  'targetURL': '//hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/बाजना, भारत',
  'publishedDate': '20160119052347',
  'stats': {'any': 0.95201827875095,
   'human': 0.73191165270373,
   'mt': 0.22010662604722,
   'mtSectionsCount': 1}},
 {'translationId': '108160',
  'sourceTitle': 'V. Rama Rao',
  'targetTitle': 'वी॰ रामा राव',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'sourceRevisionId': '700563075',
  'targetRevisionId': '3002240',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'sourceURL': '//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V. Rama Rao',
  'targetURL': '//hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/वी॰ रामा राव',
  'publishedDate': '20160119203556',
  'stats': {'any': 0.39990859232176,
   'human': 0.35191956124314,
   'mt': 0.047989031078611,
   'mtSectionsCount': 2}},
 {'translationId': '108171',
  'sourceTitle': 'Glenn Frey',
  'targetTitle': 'ग्लेन फ्रे',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'sourceRevisionId': '700653458',
  'targetRevisionId': '3002246',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'sourceURL': '//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glenn Frey',
  'targetURL': '//hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/ग्लेन फ्रे',
  'publishedDate': '20160119210752',
  'stats': {'any': 0.28379880505766,
   'human': 0.052660830901765,
   'mt': 0.2311379741559,
   'mtSectionsCount': 3}}]
Data = pd.DataFrame(res['result']['translations'])
Data.head(15)
publishedDate sourceLanguage sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL stats targetLanguage targetRevisionId targetTitle targetURL translationId
0 20160110184902 en 697821792 Jain monasticism //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jain monasticism {'any': 0.19009086688333, 'human': 0.061219075... hi 2995713 जैन मुनि //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/जैन मुनि 104628
1 20160112155454 en 653739996 Wikipedia:WikiProject Medicine/Translation tas... //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject ... {'any': 1.0132774283718, 'human': 0.7791754018... hi 2996646 खसरे का टीका(वैक्सीन) //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/खसरे का टीका(वैक्सीन) 105194
2 20160112165117 en 699475804 List of earthquakes in 2016 //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List of earthquakes in... {'any': 0.98091603053435, 'human': 0.366412213... hi 2996667 2016 आए में भूकम्पों की सूची //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/2016 आए में भूकम्पों क... 105305
3 20160113191205 en 699462541 Nimr al-Nimr //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nimr al-Nimr {'any': 0.34254974984012, 'human': 0.035398562... hi 2997383 निम्र अल-निम्र //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/निम्र अल-निम्र 105719
4 20160115180314 en 699970333 J. F. R. Jacob //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J. F. R. Jacob {'any': 0.15827460303982, 'human': 0.022416574... hi 2999440 जे॰एफ॰आर॰ जैकब //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/जे॰एफ॰आर॰ जैकब 106456
5 20160117000107 en 699007501 Toplessness //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toplessness {'any': 0.26409060042496, 'human': 0.052112768... hi 3000442 धड़ निरावरण //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/धड़ निरावरण 106992
6 20160117035201 en 648100317 Tripurantaka Temple //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tripurantaka Temple {'any': 0.3125, 'human': 0.21912955465587, 'mt... hi 3000482 त्रिपुरान्तकेश्वर मन्दिर //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/त्रिपुरान्तकेश्वर मन्दिर 107061
7 20160117053801 en 700083932 Bandha (Jainism) //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bandha (Jainism) {'any': 0.77460901563937, 'human': 0.374425022... hi 3000535 कर्म बन्ध //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/कर्म बन्ध 107075
8 20160117062624 en 642055132 Samvara //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samvara {'any': 0.54980392156863, 'human': 0.273333333... hi 3000562 संवर //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/संवर 107084
9 20160117091641 en 683049890 Ajiva //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajiva {'any': 0.25737100737101, 'human': 0.136773136... hi 3000672 अजीव //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/अजीव 107150
10 20160302105005 en 651727167 Wikipedia:WikiProject Medicine/Translation tas... //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject ... {'any': 0.99924442765395, 'human': 0.787306384... hi 3022867 विकिपीडिया:WikiProject Medicine/Translation ta... //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/विकिपीडिया:WikiProject... 107233
11 20160118162934 en 700452418 Nirjara //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nirjara {'any': 0.25880955523294, 'human': 0.136201662... hi 3001522 निर्जरा //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/निर्जरा 107678
12 20160119052347 en 698692197 Bajna, India //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bajna, India {'any': 0.95201827875095, 'human': 0.731911652... hi 3001696 बाजना, भारत //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/बाजना, भारत 107864
13 20160119203556 en 700563075 V. Rama Rao //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V. Rama Rao {'any': 0.39990859232176, 'human': 0.351919561... hi 3002240 वी॰ रामा राव //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/वी॰ रामा राव 108160
14 20160119210752 en 700653458 Glenn Frey //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glenn Frey {'any': 0.28379880505766, 'human': 0.052660830... hi 3002246 ग्लेन फ्रे //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/ग्लेन फ्रे 108171

EDA – plays a crucial role in understanding the what, why, and how of the problem statement Exploratory data analysis is an approach to analyzing data sets by summarizing their main characteristics with visualizations to unravel many insights they often lead us in building robust models

Let’s have a look at data dimensionality, features names, and feature types.

Data.describe
<bound method NDFrame.describe of       publishedDate sourceLanguage sourceRevisionId  \
0    20160110184902             en        697821792   
1    20160112155454             en        653739996   
2    20160112165117             en        699475804   
3    20160113191205             en        699462541   
4    20160115180314             en        699970333   
5    20160117000107             en        699007501   
6    20160117035201             en        648100317   
7    20160117053801             en        700083932   
8    20160117062624             en        642055132   
9    20160117091641             en        683049890   
10   20160302105005             en        651727167   
11   20160118162934             en        700452418   
12   20160119052347             en        698692197   
13   20160119203556             en        700563075   
14   20160119210752             en        700653458   
15   20160119211557             en        700433361   
16   20160119212800             en        700553927   
17   20160123051543             en        701210750   
18   20160124144847             en        700007048   
19   20160125122522             en        691840925   
20   20160129075720             en        686405762   
21   20160129092957             en        701542586   
22   20160130120948             en        701769199   
23   20160201105208             en        702481836   
24   20160203171556             en        703056218   
25   20160203182344             en        699824456   
26   20160206133411             en        700382513   
27   20160303181122             en        667034917   
28   20160422143001             en        709838647   
29   20160217110756             en        703790551   
..              ...            ...              ...   
470  20170228033254             en        764800901   
471  20170228080329             en        740795240   
472  20170301013845             en        766738836   
473  20170301231845             en        745785994   
474  20170302094529             en        751788693   
475  20170303074157             en        755920184   
476  20170304095351             en        768068815   
477  20170327182057             en        767369616   
478  20170305020625             en        766539991   
479  20170915114113             en        766496971   
480  20170305074816             en        767919066   
481  20170306045612             en        763565815   
482  20170306152056             en        718853071   
483  20170307031902             en        766399276   
484  20170308091721             en        755906403   
485  20170308093129             en        767609558   
486  20170309060458             en        747340317   
487  20170309072901             en        769102307   
488  20170309092154             en        761814255   
489  20170309092947             en        764076001   
490  20170309114501             en        765962475   
491  20170310110148             en        767320504   
492  20170310090825             en        758566270   
493  20170310105802             en        769532007   
494  20170310100413             en        748600451   
495  20170311134650             en        762351636   
496  20170311191205             en        753576350   
497  20170311171821             en        767197890   
498  20170312023934             en        759015048   
499  20170312052134             en        769885873   

                                           sourceTitle  \
0                                     Jain monasticism   
1    Wikipedia:WikiProject Medicine/Translation tas...   
2                          List of earthquakes in 2016   
3                                         Nimr al-Nimr   
4                                       J. F. R. Jacob   
5                                          Toplessness   
6                                  Tripurantaka Temple   
7                                     Bandha (Jainism)   
8                                              Samvara   
9                                                Ajiva   
10   Wikipedia:WikiProject Medicine/Translation tas...   
11                                             Nirjara   
12                                        Bajna, India   
13                                         V. Rama Rao   
14                                          Glenn Frey   
15                                  Lars Roar Langslet   
16                                      Armando Loaiza   
17                                      Jasprit Bumrah   
18                                   Stereolithography   
19                                  Gangapur, Varanasi   
20                                   Inkjet solar cell   
21                                        Ahinsa Sthal   
22                                          Avesh Khan   
23                                     Tablighi Jamaat   
24                                          Abu Hanifa   
25                              Ford Model A (1927–31)   
26                                            Tirumala   
27                                       The Asian Age   
28                         Capital punishment in India   
29                                         Jai Gurudev   
..                                                 ...   
470                               Deenanath Mangeshkar   
471                                 Jitendra Abhisheki   
472                                     Malini Awasthi   
473                                       Rasoolan Bai   
474                                       Basanti Devi   
475                                       Shonali Bose   
476                                             Sappho   
477                                    Cri-Zelda Brits   
478                                      Meera Kosambi   
479                           Wikipedia:Creating a bot   
480                                European Parliament   
481                                       Nithya Menen   
482                                             Khumbu   
483                                      Ishita Katyal   
484                                      Sakuntla Devi   
485                                          Apoptosis   
486                                      N. Valarmathi   
487                                        Laura Bates   
488                                   Avani Chaturvedi   
489                                         Aditi Pant   
490                                     Mie Prefecture   
491                                         Rubina Ali   
492                                      Fatima Sheikh   
493                     Kanchan Chaudhary Bhattacharya   
494                                       Manju Bansal   
495                                  Navjot Kaur Sidhu   
496                         Priyambada Mohanty Hejmadi   
497                                     Pushpalata Das   
498                                    Geeta Mukherjee   
499                                  Chandrai (Barmer)   

                                             sourceURL  \
0             //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jain monasticism   
1    //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject ...   
2    //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List of earthquakes in...   
3                 //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nimr al-Nimr   
4               //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J. F. R. Jacob   
5                  //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toplessness   
6          //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tripurantaka Temple   
7             //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bandha (Jainism)   
8                      //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samvara   
9                        //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajiva   
10   //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject ...   
11                     //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nirjara   
12                //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bajna, India   
13                 //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V. Rama Rao   
14                  //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glenn Frey   
15          //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lars Roar Langslet   
16              //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armando Loaiza   
17              //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasprit Bumrah   
18           //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereolithography   
19          //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gangapur, Varanasi   
20           //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inkjet solar cell   
21                //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahinsa Sthal   
22                  //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avesh Khan   
23             //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tablighi Jamaat   
24                  //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu Hanifa   
25      //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ford Model A (1927–31)   
26                    //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tirumala   
27               //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The Asian Age   
28   //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capital punishment in ...   
29                 //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jai Gurudev   
..                                                 ...   
470       //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deenanath Mangeshkar   
471         //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jitendra Abhisheki   
472             //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malini Awasthi   
473               //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rasoolan Bai   
474               //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basanti Devi   
475               //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shonali Bose   
476                     //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sappho   
477            //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cri-Zelda Brits   
478              //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meera Kosambi   
479   //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Creating a bot   
480        //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European Parliament   
481               //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nithya Menen   
482                     //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khumbu   
483              //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishita Katyal   
484              //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sakuntla Devi   
485                  //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apoptosis   
486              //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N. Valarmathi   
487                //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laura Bates   
488           //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avani Chaturvedi   
489                 //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aditi Pant   
490             //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mie Prefecture   
491                 //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubina Ali   
492              //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatima Sheikh   
493  //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanchan Chaudhary Bhat...   
494               //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manju Bansal   
495          //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navjot Kaur Sidhu   
496  //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Priyambada Mohanty Hej...   
497             //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pushpalata Das   
498            //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geeta Mukherjee   
499          //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandrai (Barmer)   

                                                 stats targetLanguage  \
0    {'any': 0.19009086688333, 'human': 0.061219075...             hi   
1    {'any': 1.0132774283718, 'human': 0.7791754018...             hi   
2    {'any': 0.98091603053435, 'human': 0.366412213...             hi   
3    {'any': 0.34254974984012, 'human': 0.035398562...             hi   
4    {'any': 0.15827460303982, 'human': 0.022416574...             hi   
5    {'any': 0.26409060042496, 'human': 0.052112768...             hi   
6    {'any': 0.3125, 'human': 0.21912955465587, 'mt...             hi   
7    {'any': 0.77460901563937, 'human': 0.374425022...             hi   
8    {'any': 0.54980392156863, 'human': 0.273333333...             hi   
9    {'any': 0.25737100737101, 'human': 0.136773136...             hi   
10   {'any': 0.99924442765395, 'human': 0.787306384...             hi   
11   {'any': 0.25880955523294, 'human': 0.136201662...             hi   
12   {'any': 0.95201827875095, 'human': 0.731911652...             hi   
13   {'any': 0.39990859232176, 'human': 0.351919561...             hi   
14   {'any': 0.28379880505766, 'human': 0.052660830...             hi   
15   {'any': 0.61561264822134, 'human': 0.347826086...             hi   
16   {'any': 0.60969387755102, 'human': 0.354591836...             hi   
17   {'any': 0.83720930232558, 'human': 0.565891472...             hi   
18   {'any': 1.0277041676704, 'human': 0.8240183088...             hi   
19   {'any': 0.97165991902834, 'human': 0.701754385...             hi   
20   {'any': 0.99670588235294, 'human': 0.644549019...             hi   
21   {'any': 0.69593147751606, 'human': 0.357601713...             hi   
22   {'any': 0.74418604651163, 'human': 0.368217054...             hi   
23   {'any': 0.2015784126084, 'human': 0.0196828997...             hi   
24   {'any': 0.63818683366883, 'human': 0.193170804...             hi   
25   {'any': 0.20954881369117, 'human': 0.084208479...             hi   
26   {'any': 0.22934472934473, 'human': 0.053520553...             hi   
27   {'any': 0.79222720478326, 'human': 0.733931240...             hi   
28   {'any': 0.45599399019453, 'human': 0.197690969...             hi   
29   {'any': 0.11626934337097, 'human': 0.116269343...             hi   
..                                                 ...            ...   
470  {'any': 0.88469046291132, 'human': 0.062465142...             hi   
471  {'any': 0.93331175137585, 'human': 0, 'mt': 0....             hi   
472  {'any': 0.69070996978852, 'human': 0.650679758...             hi   
473  {'any': 0.19989121566494, 'human': 0.161272776...             hi   
474  {'any': 0.12515114873035, 'human': 0.061870213...             hi   
475  {'any': 0.3352559480894, 'human': 0.3280461427...             hi   
476  {'any': 0.070471770166265, 'human': 0.07020739...             hi   
477  {'any': 0.68596627332489, 'human': 0.252500918...             hi   
478  {'any': 0.46585627457991, 'human': 0.463711119...             hi   
479  {'any': 0.99393810486015, 'human': 0.008401573...             hi   
480  {'any': 0.23406124657796, 'human': 0.233984847...             hi   
481  {'any': 0.67012474541752, 'human': 0.481224541...             hi   
482  {'any': 0.68388106416275, 'human': 0.574856546...             hi   
483  {'any': 1.3586515028432, 'human': 1.3131600324...             hi   
484  {'any': 0.53442399454669, 'human': 0.521245171...             hi   
485  {'any': 0.0075956090651558, 'human': 0.0075956...             hi   
486  {'any': 0.75953079178886, 'human': 0.744281524...             hi   
487  {'any': 0.57786805958599, 'human': 0.500483652...             hi   
488  {'any': 1.3592067988669, 'human': 1.3354107648...             hi   
489  {'any': 0.79337370858568, 'human': 0.780548628...             hi   
490  {'any': 0.37199493884437, 'human': 0.161197806...             hi   
491  {'any': 0.61617572371762, 'human': 0.614398171...             hi   
492  {'any': 1.3326848249027, 'human': 1.3210116731...             hi   
493  {'any': 1.0810064436944, 'human': 1.0699601104...             hi   
494  {'any': 0.9622641509434, 'human': 0.9486616937...             hi   
495  {'any': 1.3700092850511, 'human': 1.3672237697...             hi   
496  {'any': 0.52702702702703, 'human': 0.517872711...             hi   
497  {'any': 0.69502238609429, 'human': 0.693047142...             hi   
498  {'any': 0.56326825741142, 'human': 0.506326825...             hi   
499  {'any': 0.0048426150121065, 'human': 0, 'mt': ...             hi   

    targetRevisionId                                        targetTitle  \
0            2995713                                           जैन मुनि   
1            2996646                              खसरे का टीका(वैक्सीन)   
2            2996667                       2016 आए में भूकम्पों की सूची   
3            2997383                                     निम्र अल-निम्र   
4            2999440                                     जे॰एफ॰आर॰ जैकब   
5            3000442                                        धड़ निरावरण   
6            3000482                           त्रिपुरान्तकेश्वर मन्दिर   
7            3000535                                          कर्म बन्ध   
8            3000562                                               संवर   
9            3000672                                               अजीव   
10           3022867  विकिपीडिया:WikiProject Medicine/Translation ta...   
11           3001522                                            निर्जरा   
12           3001696                                        बाजना, भारत   
13           3002240                                       वी॰ रामा राव   
14           3002246                                         ग्लेन फ्रे   
15           3002248                                लार्स रोर लंग्स्लेट   
16           3002250                                     अरमांडो लोयज़ा   
17           3003675                                     जसप्रीत बुमराह   
18           3004162                                 स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी   
19           3004600                                   गंगापुर, वाराणसी   
20           3006739                                     इंकजेट सौर सेल   
21           3006772                                        अहिंसा स्थल   
22           3007235                                           अवेश खान   
23           3008148                                      तबलीग़ी जमाअत   
24           3009533                                         अबू हनीफ़ा   
25           3009599                             फोर्ड मॉडल ए (१९२७–३१)   
26           3010861                                            तिरुमला   
27           3023592                                         द एशियन एज   
28           3056460                               भारत में मौत की सज़ा   
29           3016303                                         जय गुरुदेव   
..               ...                                                ...   
470          3402027                                    दीनानाथ मंगेशकर   
471          3402248                                   जीतेंद्र अभिषेकी   
472          3402741                                      मालिनी अवस्थी   
473          3405440                                          रसूलन बाई   
474          3407447                                         बसंती देवी   
475          3409398                                         शोनाली बोस   
476          3410200                                              साफ़ो   
477          3436944                                क्रि-जेल्डा ब्रिट्स   
478          3410663                                      मीरा कोसाम्बी   
479          3410751                  विकिपीडिया:बॉट बनाने की प्रक्रिया   
480          3410842                                       यूरोपीय संसद   
481          3411607                                        नित्या मेनन   
482          3414054                                             खुम्बु   
483          3414461                                        इशिता काताल   
484          3415301                                       शकुंतला देवी   
485          3415307                                         एपोप्टोसिस   
486          3415810                                         ऐन. वलरमठी   
487          3415862                                          लौरा बेटस   
488          3415961                                     अवनि चतुर्वेदी   
489          3415966                                          अदिति पंत   
490          3416083                                     मिऐ प्रीफेक्चर   
491          3416645                                         रुबीना अली   
492          3416528                                       फ़ातिमा शेख़   
493          3416642                             कंचन चौधरी भट्टाचार्या   
494          3416598                                          मंजू बंसल   
495          3417332                                   नवजोत कौर सिद्धु   
496          3417517                           प्रियंवदा मोहंती हेजमादी   
497          3417454                                       पुष्पलता दास   
498          3417638                                       गीता मुखर्जी   
499          3417744                                 चान्दराई (बाड़मेर)   

                                             targetURL translationId  
0                     //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/जैन मुनि        104628  
1        //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/खसरे का टीका(वैक्सीन)        105194  
2    //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/2016 आए में भूकम्पों क...        105305  
3               //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/निम्र अल-निम्र        105719  
4               //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/जे॰एफ॰आर॰ जैकब        106456  
5                  //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/धड़ निरावरण        106992  
6     //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/त्रिपुरान्तकेश्वर मन्दिर        107061  
7                    //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/कर्म बन्ध        107075  
8                         //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/संवर        107084  
9                         //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/अजीव        107150  
10   //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/विकिपीडिया:WikiProject...        107233  
11                     //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/निर्जरा        107678  
12                 //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/बाजना, भारत        107864  
13                //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/वी॰ रामा राव        108160  
14                  //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/ग्लेन फ्रे        108171  
15         //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/लार्स रोर लंग्स्लेट        108176  
16              //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/अरमांडो लोयज़ा        108180  
17              //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/जसप्रीत बुमराह        109364  
18          //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी        109849  
19            //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/गंगापुर, वाराणसी        110222  
20              //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/इंकजेट सौर सेल        111002  
21                 //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/अहिंसा स्थल        111446  
22                    //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/अवेश खान        111872  
23               //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/तबलीग़ी जमाअत        112781  
24                  //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/अबू हनीफ़ा        113629  
25      //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/फोर्ड मॉडल ए (१९२७–३१)        113654  
26                     //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/तिरुमला        114651  
27                  //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/द एशियन एज        114917  
28        //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/भारत में मौत की सज़ा        118018  
29                  //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/जय गुरुदेव        118170  
..                                                 ...           ...  
470            //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/दीनानाथ मंगेशकर        282721  
471           //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/जीतेंद्र अभिषेकी        282777  
472              //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/मालिनी अवस्थी        283155  
473                  //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/रसूलन बाई        283525  
474                 //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/बसंती देवी        283765  
475                 //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/शोनाली बोस        284177  
476                      //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/साफ़ो        284615  
477        //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/क्रि-जेल्डा ब्रिट्स        284666  
478              //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/मीरा कोसाम्बी        285138  
479  //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/विकिपीडिया:बॉट बनाने क...        285196  
480               //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/यूरोपीय संसद        285246  
481                //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/नित्या मेनन        285687  
482                     //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/खुम्बु        285786  
483                //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/इशिता काताल        286166  
484               //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/शकुंतला देवी        286698  
485                 //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/एपोप्टोसिस        286720  
486                 //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/ऐन. वलरमठी        287181  
487                  //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/लौरा बेटस        287186  
488             //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/अवनि चतुर्वेदी        287205  
489                  //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/अदिति पंत        287215  
490             //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/मिऐ प्रीफेक्चर        287250  
491                 //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/रुबीना अली        287589  
492               //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/फ़ातिमा शेख़        287664  
493     //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/कंचन चौधरी भट्टाचार्या        287671  
494                  //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/मंजू बंसल        287675  
495           //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/नवजोत कौर सिद्धु        288277  
496   //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/प्रियंवदा मोहंती हेजमादी        288315  
497               //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/पुष्पलता दास        288360  
498               //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/गीता मुखर्जी        288583  
499         //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/चान्दराई (बाड़मेर)        288639  

[500 rows x 11 columns]>
Data.columns
Index(['publishedDate', 'sourceLanguage', 'sourceRevisionId', 'sourceTitle',
       'sourceURL', 'stats', 'targetLanguage', 'targetRevisionId',
       'targetTitle', 'targetURL', 'translationId'],
      dtype='object')
Data.index
RangeIndex(start=0, stop=500, step=1)
Data.shape
(500, 11)
Data.info()
<class 'pandas.core.frame.DataFrame'>
RangeIndex: 500 entries, 0 to 499
Data columns (total 11 columns):
publishedDate       500 non-null object
sourceLanguage      500 non-null object
sourceRevisionId    500 non-null object
sourceTitle         500 non-null object
sourceURL           500 non-null object
stats               500 non-null object
targetLanguage      500 non-null object
targetRevisionId    500 non-null object
targetTitle         500 non-null object
targetURL           500 non-null object
translationId       500 non-null object
dtypes: object(11)
memory usage: 43.0+ KB

To check if there exists any missing or null values

sns.heatmap(Data.isnull(),cbar=False,yticklabels=False,cmap = 'viridis')
<matplotlib.axes._subplots.AxesSubplot at 0x7f939198ac18>

Therefore they are no null values

Data['sourceURL'].nunique()
500

There are 11 Columns

print(Data['publishedDate'].describe())
count                500
unique               499
top       20170226064641
freq                   2
Name: publishedDate, dtype: object
print(Data['sourceLanguage'].describe())
count     500
unique      1
top        en
freq      500
Name: sourceLanguage, dtype: object
print(Data['sourceRevisionId'].describe())
count           500
unique          500
top       739517692
freq              1
Name: sourceRevisionId, dtype: object
print(Data['sourceTitle'].describe())
count                      500
unique                     500
top       Bharati Matha Temple
freq                         1
Name: sourceTitle, dtype: object
print(Data['sourceURL'].describe())
count                                        500
unique                                       500
top       //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shraddha Nigam
freq                                           1
Name: sourceURL, dtype: object
print(Data['targetLanguage'].describe())
count     500
unique      1
top        hi
freq      500
Name: targetLanguage, dtype: object
print(Data['targetRevisionId'].describe())
count         500
unique        500
top       3139852
freq            1
Name: targetRevisionId, dtype: object
print(Data['targetTitle'].describe())
count              500
unique             500
top       बेवटा (गाँव)
freq                 1
Name: targetTitle, dtype: object

Noted the Observations....

print(Data['targetURL'].describe())
count                                  500
unique                                 500
top       //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/जहाज महल
freq                                     1
Name: targetURL, dtype: object

As discussed in the earlier Contribution #1 in the Jupyter Notebook named kickstart- exploration of the data and other modules that the stats is an python dictionary accessing the value for each corresponding key may be difficult So made each value of stats into a seperate Column in the Data STATS has the highest importance as it speaks everything in the analysis

Data_stats = Data.drop('stats',1).assign(**Data.stats.apply(pd.Series))
Data_stats[:5]
publishedDate sourceLanguage sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetLanguage targetRevisionId targetTitle targetURL translationId any human mt mtSectionsCount
0 20160110184902 en 697821792 Jain monasticism //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jain monasticism hi 2995713 जैन मुनि //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/जैन मुनि 104628 0.190091 0.061219 0.128872 8.0
1 20160112155454 en 653739996 Wikipedia:WikiProject Medicine/Translation tas... //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject ... hi 2996646 खसरे का टीका(वैक्सीन) //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/खसरे का टीका(वैक्सीन) 105194 1.013277 0.779175 0.234102 1.0
2 20160112165117 en 699475804 List of earthquakes in 2016 //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List of earthquakes in... hi 2996667 2016 आए में भूकम्पों की सूची //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/2016 आए में भूकम्पों क... 105305 0.980916 0.366412 0.614504 4.0
3 20160113191205 en 699462541 Nimr al-Nimr //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nimr al-Nimr hi 2997383 निम्र अल-निम्र //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/निम्र अल-निम्र 105719 0.342550 0.035399 0.307151 1.0
4 20160115180314 en 699970333 J. F. R. Jacob //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J. F. R. Jacob hi 2999440 जे॰एफ॰आर॰ जैकब //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/जे॰एफ॰आर॰ जैकब 106456 0.158275 0.022417 0.135858 1.0
Data_stats.info()
<class 'pandas.core.frame.DataFrame'>
RangeIndex: 500 entries, 0 to 499
Data columns (total 14 columns):
publishedDate       500 non-null object
sourceLanguage      500 non-null object
sourceRevisionId    500 non-null object
sourceTitle         500 non-null object
sourceURL           500 non-null object
targetLanguage      500 non-null object
targetRevisionId    500 non-null object
targetTitle         500 non-null object
targetURL           500 non-null object
translationId       500 non-null object
any                 500 non-null float64
human               500 non-null float64
mt                  500 non-null float64
mtSectionsCount     500 non-null float64
dtypes: float64(4), object(10)
memory usage: 54.8+ KB
Data_stats.describe()
any human mt mtSectionsCount
count 500.000000 500.000000 500.000000 500.000000
mean 0.672321 0.255071 0.417250 11.294000
std 0.736702 0.286672 0.746801 22.470902
min 0.001167 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000
25% 0.353743 0.003237 0.057211 2.000000
50% 0.695544 0.149906 0.256191 4.000000
75% 0.967098 0.447711 0.805528 10.250000
max 15.347826 1.367224 14.826087 270.000000

Let's check for the newer publications-translations As we are more focused on recent trends though observing the history may lead to interesting conclusions! Okayyy Let's do Both! No missing No Confusion

As we have observed from the above results that the type of the 'publishedDate' column-observations is object We should convert it into int datatype so we can perform some comparsion operations in order to extract information about recent activities

Data_stats = Data_stats.sort_values('publishedDate')

using astype method I have changed the publishedDate datatype into int64

Data_stats['publishedDate'] = Data_stats['publishedDate'].astype('int64')

Let us look at the frequency of publications in accordance with the publishedDates..

sns.distplot(Data_stats['publishedDate'])
/srv/paws/lib/python3.6/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_axes.py:6462: UserWarning: The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been replaced by the 'density' kwarg.
  warnings.warn("The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been "
<matplotlib.axes._subplots.AxesSubplot at 0x7f938f8514e0>

Most of the publications-transalations are done in the year 2016 - 2017!

Why not after that period? Has everthing been finished during that period ?? To be studied!!

Let us try to get from 2018

Data_stats[Data_stats['publishedDate'] > 20180000000000]
publishedDate sourceLanguage sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetLanguage targetRevisionId targetTitle targetURL translationId any human mt mtSectionsCount
104 20180525084856 en 715951209 Bansal Learning //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bansal Learning hi 3076819 बंसल लर्निंग //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/बंसल लर्निंग 157251 1.025368 0.400812 0.624556 9.0

Oops! there is not much data available in the limit(500) we have set So lets go other 6 months backwards

Data_stats[Data_stats['publishedDate'] > 20170600000000]
publishedDate sourceLanguage sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetLanguage targetRevisionId targetTitle targetURL translationId any human mt mtSectionsCount
479 20170915114113 en 766496971 Wikipedia:Creating a bot //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Creating a bot hi 3410751 विकिपीडिया:बॉट बनाने की प्रक्रिया //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/विकिपीडिया:बॉट बनाने क... 285196 0.993938 0.008402 0.985537 96.0
287 20171002180301 en 738870427 9/11 conspiracy theories //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/9/11 conspiracy theories hi 3588936 9/11 के षड्यंत्र के सिद्धांत //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/9/11 के षड्यंत्र के सि... 202895 0.437184 0.004196 0.432989 26.0
104 20180525084856 en 715951209 Bansal Learning //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bansal Learning hi 3076819 बंसल लर्निंग //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/बंसल लर्निंग 157251 1.025368 0.400812 0.624556 9.0
Data_stats["any"][:10]
0    0.190091
1    1.013277
2    0.980916
3    0.342550
4    0.158275
5    0.264091
6    0.312500
7    0.774609
8    0.549804
9    0.257371
Name: any, dtype: float64
print(Data_stats['any'].describe())
count    500.000000
mean       0.672321
std        0.736702
min        0.001167
25%        0.353743
50%        0.695544
75%        0.967098
max       15.347826
Name: any, dtype: float64
Data_stats["mt"][:10]
0    0.128872
1    0.234102
2    0.614504
3    0.307151
4    0.135858
5    0.211978
6    0.093370
7    0.400184
8    0.276471
9    0.120598
Name: mt, dtype: float64
print(Data_stats['mt'].describe())
count    500.000000
mean       0.417250
std        0.746801
min        0.000000
25%        0.057211
50%        0.256191
75%        0.805528
max       14.826087
Name: mt, dtype: float64
Data_stats["mtSectionsCount"][:10]
0    8.0
1    1.0
2    4.0
3    1.0
4    1.0
5    3.0
6    2.0
7    4.0
8    5.0
9    3.0
Name: mtSectionsCount, dtype: float64
print(Data_stats['mtSectionsCount'].describe())
count    500.000000
mean      11.294000
std       22.470902
min        0.000000
25%        2.000000
50%        4.000000
75%       10.250000
max      270.000000
Name: mtSectionsCount, dtype: float64
Data_stats["human"][:10]
0    0.061219
1    0.779175
2    0.366412
3    0.035399
4    0.022417
5    0.052113
6    0.219130
7    0.374425
8    0.273333
9    0.136773
Name: human, dtype: float64
print(Data_stats['human'].describe())
count    500.000000
mean       0.255071
std        0.286672
min        0.000000
25%        0.003237
50%        0.149906
75%        0.447711
max        1.367224
Name: human, dtype: float64

Now that we have seen the recent years and visualised the any - > Machine translation or Human Translation mt - > Machine translation human -> Human Translation mtSectionsCount -> Number of Sections translated Let us now combine both of them to observe which may lead us to new conclusions

Data_stats[Data_stats['publishedDate'] > 20170600000000].sort_values('any', ascending=True)
publishedDate sourceLanguage sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetLanguage targetRevisionId targetTitle targetURL translationId any human mt mtSectionsCount
287 20171002180301 en 738870427 9/11 conspiracy theories //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/9/11 conspiracy theories hi 3588936 9/11 के षड्यंत्र के सिद्धांत //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/9/11 के षड्यंत्र के सि... 202895 0.437184 0.004196 0.432989 26.0
479 20170915114113 en 766496971 Wikipedia:Creating a bot //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Creating a bot hi 3410751 विकिपीडिया:बॉट बनाने की प्रक्रिया //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/विकिपीडिया:बॉट बनाने क... 285196 0.993938 0.008402 0.985537 96.0
104 20180525084856 en 715951209 Bansal Learning //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bansal Learning hi 3076819 बंसल लर्निंग //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/बंसल लर्निंग 157251 1.025368 0.400812 0.624556 9.0
Data_stats[Data_stats['publishedDate'] > 20170600000000].sort_values('mt', ascending=True)
publishedDate sourceLanguage sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetLanguage targetRevisionId targetTitle targetURL translationId any human mt mtSectionsCount
287 20171002180301 en 738870427 9/11 conspiracy theories //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/9/11 conspiracy theories hi 3588936 9/11 के षड्यंत्र के सिद्धांत //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/9/11 के षड्यंत्र के सि... 202895 0.437184 0.004196 0.432989 26.0
104 20180525084856 en 715951209 Bansal Learning //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bansal Learning hi 3076819 बंसल लर्निंग //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/बंसल लर्निंग 157251 1.025368 0.400812 0.624556 9.0
479 20170915114113 en 766496971 Wikipedia:Creating a bot //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Creating a bot hi 3410751 विकिपीडिया:बॉट बनाने की प्रक्रिया //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/विकिपीडिया:बॉट बनाने क... 285196 0.993938 0.008402 0.985537 96.0
Data_stats[Data_stats['publishedDate'] > 20170600000000].sort_values('human', ascending=True)
publishedDate sourceLanguage sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetLanguage targetRevisionId targetTitle targetURL translationId any human mt mtSectionsCount
287 20171002180301 en 738870427 9/11 conspiracy theories //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/9/11 conspiracy theories hi 3588936 9/11 के षड्यंत्र के सिद्धांत //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/9/11 के षड्यंत्र के सि... 202895 0.437184 0.004196 0.432989 26.0
479 20170915114113 en 766496971 Wikipedia:Creating a bot //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Creating a bot hi 3410751 विकिपीडिया:बॉट बनाने की प्रक्रिया //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/विकिपीडिया:बॉट बनाने क... 285196 0.993938 0.008402 0.985537 96.0
104 20180525084856 en 715951209 Bansal Learning //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bansal Learning hi 3076819 बंसल लर्निंग //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/बंसल लर्निंग 157251 1.025368 0.400812 0.624556 9.0
Data_stats[Data_stats['publishedDate'] > 20170600000000].sort_values('mtSectionsCount', ascending=True)
publishedDate sourceLanguage sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetLanguage targetRevisionId targetTitle targetURL translationId any human mt mtSectionsCount
104 20180525084856 en 715951209 Bansal Learning //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bansal Learning hi 3076819 बंसल लर्निंग //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/बंसल लर्निंग 157251 1.025368 0.400812 0.624556 9.0
287 20171002180301 en 738870427 9/11 conspiracy theories //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/9/11 conspiracy theories hi 3588936 9/11 के षड्यंत्र के सिद्धांत //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/9/11 के षड्यंत्र के सि... 202895 0.437184 0.004196 0.432989 26.0
479 20170915114113 en 766496971 Wikipedia:Creating a bot //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Creating a bot hi 3410751 विकिपीडिया:बॉट बनाने की प्रक्रिया //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/विकिपीडिया:बॉट बनाने क... 285196 0.993938 0.008402 0.985537 96.0
sns.distplot(Data_stats['any'], color='g', bins=28, hist_kws={'alpha': 0.8});
/srv/paws/lib/python3.6/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_axes.py:6462: UserWarning: The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been replaced by the 'density' kwarg.
  warnings.warn("The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been "
sns.distplot(Data_stats['human'], color='g', bins=28, hist_kws={'alpha': 0.8});
/srv/paws/lib/python3.6/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_axes.py:6462: UserWarning: The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been replaced by the 'density' kwarg.
  warnings.warn("The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been "
sns.distplot(Data_stats['mtSectionsCount'], color='g', bins=28, hist_kws={'alpha': 0.8});
/srv/paws/lib/python3.6/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_axes.py:6462: UserWarning: The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been replaced by the 'density' kwarg.
  warnings.warn("The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been "
sns.distplot(Data_stats['mt'], color='g', bins=28, hist_kws={'alpha': 0.8});
/srv/paws/lib/python3.6/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_axes.py:6462: UserWarning: The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been replaced by the 'density' kwarg.
  warnings.warn("The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been "
plt.rcParams['figure.figsize'] = (3,4)
sns.countplot(x='any',  data=Data_stats[:50])
<matplotlib.axes._subplots.AxesSubplot at 0x7f938f468c88>
plt.rcParams['figure.figsize'] = (3,4)
sns.countplot(x='mt',hue = 'mtSectionsCount' , data=Data_stats[:5])
<matplotlib.axes._subplots.AxesSubplot at 0x7f938f4d6d30>

The two above conclusions-plots are not-so-bad May be we have to compare among different parametres in order to get meaningful observations.. Let's Do it

Let us make use scatter plots and try to grab some insights from it

sns.jointplot(x="human", y="mt", data=Data_stats)
/srv/paws/lib/python3.6/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_axes.py:6462: UserWarning: The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been replaced by the 'density' kwarg.
  warnings.warn("The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been "
<seaborn.axisgrid.JointGrid at 0x7f938f3e7160>
sns.jointplot(x="mt", y="mtSectionsCount", data=Data_stats)
/srv/paws/lib/python3.6/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_axes.py:6462: UserWarning: The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been replaced by the 'density' kwarg.
  warnings.warn("The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been "
<seaborn.axisgrid.JointGrid at 0x7f938f197da0>
sns.jointplot(x="any", y="mt", data=Data_stats)
/srv/paws/lib/python3.6/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_axes.py:6462: UserWarning: The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been replaced by the 'density' kwarg.
  warnings.warn("The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been "
<seaborn.axisgrid.JointGrid at 0x7f938f621128>
sns.jointplot(x="any", y="mtSectionsCount", data=Data_stats)
/srv/paws/lib/python3.6/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_axes.py:6462: UserWarning: The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been replaced by the 'density' kwarg.
  warnings.warn("The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been "
<seaborn.axisgrid.JointGrid at 0x7f938f65dd68>
sns.jointplot(x="any", y="human", data=Data_stats)
/srv/paws/lib/python3.6/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_axes.py:6462: UserWarning: The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been replaced by the 'density' kwarg.
  warnings.warn("The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been "
<seaborn.axisgrid.JointGrid at 0x7f938ef10b00>

Let us identify what type/how many of articles have after-translation-efforts like edits/translations by human or machine and how are they changed? When they are changed/translated? How much are they translated?

Firstly understanding the which articles have been translation either by Human or Machine

anyMore_Data_stats=Data_stats.sort_values(by='any', ascending=False) #false indicates descending order
anyMore_Data_stats.head()
publishedDate sourceLanguage sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetLanguage targetRevisionId targetTitle targetURL translationId any human mt mtSectionsCount
96 20160521175425 en 715401047 Ujjain division //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ujjain division hi 3073964 उज्जैन संभाग //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/उज्जैन संभाग 155567 15.347826 0.521739 14.826087 2.0
495 20170311134650 en 762351636 Navjot Kaur Sidhu //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navjot Kaur Sidhu hi 3417332 नवजोत कौर सिद्धु //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/नवजोत कौर सिद्धु 288277 1.370009 1.367224 0.002786 1.0
488 20170309092154 en 761814255 Avani Chaturvedi //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avani Chaturvedi hi 3415961 अवनि चतुर्वेदी //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/अवनि चतुर्वेदी 287205 1.359207 1.335411 0.023796 3.0
483 20170307031902 en 766399276 Ishita Katyal //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishita Katyal hi 3414461 इशिता काताल //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/इशिता काताल 286166 1.358652 1.313160 0.045491 4.0
492 20170310090825 en 758566270 Fatima Sheikh //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatima Sheikh hi 3416528 फ़ातिमा शेख़ //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/फ़ातिमा शेख़ 287664 1.332685 1.321012 0.011673 1.0

Secondly understanding the which articles have been translation either by exclusively Machine

mtMore_Data_stats=Data_stats.sort_values(by='any', ascending=False)
mtMore_Data_stats.head()
publishedDate sourceLanguage sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetLanguage targetRevisionId targetTitle targetURL translationId any human mt mtSectionsCount
96 20160521175425 en 715401047 Ujjain division //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ujjain division hi 3073964 उज्जैन संभाग //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/उज्जैन संभाग 155567 15.347826 0.521739 14.826087 2.0
495 20170311134650 en 762351636 Navjot Kaur Sidhu //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navjot Kaur Sidhu hi 3417332 नवजोत कौर सिद्धु //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/नवजोत कौर सिद्धु 288277 1.370009 1.367224 0.002786 1.0
488 20170309092154 en 761814255 Avani Chaturvedi //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avani Chaturvedi hi 3415961 अवनि चतुर्वेदी //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/अवनि चतुर्वेदी 287205 1.359207 1.335411 0.023796 3.0
483 20170307031902 en 766399276 Ishita Katyal //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishita Katyal hi 3414461 इशिता काताल //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/इशिता काताल 286166 1.358652 1.313160 0.045491 4.0
492 20170310090825 en 758566270 Fatima Sheikh //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatima Sheikh hi 3416528 फ़ातिमा शेख़ //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/फ़ातिमा शेख़ 287664 1.332685 1.321012 0.011673 1.0
humanMore_Data_stats=Data_stats.sort_values(by='any', ascending=False)
humanMore_Data_stats.head()
publishedDate sourceLanguage sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetLanguage targetRevisionId targetTitle targetURL translationId any human mt mtSectionsCount
96 20160521175425 en 715401047 Ujjain division //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ujjain division hi 3073964 उज्जैन संभाग //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/उज्जैन संभाग 155567 15.347826 0.521739 14.826087 2.0
495 20170311134650 en 762351636 Navjot Kaur Sidhu //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navjot Kaur Sidhu hi 3417332 नवजोत कौर सिद्धु //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/नवजोत कौर सिद्धु 288277 1.370009 1.367224 0.002786 1.0
488 20170309092154 en 761814255 Avani Chaturvedi //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avani Chaturvedi hi 3415961 अवनि चतुर्वेदी //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/अवनि चतुर्वेदी 287205 1.359207 1.335411 0.023796 3.0
483 20170307031902 en 766399276 Ishita Katyal //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishita Katyal hi 3414461 इशिता काताल //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/इशिता काताल 286166 1.358652 1.313160 0.045491 4.0
492 20170310090825 en 758566270 Fatima Sheikh //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatima Sheikh hi 3416528 फ़ातिमा शेख़ //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/फ़ातिमा शेख़ 287664 1.332685 1.321012 0.011673 1.0
mtSectionsCountMore_Data_stats=Data_stats.sort_values(by='any', ascending=False)
mtSectionsCountMore_Data_stats.head()
publishedDate sourceLanguage sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetLanguage targetRevisionId targetTitle targetURL translationId any human mt mtSectionsCount
96 20160521175425 en 715401047 Ujjain division //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ujjain division hi 3073964 उज्जैन संभाग //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/उज्जैन संभाग 155567 15.347826 0.521739 14.826087 2.0
495 20170311134650 en 762351636 Navjot Kaur Sidhu //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navjot Kaur Sidhu hi 3417332 नवजोत कौर सिद्धु //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/नवजोत कौर सिद्धु 288277 1.370009 1.367224 0.002786 1.0
488 20170309092154 en 761814255 Avani Chaturvedi //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avani Chaturvedi hi 3415961 अवनि चतुर्वेदी //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/अवनि चतुर्वेदी 287205 1.359207 1.335411 0.023796 3.0
483 20170307031902 en 766399276 Ishita Katyal //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishita Katyal hi 3414461 इशिता काताल //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/इशिता काताल 286166 1.358652 1.313160 0.045491 4.0
492 20170310090825 en 758566270 Fatima Sheikh //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatima Sheikh hi 3416528 फ़ातिमा शेख़ //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/फ़ातिमा शेख़ 287664 1.332685 1.321012 0.011673 1.0

sort by multiple columns:

Robust comparision often lead us to healthy conclusions!!

let's have a detective eye on them so that intelligent comparisions cannot escape from us

Data_stats.sort_values(by=[ 'mt','human',], ascending=[True, False]).head()
publishedDate sourceLanguage sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetLanguage targetRevisionId targetTitle targetURL translationId any human mt mtSectionsCount
59 20160411185151 en 710498481 List of call centre companies //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List of call centre co... hi 3049246 कॉल सेंटर कंपनियों की सूची //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/कॉल सेंटर कंपनियों की ... 140064 1.006787 1.006787 0.0 0.0
402 20170114212757 en 759880897 Sudhindra Chandra Dasgupta //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudhindra Chandra Dasg... hi 3258631 सुधीन्द्र चन्द्र दासगुप्ता //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/सुधीन्द्र चन्द्र दासगु... 261184 0.913386 0.913386 0.0 0.0
466 20170225055544 en 702624855 Ek-ratna //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ek-ratna hi 3396432 एक-रत्न //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/एक-रत्न 281303 0.879346 0.879346 0.0 0.0
421 20170123071855 en 698017265 Vaṭeśvara-siddhānta //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaṭeśvara-siddhānta hi 3272211 वटेश्वर-सिद्धान्त //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/वटेश्वर-सिद्धान्त 265678 0.514124 0.514124 0.0 0.0
61 20160422132225 en 714657513 Parsa //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parsa hi 3056395 पर्सा //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/पर्सा 144153 0.479452 0.479452 0.0 0.0
Data_stats.sort_values(by=[ 'human','mt'], ascending=[True, False]).head()
publishedDate sourceLanguage sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetLanguage targetRevisionId targetTitle targetURL translationId any human mt mtSectionsCount
246 20160827012223 en 725117804 Pranamsagar //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pranamsagar hi 3139848 प्रणामसागर //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/प्रणामसागर 196396 1.082437 0.0 1.082437 7.0
262 20160827014730 en 736146769 Vidyananda (8th century Jain monk) //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vidyananda (8th centur... hi 3139876 आचार्य विद्यानंद //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/आचार्य विद्यानंद 196414 1.076672 0.0 1.076672 12.0
242 20160827010634 en 680331856 Kshullak //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kshullak hi 3139837 क्षुल्लक //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/क्षुल्लक 196392 1.067927 0.0 1.067927 13.0
439 20170203155657 en 715531149 Y. K. Padhye //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Y. K. Padhye hi 3347902 यशवंत केशव पाध्ये //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/यशवंत केशव पाध्ये 271015 1.060976 0.0 1.060976 19.0
438 20170203155040 en 717913468 Ramdas Padhye //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramdas Padhye hi 3347860 रामदास पाध्ये //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/रामदास पाध्ये 271008 1.037448 0.0 1.037448 35.0
Better Comparison among the stats - the central part of Data Analysis
plt=__import__("matplotlib.pyplot")


col_names = ['any','mt', 'mtSectionsCount', 'human']

fig, ax = plt.pyplot.subplots(len(col_names), figsize=(16,12))

for i, col_val in enumerate(col_names):

    sns.distplot(Data_stats[col_val], hist=True, ax=ax[i])
    ax[i].set_title('Freq dist '+col_val, fontsize=10)
    ax[i].set_xlabel(col_val, fontsize=8)
    ax[i].set_ylabel('Count', fontsize=8)

plt.pyplot.show()
/srv/paws/lib/python3.6/site-packages/matplotlib/axes/_axes.py:6462: UserWarning: The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been replaced by the 'density' kwarg.
  warnings.warn("The 'normed' kwarg is deprecated, and has been "

Outliners

Data_stats1 = Data_stats
col_names = ['any','mt', 'mtSectionsCount', 'human']

fig, ax = plt.pyplot.subplots(len(col_names), figsize=(8,40))

for i, col_val in enumerate(col_names):

    sns.boxplot(Data_stats1[col_val], ax=ax[i])
    ax[i].set_title('Box plot - {}'.format(col_val), fontsize=10)
    ax[i].set_xlabel(col_val, fontsize=8)

plt.pyplot.show()
 
 
 
 
 
 
"On top of the content that was translated, which the above notebook demonstrates ways to access, more data can be accessed about the translations and what occurred after them. Try comparing statistics about edits, pageviews, etc. between the source and translated versions of articles. More advanced analyses in a project might eventually compare translated articles with similar articles that were not translated or classify edits based upon their 'type' for more fine-grained analyses of what happens to translated articles. "We would hope for a mixed-methods approach that uses both quantitative analyses (e.g., edit counts, topics that are more frequently translated, etc.) and qualitative analyses (e.g., content analysis of translated pages and subsequent edits, talk pages, etc.).
 
!pip install git+https://github.com/mediawiki-utilities/python-mwviews.git
Collecting git+https://github.com/mediawiki-utilities/python-mwviews.git
  Cloning https://github.com/mediawiki-utilities/python-mwviews.git to /tmp/pip-61efw4kp-build
  Ignoring futures: markers 'python_version < "3.0"' don't match your environment
Requirement already satisfied: requests in /srv/paws/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from mwviews==0.1.0)
Requirement already satisfied: mwcli in /srv/paws/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from mwviews==0.1.0)
Requirement already satisfied: mwapi in /srv/paws/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from mwviews==0.1.0)
Requirement already satisfied: urllib3<1.24,>=1.21.1 in /srv/paws/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from requests->mwviews==0.1.0)
Requirement already satisfied: idna<2.8,>=2.5 in /srv/paws/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from requests->mwviews==0.1.0)
Requirement already satisfied: chardet<3.1.0,>=3.0.2 in /srv/paws/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from requests->mwviews==0.1.0)
Requirement already satisfied: certifi>=2017.4.17 in /srv/paws/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from requests->mwviews==0.1.0)
Requirement already satisfied: para in /srv/paws/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from mwcli->mwviews==0.1.0)
Requirement already satisfied: docopt in /srv/paws/lib/python3.6/site-packages (from mwcli->mwviews==0.1.0)
Installing collected packages: mwviews
  Running setup.py install for mwviews ... done
Successfully installed mwviews-0.1.0

Now Heading towards the actual Quantitative Analysis

First comes the pageviews

import mwviews
from mwviews.api import PageviewsClient
p = PageviewsClient(user_agent="Miriiyala Pujitha Jaji Outreachy Aspirant")
# p.article_views('en.wikipedia', ['Selfie', 'Cat', 'Dog'])
# p.project_views(['ro.wikipedia', 'de.wikipedia', 'commons.wikimedia'])
#p.article_views('en.wikipedia', ['Selfie', 'Cat', 'Dog'])
#p.project_views(['ro.wikipedia', 'de.wikipedia', 'commons.wikimedia'])
#p.top_articles('en.wikipedia', limit=10)
#p.article_views('en.wikipedia', ['Selfie', 'Cat'])
ViewsinEnHi= p.project_views(['en.wikipedia', 'hi.wikipedia','commons.wikimedia'])
ViewsinEnHi =  pd.DataFrame(ViewsinEnHi).transpose()
ViewsinEnHi.head()
commons.wikimedia en.wikipedia hi.wikipedia
2019-03-31 20298514 296148294 2038598
2019-04-01 17862003 304511763 2045642
2019-04-02 18890558 290394867 2093592
2019-04-03 19130664 293963060 2116242
2019-04-04 18915988 297691320 2138914

Having seen such an significant amount of views for Hindi wikipedia too though the Literacy rates in India is low is relly surprising Isn't it?

Hence We have Compared the views in the Commons, English, Hindi Wikipedias

Hmm.. Interesting topic Ahead!!! Let us see which articles got the top views ! in Hindi Language or English ? Let us see Hindi First!

p.top_articles('hi.wikipedia', limit=10)
[{'article': 'मुखपृष्ठ', 'views': 21655, 'rank': 1},
 {'article': 'विशेष:खोज', 'views': 10201, 'rank': 2},
 {'article': 'लोकसभा_सीटों_के_आधार_पर_भारत_के_राज्यों_और_संघ_क्षेत्रों_की_सूची',
  'views': 6386,
  'rank': 3},
 {'article': 'Special:Search', 'views': 6015, 'rank': 4},
 {'article': 'छोटा_भीम', 'views': 5235, 'rank': 5},
 {'article': 'विशेष:लॉगिन', 'views': 4852, 'rank': 6},
 {'article': 'कुंडली_भाग्य', 'views': 4791, 'rank': 7},
 {'article': 'भारत_का_संविधान', 'views': 3047, 'rank': 8},
 {'article': 'नरेन्द्र_मोदी', 'views': 2923, 'rank': 9},
 {'article': 'हम_साथ_साथ_हैं', 'views': 2706, 'rank': 10}]

How about English

p.top_articles('en.wikipedia', limit=1)
[{'article': 'Main_Page', 'views': 18380994, 'rank': 1}]

Some Insights!

We could see that in both of the languages, Main_Page has got the highest views which is so obvious!

Special:Search is there in both the languages at top 5!(in English - position 2 andin Hindi position 4 ) -- but not at the same position! Is that because Hindi speaking People Don't know about this or They are more interested in the topics topped at the positions 2 and 3?

Let us compare with more focus

viewsinEnglish = p.article_views('en.wikipedia', 'Special:Search', start = "20180101", end = "20190101")
viewsinEnglish = pd.DataFrame(viewsinEnglish).transpose()
viewsinEnglish.head()
Special:Search
2018-01-01 1626610
2018-01-02 2037835
2018-01-03 2052662
2018-01-04 2074022
2018-01-05 2149751
viewsinHindi = p.article_views('hi.wikipedia','Special:Search' , start = "20180101", end = "20190101")
viewsinHindi = pd.DataFrame(viewsinHindi).transpose()
viewsinHindi.head()
Special:Search
2018-01-01 1752
2018-01-02 2259
2018-01-03 2664
2018-01-04 2470
2018-01-05 2465

Okay Views is Completed!

Meanwhile what would be going at the developer side??

Once the articles are published will they be same forever

No changes ? Impossible right?

Because the world is constantly changing,

The articles are often reiterated and updated

Now let us dig in to Edits Section!!

import gzip
json_str = ""
with gzip.open('cx-corpora.en2hi.text.json.gz', 'rt') as fin:
    for line in fin:
        json_str += line.strip()
# remove repetitive commas
json_str = re.sub(',{2,}', ',', json_str)
parallel_corpus = json.loads(json_str)
print("Descriptive statistics:")
print("{0} translated sections.".format(len(parallel_corpus)))
print("{0} translated articles.".format(len(set(sec['id'].split('/')[0] for sec in parallel_corpus))))
mt_counts = {}
for sec in parallel_corpus:
    if sec['mt']:
        service = sec['mt']['engine']
        mt_counts[service] = mt_counts.get(service, 0) + 1
    else:
        mt_counts['no-mt'] = mt_counts.get('no-mt', 0) + 1
print("Machine translation services used: {0}".format(mt_counts))
print("\nExample:\n", parallel_corpus[0])
Descriptive statistics:
11245 translated sections.
1518 translated articles.
Machine translation services used: {'no-mt': 4713, 'Yandex': 6520, 'scratch': 12}

Example:
 {'id': '41161/mwAQ', 'sourceLanguage': 'en', 'targetLanguage': 'hi', 'source': {'content': 'Rajasthan College is a college in Jaipur city in Rajasthan state in India. It is one of five constituent colleges of University of Rajasthan. The college offers undergraduate courses in Arts. It is situated on Jawahar Lal Nehru Road. The college is also known as University Rajasthan College. Vivekanand Hostel a University hostel is associated hostel of the college. It is located at near by the commerce college.'}, 'mt': None, 'target': {'content': 'विश्वविद्यालय राजस्थान महाविद्यालय भारतीय राज्य राजस्थान के जयपुर नगर में स्थित एक महाविद्यालय है। यह राजस्थान विश्वविद्यालय के छः घटक महाविद्यालयों में से एक है। महाविद्यालय में स्नातक स्तर के कला संकाय के पाठ्यक्रमों का अध्ययन करवाया जाता है। यह जवाहरलाल नेहरू मार्ग पर स्थित है।\xa0इस महाविद्यालय से\xa0सम्बद्ध\xa0छात्रावास विवेकानन्द छात्रावास है।'}}
parallel_corpus
[{'id': '41161/mwAQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Rajasthan College is a college in Jaipur city in Rajasthan state in India. It is one of five constituent colleges of University of Rajasthan. The college offers undergraduate courses in Arts. It is situated on Jawahar Lal Nehru Road. The college is also known as University Rajasthan College. Vivekanand Hostel a University hostel is associated hostel of the college. It is located at near by the commerce college.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'विश्वविद्यालय राजस्थान महाविद्यालय भारतीय राज्य राजस्थान के जयपुर नगर में स्थित एक महाविद्यालय है। यह राजस्थान विश्वविद्यालय के छः घटक महाविद्यालयों में से एक है। महाविद्यालय में स्नातक स्तर के कला संकाय के पाठ्यक्रमों का अध्ययन करवाया जाता है। यह जवाहरलाल नेहरू मार्ग पर स्थित है।\xa0इस महाविद्यालय से\xa0सम्बद्ध\xa0छात्रावास विवेकानन्द छात्रावास है।'}},
 {'id': '41161/mwCQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'References'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'बाहरी कड़ियाँ'}},
 {'id': '41161/mwCg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'colleges in Jaipur'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'जयपुर में महाविद्यालय'}},
 {'id': '66924/mwCQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Tsar Bomba (Russian: Царь-бомба; "Tsar-bomb", or "King of bombs") was the Western nickname for the Soviet RDS-220 hydrogen bomb (code name Ivan[3] or Vanya), the most powerful nuclear weapon ever created. Its test on 30 October 1961 remains the most powerful explosive ever detonated. It was also referred to as Kuzkina mat (Russian: Кузькина мать; "Kuzma\'s mother"),[4] possibly referring to First secretary Nikita Khrushchev\'s promise to show the United States a Kuzkina mat (an idiom roughly translating to "We\'ll show you!") at a 1960 session of United Nations General Assembly.[5][6]'},
  'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
   'content': 'ज़ार Bomba (रूसी\xa0: Царь-бомба; "ज़ार-बम", या "राजा की बम") था पश्चिमी उपनाम के लिए सोवियत आरडीएस-220 हाइड्रोजन बम (कोड नाम इवान[3] या वन्या), सबसे शक्तिशाली परमाणु हथियार कभी बनाया है । अपने परीक्षण पर 30 अक्टूबर 1961 में बनी हुई है सबसे शक्तिशाली विस्फोटक कभी भी विस्फोट कर दिया. यह था के रूप में भी संदर्भित Kuzkina चटाई (रूसी\xa0: Кузькина мать; "Kuzma की मां"),[4] संभवतः के लिए चर्चा करते हुए प्रथम सचिव निकिता ख्रुश्चेव\'s वादा दिखाने के लिए संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका के एक Kuzkina चटाई (एक मुहावरा मोटे तौर पर अनुवाद करने के लिए "हम तुम्हें दिखाता हूँ!") पर 1960 के सत्र में संयुक्त राष्ट्र महासभा मेंहै । [5][6]'},
  'target': {'content': ''}},
 {'id': '66924/mwHw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The bomb had a yield of 50 megatons of TNT (210 PJ). In theory, it had a maximum yield of 100 megatons if it were to have included a U-238 tamper, but because only one bomb was built, this was never demonstrated. The single bomb was detonated at the Sukhoy Nos cape of Severny Island, part of Novaya Zemlya.[7][8][9]'},
  'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
   'content': 'बम था एक उपज के 50 मेगाटन टीएनटी (210 पी. जे.). सिद्धांत रूप में, यह एक अधिकतम उपज के साथ 100 मेगाटन अगर यह भी शामिल है के लिए एक U-238 छेड़छाड़, लेकिन क्योंकि केवल एक बम बनाया गया था, यह कभी नहीं प्रदर्शन किया. एक बम विस्फोट किया गया था पर Sukhoy ओपन केप के Severny द्वीपका हिस्सा है, नोवाया Zemlya.[7][8][9]'},
  'target': {'content': ''}},
 {'id': '66924/mwJg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The remaining bomb casings are located at the Russian Atomic Weapon Museum in Sarov and the Museum of Nuclear Weapons, All-Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, at Snezhinsk.'},
  'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
   'content': 'शेष बम casings पर स्थित हैं रूसी परमाणु हथियार संग्रहालय में सरोव और संग्रहालय के परमाणु हथियारों, अखिल रूसी अनुसंधान संस्थान के तकनीकी भौतिकी, में स्नेज़हिंस्क.'},
  'target': {'content': ''}},
 {'id': '66924/mwKg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'A Tsar Bomba-type casing on display at Sarov'},
  'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
   'content': 'एक ज़ार Bomba प्रकार के आवरण प्रदर्शन पर सरोव'},
  'target': {'content': 'एक ज़ार बम का आवरण सरोव में प्रदर्श के लिए रखा गया है\xa0'}},
 {'id': '66924/mwLw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Many codenames are attributed to the Tsar Bomba: Project 7000; product code 202 (Izdeliye 202); article designations RDS-220 (РДС-220), RDS-202 (РДС-202), RN202 (PH202), AN602 (AH602); codename Vanya; nicknames Big Ivan, Kuzkina mat.[10][11] The name "Tsar Bomba" was coined in an analogy with other massive Russian objects: the Tsar Bell and Tsar Cannon.[10] The CIA designated the test as "JOE 111".[9]'},
  'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
   'content': 'कई कोडनाम कर रहे हैं के लिए जिम्मेदार ठहराया ज़ार Bomba: परियोजना 7000; उत्पाद कोड 202 (Izdeliye 202); लेख पदनाम आरडीएस-220 (РДС-220), आरडीएस-202 (РДС-202), RN202 (PH202), AN602 (AH602); कोडनेम वन्या; उपनाम , इवान, Kuzkina चटाई.[10][11] का नाम "ज़ार Bomba" में गढ़ा गया था के साथ एक सादृश्य अन्य बड़े पैमाने पर रूसी वस्तुओं: ज़ार बेल और ज़ार तोपहै । [10] को सीआईए निर्दिष्ट के रूप में परीक्षण "जो 111".[9]'},
  'target': {'content': 'वैसे तो जार बम या बमों के राजा के तो कई नाम रखे गए है लेकिन अधिकतर लोग इसे जार बम (Tsar Bomba) के नाम से ही जानते है | क्युकी रूस में अधिकतर बड़ी वस्तुओं के नाम में जार शब्द प्रयुक्त होता है, जैसे "जार घंटी" और "जार तोप" इत्यादि | अमेरिकी एजेंसी सीआईए\xa0इस परिक्षण को\xa0 JOE 111 के नाम से भी इंगित करती है | \xa0'}},
 {'id': '66924/mw0Q',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '1 2 3 4 "Tsar Bomba". Atomic Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 29 July 2016.\xa0 ↑ "Big Ivan, The "Tsar Bomba"(King of Bombs)".\xa0 ↑ "Смотрины "Кузькиной матери". Как СССР сделал и взорвал "Царь-бомбу"".\xa0, Russian ↑ Viktor Suvorov, Kuz\'kina Mat\'. A Chronicle of Great Decade, Dedicated to 50 years of Caribbean Crisis (Russian: Кузькина мать: Хроника великого десятилетия), Moscow, 2011, ISBN\xa0978-5-98124-561-9 ↑ "Prominent Russians: Nikita Khrushchev". Russia Today. Retrieved 29 July 2016.\xa0 ↑ Nikita Khrushchev. Sergei Khrushchev, ed. Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev, Volume 3: Statesman (1953–1964). University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press. p.\xa0292.\xa0 1 2 3 Sakharov, Andrei (1990). Memoirs. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp.\xa0215–225. ISBN\xa00-679-73595-X.\xa0 ↑ Khalturin, Vitaly I.; Rautian, Tatyana G.; Richards, Paul G.; Leith, William S. (2005). "A Review of Nuclear Testing by the Soviet Union at Novaya Zemlya, 1955–1990" (PDF). Science and Global Security. 13 (1): 1–42. doi:10.1080/08929880590961862. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2006. Retrieved 14 October 2006.\xa0 1 2 Central Intelligence Agency, National Intelligence Estimate 11-2A-62, "Soviet Atomic Energy Program", (16 May 1962), pages 2 and 13. 1 2 3 4 5 "30 October 1961 – The Tsar Bomba". CTBTO Preparatory Commission. Retrieved 26 July 2016.\xa0 1 2 Brian Anderson (11 January 2012). "The Bomb That Dwarfed the Sun". Vice.\xa0 ↑ Ilkajev, Radij (17 December 2012). "История отечественного атомного проекта. Доклад научного руководителя РФЯЦ-ВНИИЭФ академика РАН Р.И. Илькаева на Общем собрании ОФН РАН" (PDF). Отделение физических наук Российской академии наук (ОФН РАН). Retrieved 19 April 2015.\xa0 ↑ Андрюшин, И.А.; Чернышев, А.К.; Юдин, Ю.А. (2003). Укрощение ядра. Страницы истории ядерного оружия и ядерной инфраструктуры СССР (PDF). Саров, Саранск: Типография «Красный Октябрь». p.\xa0481. ISBN\xa05-7493-0621-6. Retrieved 19 April 2015.\xa0 ↑ The yield of the test has been estimated at 50 to 58 megatons of TNT (210 to 240\xa0PJ) by different sources over time. Today all Russian sources use 50 megatons as the official figure. See the section "Was it 50 Megatons or 57?" at "The Tsar Bomba ("King of Bombs")". Retrieved 30 October 2014.\xa0 ↑ DeGroot, Gerard J. The Bomb: A Life. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2005. p. 254. ↑ "The World\'s Biggest Bomb". PBS Secrets of the Dead. 17 May 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2016.\xa0 1 2 3 "Tsar Bomba". Nuclear Weapon Archive. Retrieved 3 November 2007.\xa0 1 2 3 Dowling, Stephen. "The monster atomic bomb that was too big to use". Retrieved 2017-11-10.\xa0 ↑ Khariton, Yuli; Smirnov, Yuri (May 1993). "The Khariton Version". Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. Archived from the original on 21 February 2003.\xa0 1 2 3 Adamsky, Viktor; Yuri Smirnov (Fall 1994). "Moscow\'s Biggest Bomb: the 50-Megaton Test of October 1961" (PDF). Cold War International History Project Bulletin (4): 3, 19–21. Retrieved 7 October 2011.\xa0 1 2 "The Tsar Bomba ("King of Bombs")". Nuclear Weapons Archive. Retrieved 10 October 2010. Despite being exploded in the atmosphere, it generated substantial seismic signals. According to a bulletin of the U.S. Geological Survey it had seismic magnitude mb = 5.0 to 5.25. … from fireball radius scaling laws, one would expect the fireball to reach down and engulf the ground … In fact, the shock wave reaches the ground … and bounces upward, striking the bottom of the fireball, preventing actual contact with the ground.\xa0 ↑ "50th anniversary of Tsar bomb". Russia Today International. 30 October 2011. Retrieved 24 November 2016.\xa0 ↑ "Tsar Bomba\'s Blast Wave Orbited Earth Three Times in 1961". Pravda. 17 September 2009. Retrieved 24 November 2016.\xa0 ↑ "Big Ivan, The Tsar Bomba ("King of Bombs")". 4 September 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2014.\xa0 ↑ Sublette, Carey. "Big Ivan, The Tsar Bomba ("King of Bombs") – the World\'s Largest Nuclear Weapon". nuclearweaponarchive.org. Nuclear Weapon Archive. Retrieved 3 October 2016.\xa0 ↑ "Blast Assailed on Capitol Hill as Soviet Act of Intimidation". St. Louis Post-Dispatch via Associated Press. 30 October 1961. p.\xa02. Retrieved 24 November 2016 – via Newspapers.com.\xa0 ↑ "Non-red world deplores test of Soviet Bomb". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 30 October 1961. p.\xa02 – via Newspapers.com.\xa0 ↑ "Tsar Bomba\'s Blast Wave Orbited Earth Three Times in 1961". Pravda.ru. 24 September 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009.\xa0 ↑ "Soviet Nuclear Weapons". nuclearweaponarchive.org.\xa0 ↑ "Tsar Bomba". Atomic Forum. Archived from the original on 4 December 2007. Retrieved 3 November 2007.\xa0 ↑ John Pike. "Mark 17". globalsecurity.org.\xa0 ↑ "Trinity and Beyond: The Atomic Bomb Movie." Nuclear Weapon Archive, 15 August 1999. ↑ Sherman, Robert. "Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Chronology." Federation of American Scientists, 30 May 2008.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '1 2 3 4 "Tsar Bomba". Atomic Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 29 July 2016.\xa0 ↑ "Big Ivan, The "Tsar Bomba"(King of Bombs)".\xa0 ↑ "Смотрины "Кузькиной матери". Как СССР сделал и взорвал "Царь-бомбу"". http://www.aif.ru/society/history/1371856.\xa0, Russian ↑ Viktor Suvorov, Kuz\'kina Mat\'. A Chronicle of Great Decade, Dedicated to 50 years of Caribbean Crisis (Russian: Кузькина мать: Хроника великого десятилетия), Moscow, 2011, ISBN\xa0978-5-98124-561-9 ↑ "Prominent Russians: Nikita Khrushchev". Russia Today. http://russiapedia.rt.com/prominent-russians/leaders/nikita-khrushchev/. अभिगमन तिथि: 29 July 2016.\xa0 ↑ Nikita Khrushchev. Sergei Khrushchev. ed. Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev, Volume 3: Statesman (1953–1964). University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press. प॰\xa0292.\xa0 1 2 3 Sakharov, Andrei (1990). Memoirs. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. पृ॰\xa0215–225. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰\xa00-679-73595-X.\xa0 ↑ Khalturin, Vitaly I.; Rautian, Tatyana G.; Richards, Paul G.; Leith, William S. (2005). "A Review of Nuclear Testing by the Soviet Union at Novaya Zemlya, 1955–1990". Science and Global Security 13 (1): 1–42. doi:10.1080/08929880590961862. Archived from the original on 14 June 2006. https://web.archive.org/web/20060614080624/http://www.princeton.edu:80/~globsec/publications/pdf/13_1-2khalturin%20NZ%201-42%20.pdf. अभिगमन तिथि: 14 October 2006.\xa0 1 2 Central Intelligence Agency, National Intelligence Estimate 11-2A-62, "Soviet Atomic Energy Program", (16 May 1962), pages 2 and 13. 1 2 3 4 5 "30 October 1961 – The Tsar Bomba". CTBTO Preparatory Commission. Retrieved 26 July 2016.\xa0 1 2 Brian Anderson (11 January 2012). "The Bomb That Dwarfed the Sun". Vice. http://motherboard.vice.com/blog/tsarbomba.\xa0 ↑ Ilkajev, Radij (17 December 2012). "История отечественного атомного проекта. Доклад научного руководителя РФЯЦ-ВНИИЭФ академика РАН Р.И. Илькаева на Общем собрании ОФН РАН" (PDF). Отделение физических наук Российской академии наук (ОФН РАН). Retrieved 19 April 2015.\xa0 ↑ Андрюшин, И.А.; Чернышев, А.К.; Юдин, Ю.А. (2003). Укрощение ядра. Страницы истории ядерного оружия и ядерной инфраструктуры СССР (PDF). Саров, Саранск: Типография «Красный Октябрь». p.\xa0481. ISBN\xa05-7493-0621-6. Retrieved 19 April 2015.\xa0 ↑ The yield of the test has been estimated at 50 to 58 megatons of TNT (210 to 240\xa0PJ) by different sources over time. Today all Russian sources use 50 megatons as the official figure. See the section "Was it 50 Megatons or 57?" at "The Tsar Bomba ("King of Bombs")". Retrieved 30 October 2014.\xa0 ↑ DeGroot, Gerard J. The Bomb: A Life. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2005. p. 254. ↑ "The World\'s Biggest Bomb". PBS Secrets of the Dead. 17 May 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2016.\xa0 1 2 3 "Tsar Bomba". Nuclear Weapon Archive. Retrieved 3 November 2007.\xa0 1 2 3 Dowling, Stephen. "The monster atomic bomb that was too big to use". Retrieved 2017-11-10.\xa0 ↑ Khariton, Yuli; Smirnov, Yuri (May 1993). "The Khariton Version". Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. Archived from the original on 21 February 2003.\xa0 1 2 3 Adamsky, Viktor; Yuri Smirnov (Fall 1994). "Moscow\'s Biggest Bomb: the 50-Megaton Test of October 1961" (PDF). Cold War International History Project Bulletin (4): 3, 19–21. Retrieved 7 October 2011.\xa0 1 2 "The Tsar Bomba ("King of Bombs")". Nuclear Weapons Archive. Retrieved 10 October 2010. Despite being exploded in the atmosphere, it generated substantial seismic signals. According to a bulletin of the U.S. Geological Survey it had seismic magnitude mb = 5.0 to 5.25. … from fireball radius scaling laws, one would expect the fireball to reach down and engulf the ground … In fact, the shock wave reaches the ground … and bounces upward, striking the bottom of the fireball, preventing actual contact with the ground.\xa0 ↑ "50th anniversary of Tsar bomb". Russia Today International. 30 October 2011. Retrieved 24 November 2016.\xa0 ↑ "Tsar Bomba\'s Blast Wave Orbited Earth Three Times in 1961". Pravda. 17 September 2009. Retrieved 24 November 2016.\xa0 ↑ "Big Ivan, The Tsar Bomba ("King of Bombs")". 4 September 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2014.\xa0 ↑ Sublette, Carey. "Big Ivan, The Tsar Bomba ("King of Bombs") – the World\'s Largest Nuclear Weapon". nuclearweaponarchive.org. Nuclear Weapon Archive. Retrieved 3 October 2016.\xa0 ↑ "Blast Assailed on Capitol Hill as Soviet Act of Intimidation". St. Louis Post-Dispatch via Associated Press. 30 October 1961. p.\xa02. Retrieved 24 November 2016 – via Newspapers.com.\xa0 ↑ "Non-red world deplores test of Soviet Bomb". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 30 October 1961. p.\xa02 – via Newspapers.com.\xa0 ↑ "Tsar Bomba\'s Blast Wave Orbited Earth Three Times in 1961". Pravda.ru. 24 September 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009.\xa0 ↑ "Soviet Nuclear Weapons". nuclearweaponarchive.org.\xa0 ↑ "Tsar Bomba". Atomic Forum. Archived from the original on 4 December 2007. Retrieved 3 November 2007.\xa0 ↑ John Pike. "Mark 17". globalsecurity.org.\xa0 ↑ "Trinity and Beyond: The Atomic Bomb Movie." Nuclear Weapon Archive, 15 August 1999. ↑ Sherman, Robert. "Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Chronology." Federation of American Scientists, 30 May 2008.'}},
 {'id': '66924/mwBQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "Tsar Bomba The Tsar Bomba mushroom cloud seen from a distance of 161\xa0km (100\xa0mi). The crown of the cloud is 56\xa0km (35\xa0mi) high at the time of the picture. Type Thermonuclear weaponPlace\xa0of\xa0origin Soviet UnionProduction historyDesigner Yulii Borisovich Khariton, Andrei Sakharov, Victor Adamsky, Yuri Babayev, Yuri Smirnov, Yuri Trutnev, and Yakov Zel'dovich.Manufacturer Soviet UnionNo.\xa0built 1SpecificationsWeight 27,000\xa0kg (60,000\xa0lb)[1]Length 8\xa0m (26\xa0ft)[1]Diameter 2.1\xa0m (6.9\xa0ft)[1] Blast\xa0yield 50 megatons of TNT (210\xa0PJ; 2.67\xa0kg mass equivalent)[2]"},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': "जार बम\xa0 https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/c/c9/Tsar_photo11.jpg बमों का राजा (Tsar Bomba) के विस्फोट से उत्पन्न कुकुरमुत्ते जैसा बादल जिसकी यह तस्वीर 161 कि.मी. दूर से ली गयी | इसका उपरी सिरा तस्वीर लेते वक्त जमीन से 56 किलोमीटर ऊपर था | प्रकार Thermonuclear weapon उत्पत्ति का मूल स्थान Soviet Union उत्पादन इतिहास डिज़ाइनर Yulii Borisovich Khariton, Andrei Sakharov, Victor Adamsky, Yuri Babayev, Yuri Smirnov, Yuri Trutnev, and Yakov Zel'dovich. निर्माता Soviet Union निर्माणित संख्या 1 निर्दिष्टीकरण वजन 27,000\xa0कि॰ग्राम (60,000\xa0पौंड)[1] लंबाई 8\xa0मी॰ (26\xa0फीट)[1] व्यास 2.1\xa0मी॰ (6.9\xa0फीट)[1] Blast\xa0yield 50 megatons of TNT (210\xa0Pजूल; 2.67\xa0kg mass equivalent)[2]"}},
 {'id': '66924/mwcx-source-title',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Tsar Bomba'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'जार बम\xa0\xa0'}},
 {'id': '66928/mwcx-source-title',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Smiling Buddha'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'मुस्कुराते बुद्ध'}},
 {'id': '69736/mwBw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '.in is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for India. The domain is operated by INRegistry under the authority of NIXI, the National Internet Exchange of India. INRegistry was appointed by the government of India.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '.in (वर्तमान में .भारत भी) भारत का इंटरनेट का शीर्ष-स्तर डोमेन (सी॰सी॰टी॰ऍल॰डी॰) देश कोड है। डोमेन का संचालन आईएनरजिस्ट्री द्वारा नेशनल इंटरनेट एक्साचेंज ऑफ इंडिया (NIXI) के प्राधिकरण के अन्तर्गत होता है। आइएनरजिस्ट्री को भारत सरकार द्वारा नियत किया गया।'}},
 {'id': '69736/mwEA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'As of 2005[update], liberalised policies for the .in domain allow unlimited second-level registrations under .in. Unlimited registrations under the previously structured existing zones are also allowed:'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'वर्ष २००५ तक, .in डोमेन की\xa0उदारीकृत\xa0नीति\xa0के\xa0तहत, .in\xa0के द्वितीय\xa0स्तर\xa0के असीमित पंजीकरण किये जा सकते हैं। पहले से निर्धारित एवं उपलब्ध क्षेत्रों में भी असीमित पंजीकरण अनुमत हैं:'}},
 {'id': '69736/mwFQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '.in (available to anyone; used by companies, individuals, and organisations in India) .co.in (originally for banks, registered companies, and trademarks) .firm.in (originally for shops, partnerships, liaison offices, sole proprietorships) .net.in (originally for Internet service providers) .org.in (originally for non-profit organisations) .gen.in (originally for general/miscellaneous use) .ind.in (originally for individuals)'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '.in (सभी के लिए उपलब्ध; भारत में व्यक्तिगत, कंपनियों द्वारा और संगठनों द्वारा काम में लिया जाता है।) .co.in (मूल रूप से बैंको, पंजीकृत कंपनियों और पंजीकृत व्यापार सामग्री के लिए) .firm.in (मूल रूप से दुकानों, भागीदारी, सम्पर्क कार्यालयों, एकल स्वामित्व) .net.in (मूल\xa0रूप\xa0से अन्तर्जाल सेवा प्रदाता के लिए) .org.in (मूल\xa0रूप\xa0से लाभ-निरपेक्ष संस्थानों के लिए) .gen.in (मुख्य रूप से सामान्य/विविध कार्यों के लिए) .ind.in (व्यक्तिगत)'}},
 {'id': '69736/mwKA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Six zones are reserved for use by qualified institutions in India:'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'छः क्षेत्र को भारत में अर्हता प्राप्त संस्थानों के लिए आरक्षित रखा गया है:'}},
 {'id': '69736/mwKQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '.ac.in (Academic institutions) .edu.in (Educational institutions) .res.in (Indian research institutes) .ernet.in (Older, for both educational and research institutes) .gov.in (Indian government) .mil.in (Indian military)'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '.ac.in (अकादमीक संस्थान) .edu.in (शैक्षिक संस्थान) .res.in (भारतीय शोध संस्थान) .ernet.in (पुराना, शिक्षण और शोध संस्थानों दोनों के लिए) .gov.in (भारतीय सरकार) .mil.in (भारतीय सेना)'}},
 {'id': '69736/mwNw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Before the introduction of liberalised registration policies for the .in domain, only 7000 names had been registered between 1992 and 2004. As of March 2010, the number had increased to over 610,000 domain names, with 60% of registrations coming from India, and the rest from overseas.[2] By October 2011, the number had surpassed 1 million domain names.[3] This domain is popular for domain hacks.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'पंजीकरण में छूट देने से पहले भारत में १९९२ से २००४ तक केवल ७००० नामों का ही .in डोमेन के साथ पंजीकरन हुआ।\xa0मार्च\xa0२०१०\xa0के\xa0आँकड़ों\xa0के\xa0अनुसार,\xa0यह\xa0संख्या ६१०,००० डोमेन नामों से भी उपर पहुँच चुकी थी जिनमें से ६०% नाम भारत से थे बाकी नाम देश के भाहर से थे।[2] अक्टूबर २०११ के आँकड़ों के अनुसार यह संख्या दश लाख से भी उपर पहुँच चुकी थी।[3] यह डोमेन लघु-डोमेन के लिए लोकप्रिय है।'}},
 {'id': '69736/mwOg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "The domain .nic.in is reserved for India's National Informatics Centre, but in practice most Indian government agencies have domains ending in .nic.in."},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'डोमेन .nic.in राष्ट्रीय सूचना एवं विज्ञान केन्द्रों के लिए आरक्षित है लेकिन वास्तविकता में अधिकतर भारतीय अभिकरणों\xa0के\xa0डोमेन का\xa0अन्त .nic.in पर होता है।'}},
 {'id': '69736/mwPg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Internationalised domain names and country codes'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'अन्तर्राष्ट्रीयकृत डोमेन नाम और देश कोड'}},
 {'id': '69736/mwPw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'India plans to introduce internationalised domain names, that is domain names in 22 local languages used in India. These internationalised domain names will be used together with seven new top domains for India.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'भारत अन्तर्राष्ट्रीयकृत डोमेन नाम आरम्भ करने की योजना बना रहा है जो भारत की सभी २२ स्थानीय भाषाओं में हों। ये अन्तर्राष्ट्रीयकृत डोमेन नाम भारत के सात नये शीर्ष डोमेनों के साथ प्रयुक्त किये जा सकेंगे।'}},
 {'id': '69736/mwQQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'These top domains are:'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'ये शीर्ष डोमेन निम्नलिखित हैं:'}},
 {'id': '69736/mwQg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '.भारत (Devanagari), became available with the following zones:[4]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '.भारत (देवनागरी), निम्न क्षेत्रों में उपलब्ध होंगे:[4]'}},
 {'id': '69736/mwRg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Devanagari string Transliterated string भारत.bharat कंपनी.भारतcompany.bharat विद्या.भारतvidya.bharat सरकार.भारतsarkar.bharat'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'मूल देवनागरी कड़ी भारत कंपनी.भारत विद्या.भारत सरकार.भारत'}},
 {'id': '69736/mwXw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '.இந்தியா (Tamil), available as of 2015.[5]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '.இந்தியா (तमिल), २०१५ से उपलब्ध।[5]'}},
 {'id': '69736/mwYw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The rest are yet not available (as of November 2015):'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'अन्य सभी अभी तक उपलब्ध नहीं हैं (नवम्बर २०१५ केअनुसार):'}},
 {'id': '69736/mwZA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '.ভারত (Bengali) .भारत (Gurmukhī) .ভারত (Gujarati) .భారత్ (Telugu) .بھارت (Urdu)'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '.ভারত (बंगाली) .भारत (गुरमुखी) .ভারত (गुजराती) .భారత్ (तेलुगु) .بھارت (उर्दू)'}},
 {'id': '69736/mwdA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'See also'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'इन्हें भी\xa0देखें'}},
 {'id': '69736/mweA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'References'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'सन्दर्भ'}},
 {'id': '69736/mweQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '↑ http://registry.in/system/files/INTERNATIONALIZED_DOMAIN_NAMES-TAMIL.pdf ↑ Chatterjee, Moumita Bakshi (March 13, 2010). "‘.in\' domain registration crosses six-lakh mark". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved May 1, 2012.\xa0 ↑ ".IN Passes One Million Registrations And Looks To Future For Growth".\xa0 ↑ https://registry.in/print/877 ↑ http://தளம்.தமிழ்.இந்தியா'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '↑ http://registry.in/system/files/INTERNATIONALIZED_DOMAIN_NAMES-TAMIL.pdf ↑ Chatterjee, Moumita Bakshi (March 13, 2010). "‘.in\' domain registration crosses six-lakh mark". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved May 1, 2012.\xa0 ↑ ".IN Passes One Million Registrations And Looks To Future For Growth".\xa0 ↑ https://registry.in/print/877 ↑ http://தளம்.தமிழ்.இந்தியா'}},
 {'id': '77031/12869824d3b0e70ca6aaa0da1613b6',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'References'},
  'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex', 'content': 'संदर्भ'},
  'target': {'content': 'References'}},
 {'id': '77031/mwBw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The nunnery of Dharmakirti Vihar, Kathmandu.'},
  'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
   'content': 'ज़नाना मठ के Dharmakirti Vihar, काठमांडू.'},
  'target': {'content': 'ज़नाना मठ धर्मकृति विहार \xa0काठमांडू.'}},
 {'id': '77031/mwCw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "Tara Devi Tuladhar (Devanagari: तारा देवी तुलाधर) (21 August 1931 – 27 November 2012) was Nepal's first female blood donor and a social worker who dedicated her life to serving society.[1][2]"},
  'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
   'content': 'तारा देवी Tuladhar (देवनागरी: तारा देवी तुलाधर) (21 मई 1931 – 27 जुलाई 2012) था, नेपाल की पहली महिला रक्त दाता और एक सामाजिक कार्यकर्ता है, जो उसके जीवन समर्पित करने के लिए समाज की सेवा है । [1][2]'},
  'target': {'content': 'तारा देवी तुलाधर \xa0(21 मई 1931 – 27 जुलाई 2012) \xa0नेपाल की पहली महिला रक्त दाता और एक सामाजिक कार्यकर्ता थी \xa0जिसने \xa0समाज की सेवा के लिए अपना जीवन \xa0समर्पित कर दिया । [1][2]'}},
 {'id': '77031/mwDg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Tara Devi was born to an old merchant family at Tanlāchhi (तंलाछि), Kathmandu. Her father Triratna Man Tuladhar was a Lhasa Newar trader. Her grandfather Dharma Man Tuladhar was a philanthropist best known for renovating the Swayambhu stupa in 1918.[3]'},
  'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
   'content': 'तारा देवी का जन्म हुआ था के लिए एक पुराने व्यापारी परिवार पर Tanlāchhi (तंलाछि), काठमांडू. उसके पिता Triratna आदमी Tuladhar था ल्हासा नेपाल भाषा व्यापारी है । उसके दादा धर्म आदमी Tuladhar था एक परोपकारी के लिए ज्ञात सबसे अच्छा मरम्मत Swayambhu स्तूप में 1918.[3]'},
  'target': {'content': 'तारा देवी का जन्म तन्तालि (तनलाछी), काठमांडू में एक पुराने व्यापारी परिवार में हुआ था। उनके पिता त्रिरुणा माने तुलाधर एक ल्हासा नेवार व्यापारी थे। उनके दादा धर्म माने तुलाधर 1918 में स्वयंभू स्तूप की मरम्मत के लिए सबसे प्रसिद्ध व्यक्ति थे।[3]'}},
 {'id': '77031/mwFA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'There were only a few schools in the 1930s as the Rana regime did not want ordinary citizens to get an education. For girls, it was even more difficult to join school. So Tara Devi received informal tuition at home.[4]'},
  'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
   'content': 'वहाँ थे केवल कुछ स्कूलों में 1930 के दशक के रूप में राणा शासन नहीं करना चाहता था, आम नागरिकों के लिए एक शिक्षा प्राप्त है । लड़कियों के लिए, यह और भी मुश्किल था में शामिल होने के लिए स्कूल. तो तारा देवी प्राप्त अनौपचारिक शिक्षण घर पर.[4]'},
  'target': {'content': '1930 के दशक में केवल कुछ ही विद्यालय थे क्योंकि राणा शासन सामान्य नागरिकों को शिक्षा देना नहीं चाहता था। लड़कियों के लिए, स्कूल में शामिल होना अधिक मुश्किल था। इसलिए तारा देवी को घर पर अनौपचारिक शिक्षण प्राप्त हुआ।[4]'}},
 {'id': '77031/mwFg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "In 1948, her family sent her to study at St. Josephs's Convent in Kalimpong, India. Returning to Kathmandu, she joined Kanya High School and finished 10th grade. In 1953, she went to Allahabad, India and enrolled at Kamla Nehru Memorial Hospital to pursue her long cherished goal to become a nurse. Two years later, she received her Diploma in Midwifery."},
  'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
   'content': '1948 में, उसके परिवार को भेजा है उसे करने के लिए अध्ययन में सेंट जोसेफ्स के कॉन्वेंट में कलिम्पोंग, भारत. लौटने के लिए काठमांडू, वह शामिल हो गए, कन्या हाई स्कूल समाप्त हो गया और 10 वीं ग्रेड के लिए है । 1953 में, वह चला गया करने के लिए इलाहाबाद, भारत में दाखिला कमला नेहरू मेमोरियल अस्पताल का पीछा करने के लिए उसे लंबे समय से पोषित लक्ष्य के लिए एक नर्स बनने के लिए. दो साल बाद, वह उसे प्राप्त मिडवाइफरी में डिप्लोमा.'},
  'target': {'content': '1948 में, उसके परिवार ने उन्हें भारत में कलिम्पोंग में सेंट जोसेफ कॉन्वेंट में अध्ययन करने के लिए भेजा था। काठमांडू लौटकर, वह कन्या हाई स्कूल में दाख़िल हुई. और अपनी 10 वीं कक्षा पास की। 1 953 में, वह इलाहाबाद, भारत, गई और कमला नेहरू मेमोरियल हॉस्पिटल में नर्स बनने के अपने लक्ष्य को प्राप्त किया। दो साल बाद, उसने मिडवाइफी में डिप्लोमा प्राप्त किया।'}},
 {'id': '77031/mwGw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'She had been inspired to become a nurse by the tales she had heard as a child about how nurse Vidyabati Kansakar had cared for the injured during the great earthquake of 1934 in Kathmandu.[5]'},
  'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
   'content': 'वह प्रेरित किया गया था एक नर्स बनने के लिए कहानियों से वह सुना था एक बच्चे के रूप में कैसे के बारे में नर्स Vidyabati Kansakar था के लिए परवाह के दौरान घायल हो गए महान भूकंप 1934 के काठमांडू में है । [5]'},
  'target': {'content': 'वह बचपन में सुनी \xa0कहानियों से नर्स बनने के लिए प्रेरित थीं \xa0की केसे , काठमांडू में 1934 के बड़े भूकंप के दौरान नर्स विद्याबाटी कानसाकर ने घायलों की देखभाल की थी। [5]'}},
 {'id': '77031/mwHg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'In 1960, Tara Devi began service at Prasuti Griha Maternity Hospital, Kathmandu. After doing her Post Graduate in Nursing from the College of Nursing, New Delhi in 1964, she became a senior tutor at Nursing School in Kathmandu.'},
  'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
   'content': '1960 में, तारा देवी सेवा शुरू पर Prasuti गृह प्रसूति अस्पताल, काठमांडू. करने के बाद उसकी पोस्ट ग्रेजुएट में नर्सिंग कॉलेज से नर्सिंग, नई दिल्ली , 1964 में, वह एक वरिष्ठ शिक्षक नर्सिंग स्कूल में काठमांडू में है ।'},
  'target': {'content': '1960 में, तारा देवी ने प्रसूतिगरी मातृत्व अस्पताल, काठमांडू में सेवा शुरू की। 1964 में नई दिल्ली में कॉलेज ऑफ नर्सिंग से पोस्ट ग्रेजुएट इन नर्सिंग करने के बाद, वह काठमांडू के नर्सिंग स्कूल में एक वरिष्ठ शिक्षक बन गई।'}},
 {'id': '77031/mwIA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'In 1961, she became the first female blood donor in Nepal by donating blood to a patient who was due for surgery and required blood urgently.[6] She was the supervisor at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital before she retired in 1990.[7]'},
  'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
   'content': '1961 में, वह पहली महिला रक्त दाता में नेपाल द्वारा रक्त दान करने के लिए एक रोगी था, जो कारण के लिए सर्जरी और आवश्यक रक्त की तत्काल है । [6] वह था पर्यवेक्षक पर त्रिभुवन विश्वविद्यालय शिक्षण अस्पताल से पहले वह 1990 में सेवानिवृत्त.[7]'},
  'target': {'content': '1961 में, वह एक मरीज को रक्त दान करके नेपाल में पहली महिला का रक्तदाता बन गया था जो सर्जरी और आवश्यक रक्त के लिए तत्पर था। \xa0[6]1990 में सेवानिवृत्त होने से पहले वह त्रिभुवन विश्वविद्यालय टीचिंग अस्पताल में पर्यवेक्षक थी।.[7]'}},
 {'id': '77031/mwJw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Tara Devi has authored two books, one in Nepali and the other in Nepal Bhasa.'},
  'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
   'content': 'तारा देवी का लेखक है दो किताबें, एक में नेपाली और अन्य में नेपाल भासाहै ।'},
  'target': {'content': 'तारा देवी ने दो पुस्तकें लिखी हैं, एक नेपाली में और दूसरा नेपाल भाषा में है।'}},
 {'id': '77031/mwKg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Poshan Bigyān ("Nutrition Science"), published by Tribhuvan University, Institute of Medicine, 1991 Thāybhu: A Description of Feast Materials, a manual of preparing and presenting ritual foods in Newar Buddhist tradition, published by Chhusinsyar, 2011[10][11]'},
  'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
   'content': 'Poshan Bigyān ("पोषण के विज्ञान"), द्वारा प्रकाशित त्रिभुवन विश्वविद्यालय, चिकित्सा संस्थान, 1991 Thāybhu: एक विवरण दावत की सामग्री, की एक पुस्तिका तैयार करने और पेश करने के अनुष्ठान में खाद्य पदार्थों नेपाल भाषा बौद्ध परंपरा द्वारा प्रकाशित Chhusinsyar, 2011[10][11]'},
  'target': {'content': 'पोषण \xa0विज्ञान\xa0, \xa0त्रिभुवन विश्वविद्यालय, चिकित्सा संस्थान,द्वारा प्रकाशित 1991 Thāybhu: एक विवरण दावत की सामग्री, की एक पुस्तिका तैयार करने और पेश करने के अनुष्ठान में खाद्य पदार्थों नेपाल भाषा बौद्ध परंपरा द्वारा प्रकाशित Chhusinsyar, 2011[10][11]'}},
 {'id': '77031/mwAQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Tara Devi Tuladhar Born (1931-08-21)21 August 1931 Kathmandu, NepalDied 27 November 2012(2012-11-27) (aged\xa081) Kathmandu, NepalKnown\xa0for First female blood donor, social work Medical career Profession Nurse and EducatorInstitutions Prasuti Griha Maternity Hospital, Nursing School, Tribhuvan University Teaching HospitalSpecialism Midwifery'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'तारा देवी तुलाधर जन्म21 अगस्त 1931 काठमांडू, नेपालमृत्यु27 नवम्बर 2012(2012-11-27) (उम्र\xa081) काठमांडू, नेपाल व्यवसायनर्स ओर शिक्षकसंस्थाएंप्रसूति ग्रह मातृत्व अस्पताल, नर्सिंग स्कूल, त्रिभुवन विश्वविद्यालय टीचिंग अस्पतालवैशिष्ट्य दाई का कामप्रसिद्धिFirst female blood donor, social work'}},
 {'id': '77031/mwIg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'After her retirement, Tara Devi worked as a volunteer at Dharmakirti Vihar, a Theravada Buddhist nunnery in Kathmandu, and used her skills as a trained nurse in the service of the resident nuns and the needy people who came there seeking help. As the coordinator of its health service, she organized free health care every week besides providing training on the care of patients and the elderly. She was also a life member of the Dharmakirti Vihar Conservation Trust.[8]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '1 9 61 में, वह एक मरीज को रक्त दान करके नेपाल में पहली महिला का रक्तदाता बन गया था जो सर्जरी और आवश्यक रक्त के लिए तत्पर था।[6]\xa01 99 0 में सेवानिवृत्त होने से पहले वह त्रिभुवन विश्वविद्यालय टीचिंग अस्पताल में पर्यवेक्षक थे।[7]'}},
 {'id': '77031/mwJQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Tara Devi volunteered at Jana Chikitsalaya, a community clinic in Kathmandu. Besides serving as an executive board member of Paropakar Organisation, the first modern charitable organization in Nepal which was established in 1952,[9] she was an adviser to Udaaya Samaj, a social organization of the Uray community. Tara Devi remained unmarried to be free to pursue her profession.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'तारा देवी ने काठमांडू में एक समुदाय क्लिनिक, जन चिकित्सालय में स्वेच्छा से काम किया। पारोपर संगठन के एक कार्यकारी बोर्ड के सदस्य के रूप में सेवा करने के अलावा, नेपाल में पहला आधुनिक धर्मार्थ संगठन जो 1 9 52 में स्थापित किया गया था,\xa0[9]वह उदय समुदाय के एक सामाजिक संगठन उदय समाज के सलाहकार थे। तारा देवी अपने व्यवसाय को आगे बढ़ाने के लिए अविवाहित रहे।'}},
 {'id': '77031/mwMQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '↑ "First female blood donor dies". The Kathmandu Post. 29 November 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2012.\xa0 Page 2. ↑ "Nhapamha hidata manta ("First blood donor passes away")". Sandhya Times. 28 November 2012.\xa0 |access-date= requires |url= (help) Page 1. ↑ Tuladhar, Kamal Ratna (2 February 2013). "The sahu\'s daughter". The Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 6 February 2013.\xa0 ↑ Savada, Andrea Matles, ed. (1991). "Education under Rana Rule". Nepal: A Country Study. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 13 July 2013.\xa0 ↑ Tuladhar, Kamal Ratna (2 February 2013). "The sahu\'s daughter". The Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 14 July 2013.\xa0 ↑ Adhikari, Sharada (20 December 2009). "Life giving blood". The Himalayan Times.\xa0 Page 7. ↑ "First female blood donor no more". The Rising Nepal. 29 November 2012.\xa0 Page 3. ↑ Tuladhar, Prem Laxmi (8 November 2009). "Abalay yamha nurse". Sandhya Times.\xa0 Page 5. ↑ Limbu, Ramyata (9 February 2001). "Bahadur Nepali". Nepali Times. Retrieved 28 November 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Chhotkari". Kantipur. 10 April 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2013.\xa0 Page 4. ↑ "Prem Shanti Tuladhar, chief of Central Department of Nepal Bhasa, launches a book". The Kathmandu Post. 10 April 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2012.\xa0 Page 2.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '↑ "First female blood donor dies". The Kathmandu Post. 29 November 2012. http://www.ekantipur.com/the-kathmandu-post/2012/11/28/metro/newsdigest/242223.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 29 November 2012.\xa0 Page 2. ↑ "Nhapamha hidata manta ("First blood donor passes away")". Sandhya Times. 28 November 2012.\xa0 Page 1. ↑ Tuladhar, Kamal Ratna (2 February 2013). "The sahu’s daughter". The Kathmandu Post. http://www.ekantipur.com/the-kathmandu-post/2013/02/01/on-saturday/the-first-word/244810.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 6 February 2013.\xa0 ↑ Savada, Andrea Matles, सं (1991). "Education under Rana Rule". U.S. Library of Congress. http://countrystudies.us/nepal/34.htm. अभिगमन तिथि: 13 July 2013.\xa0 ↑ Tuladhar, Kamal Ratna (2 February 2013). "The sahu’s daughter". The Kathmandu Post. http://www.ekantipur.com/the-kathmandu-post/2013/02/01/on-saturday/the-first-word/244810.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 14 July 2013.\xa0 ↑ Adhikari, Sharada (20 December 2009). "Life giving blood". The Himalayan Times.\xa0 Page 7. ↑ "First female blood donor no more". The Rising Nepal. 29 November 2012.\xa0 Page 3. ↑ Tuladhar, Prem Laxmi (8 November 2009). "Abalay yamha nurse". Sandhya Times.\xa0 Page 5. ↑ Limbu, Ramyata (9 February 2001). "Bahadur Nepali". Nepali Times. Retrieved 28 November 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Chhotkari". Kantipur. 10 April 2011. http://epaper.ekantipur.com/showtext.aspx?boxid=13555328&parentid=13302&issuedate=1042011. अभिगमन तिथि: 17 January 2013.\xa0 Page 4. ↑ "Prem Shanti Tuladhar, chief of Central Department of Nepal Bhasa, launches a book". The Kathmandu Post. 10 April 2011. http://epaper.ekantipur.com/ktpost/epaperhome.aspx?issue=1042011. अभिगमन तिथि: 29 November 2012.\xa0 Page 2.'}},
 {'id': '77031/mwcx-source-title',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Tara Devi Tuladhar'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '\xa0तारा देवी तुलाधर'}},
 {'id': '87514/mwCA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Vinayak Ganesh Vaze College of Arts, Science & Commerce'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'विनायक गणेश वज़े कॉलेज ऑफ आर्ट्स, साइंस एंड कॉमर्स, आमतौर पर केलकर कॉलेज के नाम से विख्यात, मुंबई शहर के मुलुंड पूर्व में स्थित, मुंबई विश्वविद्यालय के सम्बंधित कॉलेज हैं, जो विश्वविद्यालय से स्थायी संबद्धता प्राप्त करनेवाली सबसे कम उम्र वाली कॉलेज होने का दावा करती हैं। It is the first affiliated college in Maharashtra accredited with A 5 star, and was re-accredited in 2004 with A grade. In addition to it, the College has been Awarded with "Potential for Excellence", being chosen as for "Best College Award" by University of Mumbai in 2005.[1][unreliable source?][2][non-primary source needed] The Kelkar Education Trust, in memory of its founder trustee, late Shri Annasaheb Vaze, established Vinayak Ganesh Vaze College of Arts, Science & Commerce in 1984.'}},
 {'id': '87514/mwEg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Bhausaheb Kelkar was an industrialist who manufactured fragrances. He had been promoting educational activities through donations to institutions and grants to underprivileged students. A Kelkar Education Trust was set up by Bhausaheb in Mulund in 1979 to start a college.[3] Kelkar College was started by the Kelkar-Vaze family in the year 1984. The college managed to get affiliation from University of Mumbai soon and is the youngest college to get permanent affiliation from the university of Mumbai.[4]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'इतिहास'}},
 {'id': '87514/mwFg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'It is located at Mithagar area of Mulund East, a northeastern suburb of Mumbai.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'Location'}},
 {'id': '87514/mwGg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The College is permanently affiliated to the University of Mumbai since 1990. It was also later recognized by UGC(University grants commission).[5] Kelkar College is the first affiliated Arts, Science and Commerce institution in the state of Maharashtra which was assessed for accreditation by National Assessement and Accreditation Council(NAAC), which the institution of UGC had started. College received five star status in 1998, reassessed in 2005 and assessed for third cycle in 2012 (Third time) with an "A" grade from NAAC.[6]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'Affiliation and accreditation'}},
 {'id': '87514/mwHQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The college offers various professional courses, Post graduate programs, and advanced diploma under the dual degree program.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'Courses'}},
 {'id': '87514/mwJQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The Vision of the college is:[9]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'Vision and Mission Statement'}},
 {'id': '87514/mwMQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'As per section 40 (2)(b) of Maharashtra University Act, 1994,[11] the College has set up a body of 20 representative students, on behalf of all the students of the college.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': "Students' Council"}},
 {'id': '87514/mwNA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The college hosts an inter college festival named "Dimensions".[12] It generally takes place during the month of December/January every year. Every year a theme is chosen, and accordingly the fest revolves around it.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'Festival'}},
 {'id': '87514/mwRQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': ''},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'Famous alumni'}},
 {'id': '87514/mwVw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '↑ "Best College Award, Mumbai (2005) - Kelkar College". http://www.careerindia.com. Retrieved 24 September 2014.\xa0 External link in |website= (help) ↑ "Introduction of Kelkar College". http://www.vazecollege.net. Retrieved 23 September 2014.\xa0 External link in |website= (help) ↑ "Kelkar Trust\'s Vaze College blends sports with studies - Hindustan Times". http://www.hindustantimes.com/. Retrieved 30 October 2015.\xa0 External link in |work= (help) ↑ "Welcome to V.G.Vaze College". Vazecollege.net. Retrieved 20 September 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Welcome to V.G.Vaze College". Vazecollege.net. Retrieved 20 September 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Welcome to V.G.Vaze College". Vazecollege.net. Retrieved 20 September 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Welcome to V.G.Vaze College". Vazecollege.net. Retrieved 20 September 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Vaze College Mumbai Cosmetology Centre". http://www.favors101.info. Retrieved 3 March 2015.\xa0 External link in |website= (help) ↑ "Vision of Kelkar College". Retrieved 23 September 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Mission Statement of Kelkar College". Retrieved 23 September 2014.\xa0 ↑ The Maharashtra Universities Act, 1994 (PDF). pp.\xa051–53. Retrieved 23 September 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Dimensions - Kelkar College Fest". www.vazecollege.net. Retrieved 6 October 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Dimensions 2013-14". festpav.com. Retrieved 5 October 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Official Theme for Dimensions 2015". Dimensions 2014-15 - facebook.com. Retrieved 5 October 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Official Theme for Dimensions 2015". Dimensions - The Fest. - facebook.com. Retrieved 5 October 2015.\xa0 ↑ Nair, Sandhya (19 June 2004). "The definitive guide to Mumbai colleges". Mid Day. Retrieved 30 October 2015.\xa0'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'संदर्भ'}},
 {'id': '87514/mwWA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '"Best College Award, Mumbai (2005) - Kelkar College". http://www.careerindia.com.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '↑ "Best College Award, Mumbai (2005) - Kelkar College". http://www.careerindia.com. Retrieved 24 September 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Introduction of Kelkar College". http://www.vazecollege.net. Retrieved 23 September 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Kelkar Trust\'s Vaze College blends sports with studies - Hindustan Times". http://www.hindustantimes.com/. Retrieved 30 October 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Welcome to V.G.Vaze College". Vazecollege.net. Retrieved 20 September 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Welcome to V.G.Vaze College". Vazecollege.net. Retrieved 20 September 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Welcome to V.G.Vaze College". Vazecollege.net. Retrieved 20 September 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Welcome to V.G.Vaze College". Vazecollege.net. Retrieved 20 September 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Vaze College Mumbai Cosmetology Centre". http://www.favors101.info. Retrieved 3 March 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Vision of Kelkar College". Retrieved 23 September 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Mission Statement of Kelkar College". Retrieved 23 September 2014.\xa0 ↑ The Maharashtra Universities Act, 1994 (PDF). pp.\xa051–53. Retrieved 23 September 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Dimensions - Kelkar College Fest". www.vazecollege.net. Retrieved 6 October 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Dimensions 2013-14". festpav.com. Retrieved 5 October 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Official Theme for Dimensions 2015". Dimensions 2014-15 - facebook.com. Retrieved 5 October 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Official Theme for Dimensions 2015". Dimensions - The Fest. - facebook.com. Retrieved 5 October 2015.\xa0 ↑ Nair, Sandhya (19 June 2004). "The definitive guide to Mumbai colleges". Mid Day. Retrieved 30 October 2015.\xa0'}},
 {'id': '102357/mwAQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Hartmann number (Ha) is the ratio of electromagnetic force to the viscous force first introduced by Hartmann.[1] It is defined by:'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'हार्टमान संख्या (Ha) विद्युत्चुम्बकीय बल और श्यान बल का अनुपात है जिसे सबसे पहले हार्टमान ने काम में लिया।[1] इसे निम्न प्रकार परिभाषित किया जाता है:'}},
 {'id': '102357/mwBA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': ''},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': ''}},
 {'id': '102357/mwBw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'where'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'जहाँ'}},
 {'id': '102357/mwCA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'B is the magnetic field L is the characteristic length scale σ is the electrical conductivity μ is the dynamic viscosity'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'B चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र है। L क्रान्तिक लम्बाई पैमाना σ वैद्युत प्रतिरोधकता μ\xa0 गतिकीय श्यानता है।'}},
 {'id': '102357/mwFg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'See also'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'इन्हेंभीदेखेंSee also'}},
 {'id': '102357/mwFw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Magnetohydrodynamics'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': ''}},
 {'id': '102357/mwGg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'References'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'सन्दर्भ'}},
 {'id': '102357/mwGw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '↑ Kenneth R.Cramer, Shih-l Pai (1973). Magnetofluid Dynamics for Engineers and Applied Physicists. Scripta Publishing Company. ISBN\xa00-07-013425-1.\xa0'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '↑ Kenneth R.Cramer, Shih-l Pai (1973). Magnetofluid Dynamics for Engineers and Applied Physicists. Scripta Publishing Company. ISBN\xa00-07-013425-1.\xa0'}},
 {'id': '107233/mwAg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Mumps vaccines safely prevent mumps. When given to a majority they decrease complications at the population level.[1] Effectiveness when 90% of a population is vaccinated is estimated at 85%.[2] Two doses are required for long term prevention. The initial dose is recommended between the age of 12 and 18 months of age. The second dose is than typically given between two years and six years of age.[1] Usage after exposure in those not already immune may be useful.[3]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'गलसुआ वैक्सीन\xa0गलसुए\xa0(कंठमाला) की सुरक्षित रोकथाम करती है।जब अधिसंख्य लोगों को दी जाती है तो ये जनसंख्या के स्तर पर जटिलताओं में कमी लाती हैं।[1]\xa0जनसंख्या के\xa090% को टीका लगाए जाने पर 85% तक की प्रभावशीलता देखी गयी है।[2]\xa0लंबी अवधि की रोकथाम के लिए दो खुराकों की जरूरत होती है।\xa0पहली खुराक को 12 से 18 माह की उम्र में दिए जाने की सलाह दी जाती है। इसके बाद दूसरी खुराक आम तौर पर दो से छः साल की उम्र के बीच दी जाती है।[1]\xa0पहले से\xa0प्रतिरक्षित\xa0न हुए लोगों में रोग होने के बाद इसका इस्तेमाल उपयोगी हो सकता है।[3]'}},
 {'id': '107233/mwBg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The mumps vaccine is very safe and side effects are generally mild.[1][3] It may cause mild pain and swelling at the site of injection and mild fever. More significant side effects are rare.[1] Evidence is insufficient to link the vaccine to complications such as neurological effects.[3] The vaccine should not be given to people who are pregnant or have severe immunosuppression.[1] Poor outcomes among children of mothers who received the vaccine during pregnancy; however, have not been document.[1][3] Even though the vaccine is developed in chicken cells, it is okay to give to those with egg allergies.[3]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'यह गलसुआ वैक्सीन बहुत सुरक्षित है तथा इसके पश्च प्रभाव आम तौर पर हल्के हैं।[1][3]\xa0सुई लगने वाली जगह पर दर्द तथा सूजन व हल्का बुखार हो सकता है। अधिक प्रभावशाली पश्च प्रभाव बेहद कम देखे गए हैं।[1] स्नायविक प्रभावों जैसी जटिलताओं को इस वैक्सीन से जोड़ने के लिए पर्याप्त साक्ष्य नहीं मिले हैं।[3]\xa0इस वैक्सीन को\xa0गर्भवती\xa0या गंभीर\xa0प्रतिरक्षादमन\xa0से पीड़ित लोगों को नहीं दिया जाना चाहिए।[1] गर्भावस्था के दौरान जिन बच्चों की माताओं को वैक्सीन दिया गया उनमें खराब परिणामों का दस्तावेजीकरण नहीं किया गया।[1][3]\xa0हालांकि वैक्सीन का विकास चिकन कोशिकाओं में किया गया है, लेकिन इनको उन लोगों को दिया जा सकता है जिनको\xa0अंडे से एलर्जी\xa0है।[3]'}},
 {'id': '107233/mwCg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Most of the developed world and many countries in the developing world include it in their immunization programs often in combination with measles and rubella vaccine known as MMR.[1] A formulation with the previous three and the varicella vaccine known as MMRV is also available.[3] As of 2005 110 countries provided the vaccine in this manner. In areas where widespread vaccination is carried out it has resulted in a more than 90% decline in rates of disease. Almost half a billion doses of one variety of the vaccine has been given.[1]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'अधिकांश\xa0विकसित दुनिया\xa0और\xa0विकासशील दुनिया\xa0 के अनेक देशों में इसे\xa0खसरे के टीके\xa0तथा\xa0रूबेला टीके\xa0के संयोजन वाले एमएमआर\xa0के नाम से प्रचलित टीके के रूप में उनके टीकाकरण कार्यक्रमों में शामिल किया गया है।\xa0[1] उपरोक्त तीन तथा छोटी माता (छोटी चेचक) के\xa0वैरिसेला वैक्सीन\xa0का\xa0एमएमआरवी\xa0के नाम से प्रचिलित संयोजन भी उपलब्ध है।[3] 2005 तक 110 देशों ने इस वैक्सीन को इस तरह से प्रदान किया है। वे क्षेत्र, जहां पर व्यापक टीकाकरण किया जाता है, इसके कारण रोग की दर में\xa090% तक कमी आयी है। एक प्रकार की लगभग आधा अरब लोगों को यह टीका दिया जा चुका है।[1]'}},
 {'id': '107233/mwEg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "A mumps vaccine was first licensed in 1948; however only had short term effectiveness.[3] Improved vaccines became commercially available in the 1960s. While the initial vaccine was Inactivated subsequent preparations are live virus that has been weakened.[1] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medication needed in a basic health system.[4] There are a number of different types in use as of 2007.[1]"},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'गलसुए के टीके को सबसे पहले 1948 में लाइसेंस दिया गया था; हालांकि इसका प्रभाव छोटी अवधि तक ही रहता था।[3]\xa0संशोधित टीके 1960 में बाज़ार में उपलब्ध हुए।\xa0जबकि शुरुआती टीका\xa0निष्क्रिय किया हुआ था\xa0बाद के मिश्रण में ऐसे वायरस थे जो कि कमजोर थे।[1]\xa0यह\xa0विश्व स्वास्थ्य संगठन की आवश्यक दवाओं की सूची, मूलभूत\xa0स्वास्थ्य प्रणाली\xa0में सबसे अधिक महत्वपूर्ण, आवश्यक दवाओं में शामिल है।[4] 2007 तक इसके अनेक प्रकार उपयोग में प्रचिलित हैं।[1]'}},
 {'id': '107233/mwFg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'References'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'संदर्भ'}},
 {'id': '107233/mwFw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "Mumps virus vaccines." (PDF). Weekly epidemiological record 82 (7): 49–60. 16 Feb 2007. PMID\xa017304707.\xa0 ↑ Hviid A, Rubin S, Mühlemann K (March 2008). "Mumps". The Lancet 371 (9616): 932–44. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60419-5. PMID\xa018342688.\xa0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Atkinson, William (May 2012). Mumps Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (12 ed.). Public Health Foundation. pp.\xa0Chapter 14. ISBN\xa09780983263135.\xa0 ↑ "WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines" (PDF). World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014.\xa0'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "Mumps virus vaccines." (PDF). Weekly epidemiological record 82 (7): 49–60. 16 Feb 2007. PMID\xa017304707.\xa0 ↑ Hviid A, Rubin S, Mühlemann K (March 2008). "Mumps". The Lancet 371 (9616): 932–44. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60419-5. PMID\xa018342688.\xa0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Atkinson, William (May 2012). Mumps Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (12 ed.). Public Health Foundation. pp.\xa0Chapter 14. ISBN\xa09780983263135.\xa0 ↑ "WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines" (PDF). World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014.\xa0'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwAw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Stereolithography apparatus'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी उपकरण'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwBw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'An SLA produced part'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'एक एस एल हिस्सा उत्पादित'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwCw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'An example of a complex SLA 3D printed electronic circuit board PCB with various components to simulate the final product.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'विभिन्न घटकों के साथ एक जटिल एसएलए 3 डी मुद्रित इलेक्ट्रॉनिक सर्किट बोर्ड पीसीबी के एक उदाहरण के अंतिम उत्पाद अनुकरण करने के लिए ।'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwDw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Stereolithography (SLA or SL; also known as Optical Fabrication, Photo-Solidification, Solid Free-Form Fabrication, Solid Imaging, Rapid Prototyping, Resin Printing, and 3D printing) is a form of additive manufacturing technology used for creating models, prototypes, patterns, and production parts in a layer by layer fashion using photopolymerization, a process by which light causes chains of molecules to link together, forming polymers.[1] Research in the area had been conducted during the 1970s, but the term was coined by Charles (Chuck) W. Hull in 1986 when he patented the process. He then set up 3D Systems Inc to commercialize his patent.[2][3]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '\xa0स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी (एसएलए या एसएल , यह भी ऑप्टिकल निर्माण के रूप में जाना जाता है, फोटो सम्पिण्डन ठोस फ्री -फार्म निर्माण, ठोस इमेजिंग, रैपिड प्रोटोटाइप , राल मुद्रण , और ।\xa03 डी प्रिंटिग) का एक रूप है योगात्मक विनिर्माण प्रौद्योगिकी बनाने के लिए इस्तेमाल किया मॉडल, प्रोटोटाइप, पैटर्न, और परत फैशन से एक परत में उत्पादन भागों का उपयोग\xa0तस्वीर बहुलकीकरण, प्रकाश के गठन, एक साथ लिंक करने के अणुओं की जंजीरों का कारण बनता है जिसके द्वारा एक प्रक्रिया पॉलिमर.[1] क्षेत्र में अनुसंधान 1970 के दशक के दौरान आयोजित की गई थी , लेकिन अवधि द्वारा गढ़ा गया था चार्ल्स ( चक ) डब्ल्यू हल\xa0 1986 में वह इस प्रक्रिया का पेटेंट कराया है। वह तो सेट अप\xa0 3 डी सिस्टम इंक अपने पेटेंट का व्यवसायीकरण करने के लिए ।[2][3]'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwIw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'History'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'इतिहास'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwJA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Stereolithography or "SLA" printing is an early and widely used 3D printing technology. Also known as Rapid Prototyping, 3D printing was invented with the intent of allowing engineers to create prototypes of their designs in a more time effective manner.[3][4] The technology first appeared as early as the 1970s. Japanese researcher Dr. Hideo Kodama first invented the modern layered approach to stereolithography by using ultraviolet light to cure photosensitive polymers.[3] However, the term “stereolithography” was coined in 1986 by Chuck Hull.[1] Chuck Hull patented stereolithography as a method of creating 3D objects by successively "printing" thin layers of an object using a medium curable by ultraviolet light, starting from the bottom layer to the top layer. Hull\'s patent described a concentrated beam of ultraviolet light focused onto the surface of a vat filled with a liquid photopolymer. The UV light beam is focused onto the surface of the liquid photopolymer, creating each layer of the desired 3D object by means of crosslinking (or degrading a polymer). In 1986, Hull founded the world\'s first 3D printing company, 3D Systems Inc,[2][5][6] which is currently based in Rock Hill, SC. Stereolithography\'s success in the automotive industry allowed 3D printing to achieve industry status and the technology continues to find innovative uses in countless fields of study.[4][7] Attempts have been made to construct mathematical models of stereolithography processes and to design algorithms to determine whether a proposed object may be constructed using 3D printing.[8]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '\xa0स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी या " एसएलए " छपाई एक प्रारंभिक और व्यापक रूप से इस्तेमाल 3 डी प्रिंटिंग तकनीक है। इसके अलावा रैपिड प्रोटोटाइप के रूप में जाना जाता है, 3 डी प्रिंटिंग के इंजीनियरों ने एक और अधिक समय प्रभावी ढंग से अपने डिजाइन के प्रोटोटाइप बनाने के लिए अनुमति के इरादे से की गई थी।[3][4]\xa0 प्रौद्योगिकी पहले के रूप में जल्दी 1970 के दशक के रूप में दिखाई दिया । जापानी शोधकर्ता डा Hideo कोडमा पहले सहज पॉलिमर का इलाज करने के लिए पराबैंगनी प्रकाश का उपयोग करके स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी करने के लिए आधुनिक बहुस्तरीय दृष्टिकोण का आविष्कार किया।[3] हालांकि, इस शब्द " स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी " द्वारा 1986 में बनाया गया था\xa0चक हल.[1]\xa0 चक हल शीर्ष परत करने के लिए नीचे की परत से शुरू, पराबैंगनी प्रकाश द्वारा एक मध्यम इलाज का उपयोग करते हुए क्रमिक द्वारा एक वस्तु की पतली परत "छपाई" 3 डी वस्तुओं का निर्माण करने की एक विधि के रूप में स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी का पेटेंट कराया। हल के पेटेंट एक तरल तस्वीर बहुलक से भरा एक वैट की सतह पर ध्यान केंद्रित पराबैंगनी प्रकाश का एक केंद्रित बीम का वर्णन किया। यूवी प्रकाश किरण तिर्यक के माध्यम से वांछित 3D वस्तु के प्रत्येक परत बनाने (या एक बहुलक अपमानजनक ), तरल तस्वीर बहुलक की सतह पर ध्यान केंद्रित किया है । 1986 में, हल, दुनिया का पहला 3 डी प्रिंटिंग कंपनी की स्थापना\xa03 डी सिस्टम इंक,[2][5][6] जो वर्तमान में आधारित है रॉक हिल , अनुसूचित जाति. मोटर वाहन उद्योग में स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी की सफलता उद्योग का दर्जा प्राप्त करने के लिए 3 डी प्रिंटिंग की अनुमति दी और प्रौद्योगिकी के अध्ययन के अनगिनत क्षेत्र में अभिनव प्रयोग करता है खोजने के लिए जारी है ।[4][7] प्रयास स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी प्रक्रियाओं का गणितीय मॉडल का निर्माण करने के लिए और एक प्रस्तावित वस्तु 3 डी प्रिंटिंग प्रयोग का निर्माण किया जा सकता है या नहीं यह निर्धारित करने के लिए एल्गोरिदम डिजाइन करने के लिए बनाया गया है।[8]'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwKA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Technology'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'प्रौद्योगिकी'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwKQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Stereolithography is an additive manufacturing process that works by focusing an ultraviolet (UV) laser on to a vat of photopolymer resin.[9] With the help of computer aided manufacturing or computer aided design software (CAM/CAD),[10] the UV laser is used to draw a pre-programmed design or shape on to the surface of the photopolymer vat. Because photopolymers are photosensitive under ultraviolet light, the resin is solidified and forms a single layer of the desired 3D object.[11] This process is repeated for each layer of the design until the 3D object is complete.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी का एक टब करने पर एक पराबैंगनी (यूवी) ध्यान केंद्रित करके लेजर काम करता है कि एक जोड़ना विनिर्माण प्रक्रिया है तस्वीर बहुलक राल ।[9] कंप्यूटर एडेड विनिर्माण या कंप्यूटर एडेड डिजाइन सॉफ्टवेयर ( सीएएम / सीएडी) की मदद से,[10]\xa0 यूवी लेजर एक पूर्व क्रमादेशित डिजाइन आकर्षित या तस्वीर बहुलक वैट की सतह पर आकार देने के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है । तस्वीर पॉलिमर पराबैंगनी प्रकाश के तहत सहज होते हैं, क्योंकि राल जम और वांछित 3 डी वस्तु की एक परत रूपों है ।[11] यह प्रक्रिया 3D वस्तु पूरा हो गया है जब तक डिजाइन की एक परत के लिए दोहराया है।'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwKw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'In models featuring an elevator apparatus, such as models made by Amtech[12] an elevator platform descends a distance equal to the thickness of a single layer of the design (typically 0.05\xa0mm to 0.15\xa0mm[citation needed]) into the photopolymer vat. Then, a resin-filled blade sweeps across a cross section of the layer, re-coating it with fresh material.[12] The subsequent layer is traced, joining the previous layer. A complete 3D object can be formed using this process. Designs are then immersed in a chemical bath in order to remove any excess resin and cured in an ultraviolet oven.[12]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'ऐसे Amtech द्वारा किए गए मॉडल के रूप में एक लिफ्ट तंत्र की विशेषता मॉडल में[12]\xa0 एक लिफ्ट मंच ( आम तौर पर 0.05 मिमी 0.15 मिमी के लिए डिजाइन की एक परत की मोटाई के बराबर दूरी उतरता[citation needed])\xa0 तस्वीर बहुलक टब में । फिर, परत के एक क्रॉस सेक्शन भर में एक राल से भरे ब्लेड स्वीप , फिर से कोटिंग ताजा सामग्री के साथ यह ।[12]\xa0 बाद परत पिछले परत में शामिल होने का पता लगाया है । एक पूर्ण 3 डी वस्तु इस प्रक्रिया का उपयोग का गठन किया जा सकता है। डिजाइन तो किसी भी अतिरिक्त राल को दूर करने के क्रम में एक रासायनिक स्नान में डूबे और एक पराबैंगनी ओवन में ठीक हो रहे हैं ।[12]'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwMA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Stereolithography requires the use of supporting structures which attach to the elevator platform to prevent deflection due to gravity and to hold cross sections in place in order to resist lateral pressure from the resin-filled blade. Supports are created automatically during the preparation of 3D Computer Aided Design models and can also be made manually.[12] With more expensive stereolithography models, these supports must be removed from the finished product manually.[citation needed]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी को रोकने के लिए लिफ्ट मंच को देते हैं जो समर्थन संरचनाओं के उपयोग की आवश्यकता नीचे को झुकाव\xa0 गुरुत्वाकर्षण के लिए और राल से भरे ब्लेड से पार्श्व दबाव का विरोध करने के लिए जगह में पार वर्गों धारण करने के कारण । समर्थन करता है 3 डी की तैयारी के दौरान स्वचालित रूप से बनाई गई हैं\xa0 कंप्यूटर एडेड डिजाइन मॉडल और भी मैन्युअल बनाया जा सकता है ।[12] अधिक महंगा स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी मॉडल के साथ, इन का समर्थन मैन्युअल तैयार उत्पाद से हटा दिया जाना चाहिए ।[citation needed]'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwNQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Advantages and Disadvantages'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'फायदे और नुकसान'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwNg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'One of the advantages of stereolithography is its speed; functional parts can be manufactured within a day.[4] The length of time it takes to produce a single part depends upon the complexity of the design and the size. Printing time can last anywhere from hours to more than a day.[4] Many 3D printers can produce parts with a maximum size of approximately 50×50×60\xa0cm (20×20×24\xa0in)[citation needed] and some printers, such as the Mammoth stereolithography machine (which has a build platform of 210×70×80\xa0cm),[13] are capable of producing single parts more than 2 meters in length[citation needed]. 3D printed prototypes and designs are strong enough to be machined and can also be used to make master patterns for injection molding, thermoforming, blow molding, and various metal casting processes.[citation needed]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी के लाभों की अपनी गति है ; कार्यात्मक भागों एक दिन के भीतर निर्मित किया जा सकता है।[4]\xa0 यह एक हिस्सा उत्पादन करने के लिए लगता है समय की लंबाई डिजाइन और आकार की जटिलता पर निर्भर करता है। मुद्रण समय एक दिन से अधिक घंटे से कहीं भी रह सकते हैं।[4]\xa0कई 3 डी प्रिंटर लगभग 50 × 50 × 60 सेमी ( 20 × 20 × 24 में ) की एक अधिकतम आकार के साथ भागों का उत्पादन कर सकते हैं[citation needed]\xa0 और (210 × 70 × 80 सेमी की एक निर्माण मंच है) इस तरह के विशाल स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी मशीन के रूप में कुछ प्रिंटर,[13] एकल भागों लंबाई में अधिक से अधिक 2 मीटर का निर्माण करने में सक्षम हैं[citation needed]. 3 डी मुद्रित प्रोटोटाइप और डिजाइन होने के लिए काफी मजबूत हैं\xa0मशीनीकृत और यह भी के लिए मास्टर पैटर्न बनाने के लिए इस्तेमाल किया जा सकता इंजेक्शन मोल्डिंग, गठन थर्मो, फूंक मार कर की जाने वाली मोल्डिंग, और विभिन्न धातु कास्टिंग प्रक्रियाओं।[citation needed]'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwRQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Although stereolithography can be used to produce virtually any synthetic design,[10] it is often costly; the cost of photopolymer resin can be around $800 per gallon and SLA machines can cost $250,000.[14] Recently[when?], public interest in stereolithography has inspired the design of several consumer models of 3D printer which feature drastically reduced prices, such as the Titan 1 by Kudo3D, the Ilios HD by GizmoForYou, the Form 1 by Formlabs & CTC Riverside and the Pegasus Touch by FSL3D, and the Nobel 1.0 by XYZPrinting. There has also been a reduction of the cost of photopolymer resins, with USA based providers such as MakerJuice Labs offering consumers photopolymer resins with prices as low as $55 per Liter, and European based providers such as spot-A Materials offering materials for €68 per Liter.[citation needed]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी लगभग किसी भी सिंथेटिक डिजाइन का उत्पादन करने के लिए इस्तेमाल किया जा सकता है,[10] यह अक्सर महंगा है ; तस्वीर बहुलक राल की लागत गैलन प्रति $ 800 के आसपास हो सकता है और एसएलए मशीनों $ 250,000 खर्च कर सकते हैं ।[14]\xa0 हाल ही में, स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी में जनता के हित में इस तरह के Kudo3D द्वारा टाइटन 1, आप के लिए gizmo द्वारा Ilios एच.डी., के रूप में तेजी से कीमतों में कमी की सुविधा जो 3 डी प्रिंटर के कई उपभोक्ता मॉडल के डिजाइन को प्रेरित किया\xa0प्रपत्र 1 by पर्चा प्रयोगशालाओं\xa0 सीटीसी रिवरसाइड और FSL3D द्वारा पेगासस टच, और XYZ मुद्रण द्वारा नोबेल 1.0 और । भी इस तरह के निर्माता रस लैब्स प्रति लीटर $ 55, और इस तरह के लिए हाजिर -ए सामग्री की पेशकश की सामग्री के रूप में यूरोपीय आधारित प्रदाताओं के रूप में के रूप में कम कीमतों के साथ उपभोक्ताओं तस्वीर बहुलक रेजिन की पेशकश के रूप में संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका आधारित प्रदाताओं के साथ , तस्वीर बहुलक रेजिन की लागत की कमी की गई है प्रति लीटर 68 € ।[citation needed]'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwTA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'See also'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'यह भी देखें'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwTQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Stereolithography (medicine) Thermoforming'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी (दवा) गठन थर्मो'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwUg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'References'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'संदर्भ'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwUw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '1 2 U.S. Patent 4,575,330 (“Apparatus for Production of Three-Dimensional Objects by Stereolithography”) 1 2 Stereolithography/ 3D Printing/ Additive Fabrication 1 2 3 Gibson, Ian, and Jorge Bártolo, Paulo. “History of Stereolithography.” Stereolithography: Materials, Processes, and Applications. (2011): 41-43. Web. 7 October 2015. 1 2 3 4 Hull, Chuck. “On Stereolithography.” Virtual and Physical Prototyping. Vol 7. (2012): 177. Web. 11 Oct, 2015 ↑ 3D Systems Inc Company Info ↑ What is Stereolithography? ↑ Jacobs, Paul F. “Introduction to Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing.” Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing: Fundamentals of Stereolithography. 1st Ed. (1992): 4-6. Web. 7 October 2015. ↑ B. Asberg, G. Blanco, P. Bose, J. Garcia-Lopez, M. Overmars, G. Toussaint, G. Wilfong and B. Zhu, "Feasibility of design in stereolithography," Algorithmica, Special Issue on Computational Geometry in Manufacturing, Vol. 19, No. 1/2, Sept/Oct, 1997, pp. 61–83. ↑ Crivello, James V., and Elsa Reichmanis. "Photopolymer Materials and Processes for Advanced Technologies." Chemistry of Materials Chem. Mater. 26.1 (2014): 533. Print. 1 2 Lipson, Hod, Francis C. Moon, Jimmy Hai, and Carlo Paventi. "3-D Printing the History of Mechanisms." Journal of Mechanical Design J. Mech. Des. (2004): 1029-033. Print. ↑ Fouassier, J. P. "Photopolymerization Reactions." The Wiley Database of Polymer Properties 3 (2003): 25. Print. 1 2 3 4 "Stereolithography (SLA)". www.amtech-rp.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-11-16.\xa0 ↑ Mammoth stereolithography: Technical specifications. materialise.com ↑ Brain, Marshall. "How Stereolithography 3-D Layering Works". Howstuffworks. Infospace LLC. Retrieved 17 December 2015.\xa0'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '1 2 U.S. Patent 4,575,330 (“Apparatus for Production of Three-Dimensional Objects by Stereolithography”) 1 2 Stereolithography/ 3D Printing/ Additive Fabrication 1 2 3 Gibson, Ian, and Jorge Bártolo, Paulo. “History of Stereolithography.” Stereolithography: Materials, Processes, and Applications. (2011): 41-43. Web. 7 October 2015. 1 2 3 4 Hull, Chuck. “On Stereolithography.” Virtual and Physical Prototyping. Vol 7. (2012): 177. Web. 11 Oct, 2015 ↑ 3D Systems Inc Company Info ↑ What is Stereolithography? ↑ Jacobs, Paul F. “Introduction to Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing.” Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing: Fundamentals of Stereolithography. 1st Ed. (1992): 4-6. Web. 7 October 2015. ↑ B. Asberg, G. Blanco, P. Bose, J. Garcia-Lopez, M. Overmars, G. Toussaint, G. Wilfong and B. Zhu, "Feasibility of design in stereolithography," Algorithmica, Special Issue on Computational Geometry in Manufacturing, Vol. 19, No. 1/2, Sept/Oct, 1997, pp. 61–83. ↑ Crivello, James V., and Elsa Reichmanis. "Photopolymer Materials and Processes for Advanced Technologies." Chemistry of Materials Chem. Mater. 26.1 (2014): 533. Print. 1 2 Lipson, Hod, Francis C. Moon, Jimmy Hai, and Carlo Paventi. "3-D Printing the History of Mechanisms." Journal of Mechanical Design J. Mech. Des. (2004): 1029-033. Print. ↑ Fouassier, J. P. "Photopolymerization Reactions." The Wiley Database of Polymer Properties 3 (2003): 25. Print. 1 2 3 4 "Stereolithography (SLA)". www.amtech-rp.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-11-16.\xa0 ↑ Mammoth stereolithography: Technical specifications. materialise.com ↑ Brain, Marshall. "How Stereolithography 3-D Layering Works". Howstuffworks. Infospace LLC. Retrieved 17 December 2015.\xa0'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwcQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Notes'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'नोट्स'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwcw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'External links'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'बाहरी कड़ियाँ'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwcx-source-title',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Stereolithography'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी'}},
 {'id': '109849/mwdA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Full Spectrum Laser rolls out two new innovative 3D Printers at 3D Printer World Ilios modular 3d Printer by GizmoForYou with industrial grade motion, fully metallic construction and highly accurate repeatability rates Super Precise Kudo3D Titan 1 SLA 3D Printer Hits Kickstarter on May 27 Starting at $1899 Pegasus Touch by FSL3D Laser SLA 3D Printer: Low cost, High Quality on Kickstarter Formlabs Form 1 a low cost Stereolithography printer being designed and fabricated as a Kickstarter project How Stereolithography (3-D Layering) Works from HowStuffWorks.com Rapid Prototyping and Stereolithography animation – Animation demonstrates stereolithography and the actions of an SL machine Video of micro-stereolithography for biomedical applications'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'पूर्ण स्पेक्ट्रम 3 डी लेजर प्रिंटर वर्ल्ड में दो नए नए 3 डी प्रिंटर बाहर रोल औद्योगिक ग्रेड गति , पूरी तरह से धातु के निर्माण और बेहद सटीक repeatability दरों के साथ आप के लिए Gizmo से Ilios मॉड्यूलर 3 डी प्रिंटर सुपर सटीक Kudo3D टाइटन 1 एसएलए 3 डी प्रिंटर $ 1899 में शुरू 27 मई को किक हिट्स FSL3D लेजर एसएलए 3 डी प्रिंटर से पेगासस टच : कम लागत , किक पर उच्च गुणवत्ता प्रपत्र 1 Formlabs एक कम लागत स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी प्रिंटर तैयार किया जा रहा है और एक किक परियोजना के रूप में गढ़े \xa0कैसे स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी (3 -डी लेयरिंग ) HowStuffWorks.com से काम करता है रैपिड प्रोटोटाइप और स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी एनीमेशन - एनिमेशन स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी और एक SL मशीन की कार्रवाई को दर्शाता है जैव चिकित्सा अनुप्रयोगों के लिए सूक्ष्म स्टीरियोलिथोग्राफी का वीडियो'}},
 {'id': '111002/4a55493f2cecf8ce',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': ''},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '\xa0यह दृष्टिकोण न्यू साउथ वेल्स विश्वविद्यालय , ओरेगन स्टेट यूनिवर्सिटी, और मैसाचुसेट्स इंस्टीट्यूट ऑफ टेक्नोलॉजी सहित विभिन्न स्थानों पर स्वतंत्र रूप से विकसित किया जा रहा है ।'}},
 {'id': '111002/mwAw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Inkjet solar cells are solar cells manufactured by low-cost, low-tech methods that use an inkjet printer to lay down the semiconductor material and the electrodes onto a solar cell substrate.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '\xa0इंकजेट सौर सेल सौर कोशिकाएं कम लागत से निर्मित है,कम तकनीक एक का उपयोग करने वाले तरीकों इंकजेट प्रिंटर नीचे बिछाने के लिए अर्धचालक सामग्री और इलेक्ट्रोडएक सौर सेल सब्सट्रेट ।'}},
 {'id': '111002/mwCw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'This approach is being developed independently at various locations including the University of New South Wales,[1][2] Oregon State University,[3] and Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[4]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'यह दृष्टिकोण सहित विभिन्न स्थानों पर स्वतंत्र रूप से विकसित की जा रही है न्यू साउथ वेल्स,[1][2]\xa0ओरेगन स्टेट यूनिवर्सिटी,[3] और\xa0मेसाचुसेट्स प्रौद्योगिक संस्थान.[4]'}},
 {'id': '111002/mwDw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'History'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'इतिहास'}},
 {'id': '111002/mwEA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The first case of printed electronics was seen in 1903 when Albert Hanson filed a patent for "printed" wire. After that the radio drove the industry of printed electronics forward. Until recently inkjet printers have not been used in the printed electronics industry. Industry has decided to move towards inkjet printing because of its low cost and flexibility of use.[5] One of these used is the inkjet solar cell. The first instance of constructing a solar cell with an inkjet printer was by Konarka in 2008.[6] In 2011 Oregon State University was able to discover a way to create CIGS solar cells using an inkjet printer. In the same year MIT was able to create a solar cell using an inkjet printer on paper. The use of an inkjet printer to make solar cells is very new and is still being researched.[7]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'का पहला मामला मुद्रित इलेक्ट्रॉनिक्स\xa0अल्बर्ट हैन्सन "मुद्रित" तार के लिए एक पेटेंट दायर जब १९०३ में देखा गया था। उसके बाद रेडियो आगे मुद्रित इलेक्ट्रॉनिक्स के उद्योग चलाई। हाल ही में इंकजेट प्रिंटर मुद्रित इलेक्ट्रॉनिक्स उद्योग में इस्तेमाल नहीं किया गया है जब तक। उद्योग की वजह से अपनी कम लागत और उपयोग में लचीलेपन का inkjet मुद्रण की ओर ले जाने का फैसला किया है । इस्तेमाल इन में से एक इंकजेट सौर सेल है। एक इंकजेट प्रिंटर के साथ एक सौर सेल के निर्माण का पहला उदाहरण२०११ ओरेगन स्टेट यूनिवर्सिटी मेंसी आई जी एस में कोनारका द्वारा किया गया था बनाने के लिए एक रास्ता खोज करने में सक्षम थासी आई जी एस सौर एक इंकजेट प्रिंटर का उपयोग कोशिकाओं । एक ही वर्ष में एमआईटी एक सौर सेल कागज पर एक इंकजेट प्रिंटर का उपयोग कर बनाने में सक्षम था । एक इंकजेट प्रिंटर का उपयोग सौर कोशिकाओं को बनाने के लिए बहुत नया है और अभी भी शोध किया जा रहा है।[7]'}},
 {'id': '111002/mwEw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'How they are made'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'वे कैसे बना रहे हैं'}},
 {'id': '111002/mwFA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'In general inkjet solar cells are made by using an inkjet printer to put down the semiconductor material and electrodes onto a solar cell substrate.[8] Both organic and inorganic solar cells can be made using the inkjet method. Inkjet printed inorganic solar cells are mainly CIGS solar cells. The organic solar cells are polymer solar cells. First, the ink must be prepared. Generally the ink is composed of a metal salt mixture(CIGS) in the inorganic case. In the organic case the ink is a polymer fullerene blend. The ink is then printed onto a substrate which can vary. These materials are what creates the electric power from sunlight. In most cases more layers of other materials are deposited or the cell goes through another process to complete it. The entire process is done in atmospheric pressure and can use temperatures of up to 500C. Important factors for the efficiency of inkjet printed organic solar cells are the inkjet latency time,the inkjet printing table temperature, and the effect of the chemical properties of the polymer donor.[9][10][11]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '\xa0सामान्य इंकजेट में सौर कोशिकाओं को एक सौर सेल सब्सट्रेट अर्धचालक पदार्थ और इलेक्ट्रोड नीचे डाल करने के लिए एक इंकजेट प्रिंटर का उपयोग करके बनाया जाता है। दोनों कार्बनिक और अकार्बनिक सौर कोशिकाओं इंकजेट विधि का उपयोग किया जा सकता है। इंकजेट मुद्रित अकार्बनिक सौर कोशिकाओं को मुख्य रूप सी आई जी एस सौर कोशिकाओं रहे हैं।कार्बनिक सौर कोशिकाओं रहे हैं बहुलक सौर कोशिकाओं.\xa0सबसे पहले, स्याही तैयार रहना चाहिए। आम तौर पर स्याही अकार्बनिक मामले में एक धातु नमक के मिश्रण (सी आई जी एस) से बना है। कार्बनिक मामले में स्याही एक बहुलक फुलरीन मिश्रण है। स्याही तो एक सब्सट्रेट जो भिन्न हो सकते हैं पर छपा हुआ है। इन सामग्रियों क्या सूरज की रोशनी से बिजली पैदा कर रहे हैं। ज्यादातर मामलों में अन्य सामग्री के और अधिक परतों जमा कर रहे हैं या सेल इसे पूरा करने के लिए एक प्रक्रिया के माध्यम से चला जाता है। पूरी प्रक्रिया वायुमंडलीय दबाव में किया जाता है और ५००सी के लिए ऊपर के तापमान का उपयोग कर सकते हैं। इंकजेट मुद्रित कार्बनिक सौर कोशिकाओं की दक्षता के लिए महत्वपूर्ण कारकों इंकजेट विलंबता समय , inkjet मुद्रण तालिका तापमान, और बहुलक दाता के रासायनिक गुणों के प्रभाव में हैं ।[9][10][11]'}},
 {'id': '111002/mwFw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Advantages'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'लाभ'}},
 {'id': '111002/mwGA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The main advantage to printing solar cells with an inkjet printer is the low cost of production. The reason it is cheaper than other methods is because no vacuum is necessary which makes the equipment cheaper. Also, the ink is a low cost metal salt blend reducing the cost of the solar cells. There is very little waste of material in comparison to other methods like vapor phase deposition when using inkjet printers to lay down the semiconductor material. This is because the printer is able to create precise patterning with little waste. Some inkjet solar cells use the material CIGS which has more solar efficiency than the traditional silicon solar panels. Using CIGS makes it very important to have little waste due to how rare some of the materials in it are. This method is also environmentally friendly because it does not require the use of toxic chemicals to prepare the solar cell like other methods do.[7][11]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'एक इंकजेट प्रिंटर के साथ सौर कोशिकाओं मुद्रण करने के लिए मुख्य लाभ उत्पादन की कम लागत है। कारण यह अन्य तरीकों की तुलना में सस्ता है, क्योंकि कोई है\xa0वैक्यूमउपकरण सस्ता बनाता है, जो आवश्यक है। इसके अलावा, स्याही सौर कोशिकाओं की लागत को कम करने के लिए एक कम लागत धातु नमक मिश्रण है। अर्धचालक पदार्थ नीचे रखना करने इंकजेट प्रिंटर का उपयोग करते समय भाप चरण बयान जैसे अन्य तरीकों की तुलना में माल की बहुत कम बर्बादी है। प्रिंटर थोड़ा कचरे के साथ सटीक आकृति बनाने में सक्षम है क्योंकि यह है। कुछ इंकजेट सौर कोशिकाओं पारंपरिक सिलिकॉन सौर पैनलों की तुलना में अधिक सौर क्षमता है जो सामग्री सी आई जी एस का उपयोग करें। सी आई जी एस का प्रयोग की वजह से यह कर रहे हैं में सामग्री की कैसे दुर्लभ कुछ करने के लिए थोड़ा बेकार है करने के लिए यह बहुत महत्वपूर्ण बनाता है। यह अन्य तरीकों की तरह सौर सेल तैयार करने के लिए जहरीले रसायनों के उपयोग की आवश्यकता नहीं है क्योंकि इस विधि को भी पर्यावरण के अनुकूल है.[7][11]'}},
 {'id': '111002/mwHA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Disadvantages'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'नुकसान'}},
 {'id': '111002/mwHQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The efficiency of inkjet solar cells are too low to be commercially viable. Even if the efficiency gets better the materials used for the solar cells could be a problem. Indium is a rare material used in these cells and could be gone within 15 years according to our current usage. Another issue is creating a weather resistant ink that can survive harsh conditions.[12][13]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '\xa0इंकजेट सौर कोशिकाओं की दक्षता भी आर्थिक रूप से व्यावहारिक होने की कम हैं। यहां तक \u200b\u200bकि अगर दक्षता बेहतर हो जाता है सामग्री सौर कोशिकाओं के लिए इस्तेमाल एक समस्या हो सकती है । ईण्डीयुम एक दुर्लभ इन कोशिकाओं में प्रयुक्त सामग्री है और हमारे वर्तमान उपयोग के अनुसार 15 साल के भीतर चला गया हो सकता है। एक और मुद्दा एक मौसम प्रतिरोधी स्याही है कि कठोर परिस्थितियों जीवित रह सकते हैं पैदा कर रही है.[12][13]'}},
 {'id': '111002/mwHg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Potential'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'क्षमता'}},
 {'id': '111002/mwHw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'In traditional solar cells the material that holds the photovoltaic material generally costs more than the material itself. With inkjet printing it is possible to print solar cells on paper. This will allow solar cells to be much cheaper and be placed almost anywhere. Paper thin solar cells or eventually direct 3D printing will allow to create solar cells on blinds, in windows, in curtains, and almost anywhere in the home. This is very promising and could be the future of solar power.[14]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'पारंपरिक सौर कोशिकाओं में फोटोवोल्टिक सामग्री रखती है कि सामग्री आम तौर पर सामग्री ही की तुलना में अधिक खर्च होती है। Inkjet मुद्रण के साथ यह कागज पर सौर कोशिकाओं मुद्रित करने के लिए संभव है। इस सौर कोशिकाओं काफी सस्ती होने की अनुमति होगी और लगभग कहीं भी रखा जा सकता है। कागज पतली सौर कोशिकाओं या अंत में प्रत्यक्ष3 डी प्रिंटिग\xa0सौर कोशिकाओं, खिड़कियों में , पर्दे में अंधा कर रही है पर बनाने के लिए , और लगभग घर में कहीं भी अनुमति देगा। यह बहुत आशाजनक है और सौर ऊर्जा के भविष्य हो सकता है।[14]'}},
 {'id': '111002/mwIQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'See also'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'यह भी देखें'}},
 {'id': '111002/mwJA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'References'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'संदर्भ'}},
 {'id': '111002/mwJQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '↑ Smith, Deborah (2008-08-20). "Thinking outside the square finds light in oven". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2008-08-23.\xa0 ↑ Lennon, Alison J.; Utama, Roland Y.; et al. ", Forming openings to semiconductor layers of silicon solar cells by inkjet printing". Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 92: 1410–1415. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2008.05.018.\xa0 CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ↑ "BBC News - Scientists use inkjet printing to produce solar cells". bbc.co.uk. 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2012.\xa0 ↑ Chandler, David L. (2012). "While you’re up, print me a solar cell - MIT News Office". web.mit.edu. Retrieved 20 February 2012.\xa0 ↑ Savastano, David. "Inkjet is Making Gains in Printed Electronics". Printed Electronics Now. Retrieved 16 February 2013.\xa0 ↑ "Konarka Announces First-Ever Demonstration of Inkjet Printed Solar Cells". Konarka. Retrieved 16 February 2013.\xa0 1 2 "INKJET PRINTING COULD CHANGE THE FACE OF SOLAR ENERGY INDUSTRY". Oregon State University. Retrieved 25 February 2013.\xa0 ↑ Lampert, C.M. (November 2008). "Forming openings to semiconductor layers of silicon solar cells by inkjet printing". Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 92 (11): 1410–1415. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2008.05.018. Retrieved 4 February 2013.\xa0 ↑ Hoth, Claudia; Pavel Schilinsky; Stelios A. Choulis; Christoph J. Brabec (August 7, 2008). "Printing Highly Efficient Organic Solar Cells". Nano Letters 8: 2806–2813. doi:10.1021/nl801365k.\xa0 ↑ Aernouts, T (25 January 2008). "Polymer based organic solar cells using ink-jet printed active layers". Applied Physics Letters. ORGANIC ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS 92 (3): 033306. doi:10.1063/1.2833185.\xa0 |access-date= requires |url= (help) 1 2 Wang, Wei (September 2011). "Inkjet printed chalcopyrite CuInxGa1−xSe2 thin film solar cells". Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 95 (9): 2616–2620. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2011.05.011.\xa0 |access-date= requires |url= (help) ↑ Rhodes, Chris. "14% Efficiency for Thin-Film Solar Cells, but Where Will the Indium Come From?". Forbes. Retrieved 4 February 2013.\xa0 ↑ Seidman, Bianca. "Inkjet printing solar panels: cheap and almost green". PBS. Retrieved 4 February 2013.\xa0 ↑ Chandler, David. "While you’re up, print me a solar cell". MIT. Retrieved 4 February 2013.\xa0'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '↑ Smith, Deborah (2008-08-20). "Thinking outside the square finds light in oven". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2008-08-23.\xa0 ↑ Lennon, Alison J.; Utama, Roland Y.; et al. ", Forming openings to semiconductor layers of silicon solar cells by inkjet printing". Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 92: 1410–1415. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2008.05.018.\xa0 CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ↑ "BBC News - Scientists use inkjet printing to produce solar cells". bbc.co.uk. 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2012.\xa0 ↑ Chandler, David L. (2012). "While you’re up, print me a solar cell - MIT News Office". web.mit.edu. Retrieved 20 February 2012.\xa0 ↑ Savastano, David. "Inkjet is Making Gains in Printed Electronics". Printed Electronics Now. Retrieved 16 February 2013.\xa0 ↑ "Konarka Announces First-Ever Demonstration of Inkjet Printed Solar Cells". Konarka. Retrieved 16 February 2013.\xa0 1 2 "INKJET PRINTING COULD CHANGE THE FACE OF SOLAR ENERGY INDUSTRY". Oregon State University. Retrieved 25 February 2013.\xa0 ↑ Lampert, C.M. (November 2008). "Forming openings to semiconductor layers of silicon solar cells by inkjet printing". Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 92 (11): 1410–1415. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2008.05.018. Retrieved 4 February 2013.\xa0 ↑ Hoth, Claudia; Pavel Schilinsky; Stelios A. Choulis; Christoph J. Brabec (August 7, 2008). "Printing Highly Efficient Organic Solar Cells". Nano Letters 8: 2806–2813. doi:10.1021/nl801365k.\xa0 ↑ Aernouts, T (25 January 2008). "Polymer based organic solar cells using ink-jet printed active layers". Applied Physics Letters. ORGANIC ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS 92 (3): 033306. doi:10.1063/1.2833185.\xa0 |access-date= requires |url= (help) 1 2 Wang, Wei (September 2011). "Inkjet printed chalcopyrite CuInxGa1−xSe2 thin film solar cells". Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 95 (9): 2616–2620. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2011.05.011.\xa0 |access-date= requires |url= (help) ↑ Rhodes, Chris. "14% Efficiency for Thin-Film Solar Cells, but Where Will the Indium Come From?". Forbes. Retrieved 4 February 2013.\xa0 ↑ Seidman, Bianca. "Inkjet printing solar panels: cheap and almost green". PBS. Retrieved 4 February 2013.\xa0 ↑ Chandler, David. "While you’re up, print me a solar cell". MIT. Retrieved 4 February 2013.\xa0'}},
 {'id': '111002/mwcx-source-title',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Inkjet solar cell'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'इंकजेट सौर सेल'}},
 {'id': '112781/mwAU0',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Notes'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'नोट्स\xa0'}},
 {'id': '112781/mwAU4',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "↑ In this background TJ suggest a series of books comprising Riyadus Saliheen, Muntakhab Ahadith (Collection of authentic Ahadith without commentary), Hayatus Sahaba and Fadhaa'il A'maal Vol 1 & 2[39] and other books.[40]' etc."},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': "↑ In this background TJ suggest a series of books comprising Riyadus Saliheen, Muntakhab Ahadith (Collection of authentic Ahadith without commentary), Hayatus Sahaba and Fadhaa'il A'maal Vol 1 & 2[39] and other books.[40]' etc."}},
 {'id': '112781/mwAVk',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'References'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'सन्दर्भ\xa0'}},
 {'id': '112781/mwAVo',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '1 2 3 4 5 6 Khalid Hasan (13 August 2006). "Tableeghi Jamaat: all that you know and don\'t". Daily Times. Retrieved 21 January 2010.\xa0 1 2 Rotar, Igor (23 June 2007). "Pakistani Islamic Missionary Group Establishes a Strong Presence in Central Asia". EurasiaNet. Retrieved 20 November 2008.\xa0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Burton, Fred; Scott Stewart (23 January 2008). "Tablighi Jamaat: An Indirect Line to Terrorism". Stratfor Intelligence. Retrieved 10 August 2009.\xa0 ↑ Islamic Contestations: Essays On Muslims In India And Pakistan Oxford University Press (19 October 2006) ISBN 0-19-568513-X ↑ Taylor, Jenny. "What is the Tablighi Jamaat?". the Guardian. Retrieved 12 January 2016.\xa0 ↑ Butt, Riazat (18 February 2011). "Tablighi Jamaat mosque accused of encouraging Muslim isolationism". The Guardian.\xa0 ↑ Rabasa, Angel (2004). The Muslim World After 9/11. Rand Corporation. p.\xa015. Retrieved 24 January 2016.\xa0 1 2 3 Masoodi, Ashwaq (16 September 2013). "Inside the Tablighi Jamaat". Live Mint. Retrieved 24 January 2016.\xa0 1 2 3 4 Sameer Arshad (22 July 2007). "Tabligh, or the enigma of revival". Times of India. Retrieved 2 May 2009.\xa0 1 2 3 Dietrich Reetz, Sûfî spirituality fires reformist zeal: The Tablîghî Jamâ‘at in today\'s India and Pakistan, Archives de sciences sociales des religions [En ligne], 135 | juillet - septembre 2006, mis en ligne le 01 septembre 2009, consulté le 29 novembre 2014. p 33. ↑ Dominic Kennedy and Hannah Devlin (19 August 2006). "Disbelief and shame in a community of divided faith". The Times (London). Retrieved 8 May 2009.\xa0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Metcalf, Barbara. "Traditionalist" Islamic Activism: Deoband, Tablighis, and Talibs". Social Science Research Council. Retrieved 24 January 2010.\xa0 ↑ http://www.dawn.com/news/1236278 1 2 3 Ayoob 2007, p.\xa0135 ↑ Jenkins, Philip (2007). God\'s continent (illustrated, annotated ed.). US: Oxford University Press. p.\xa0340. ISBN\xa00-19-531395-X.\xa0 ↑ "Tablighi Jamaat does not preach jihad, says senior Muslim leader". The Hindu. 9 July 2007. Retrieved 9 July 2007.\xa0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Alexiev, Alex (Winter 2005). "Tablighi Jamaat: Jihad\'s Stealthy Legions". Middle East Quarterly 12 (1): 3–11. Retrieved 11 January 2016.\xa0 1 2 Ballard 1994, p.\xa064 1 2 Quran\xa03:104 1 2 Ballard 1994, p.\xa065 ↑ Masud 2000, p.\xa0xiii ↑ Agwani, Mohammad Shafi (1986). "Islamic Fundamentalism in India 1986". Twenty First Century Indian Society: 41.\xa0 ↑ Marty 1994, p.\xa0513. 1 2 3 Marty 1994, p.\xa0152 1 2 3 4 Kepel, War for Muslim Minds, 2004: p.261 ↑ Roy 2007, p.\xa0342 1 2 Marty 1994, p.\xa0514 ↑ Marty 1994, p.\xa0524 ↑ Masud 2000, p.\xa0127 1 2 3 4 Smith, Craig S. (April 29, 2005). "French Islamic group offers rich soil for militancy". New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2016.\xa0 ↑ Kepel, War for Muslim Minds, 2004: p.260-2 1 2 3 4 Howenstein, Nicholas; Dr. Eva Borreguero. "Islamist Networks: The Case of Tablighi Jamaat". Retrieved 14 June 2007.\xa0 ↑ Norfolk, Andrew (10 September 2007). "Muslim group behind \'mega-mosque\' seeks to convert all Britain" (ece). London: TimesOnline. Retrieved 7 April 2008.\xa0 ↑ Masud 2000, p.\xa0xxi ↑ Masud 2000, p.\xa0xxii ↑ Quran\xa041:33 ↑ Marty 1994, p.\xa0515 1 2 3 Kepel, War for Muslim Minds, 2004: p.83 1 2 3 "DAWAT O TABLIGH & ISLAH: What is and What not in Fazail e Amaal,Haqeeqat Reality of allegation Propaganda discussion". Tablighijamaattruth.blogspot.in. Retrieved 2014-07-31.\xa0 1 2 "Tableeghi Jamaat: On the scale of Qur\'aan & Sunnah | Civil". Central-mosque.com. Retrieved 2014-07-31.\xa0 1 2 3 Marty 1994, p.\xa0516 ↑ Masud 2000, p.\xa082 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Metcalf, Barbara (27 February 1996). "Islam and women: The case of the Tablighi Jama`at". Stanford University. Retrieved 9 January 2010.\xa0 1 2 Marty 1994, p.\xa0511. ↑ Masud 2000, p.\xa0104 ↑ Marty 1994, p.\xa0513 ↑ Marty 1994, p.\xa0459. ↑ Alexiev, Alex (Winter 2005). "Tablighi Jamaat: Jihad\'s Stealthy Legions". Middle East Quarterly. Retrieved 1 February 2007.\xa0 ↑ Khattak, Inamullah (27 April 2009). "Tableeghi Jamaat leaders denounce gunpoint Sharia". Dawn. Retrieved 29 April 2009.\xa0 ↑ Marty 1994, p.\xa0154 ↑ Marty 1994, p.\xa0156 1 2 Masud 2000, p.\xa0166 ↑ Masud 2000, p.\xa027 ↑ Masud 2000, p.\xa028 ↑ Uddin, Sufia M. (2006). Constructing Bangladesh (illustrated ed.). UNC Press. p.\xa0224. ISBN\xa00-8078-3021-6.\xa0 ↑ "Millions of Muslims gather in Bangladesh". Reuters, UK. 2 February 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2009.\xa0 ↑ "600 couples wedded at Ijtema". Daily Times. 21 November 2004. Retrieved 19 March 2010.\xa0 ↑ "Raiwind Ijtema: Thousands head home as first session ends". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 2014-07-31.\xa0 ↑ "Religious conference: Second Raiwind Ijtema session ends". The Express Tribune. 2011-11-28. Retrieved 2014-07-31.\xa0 1 2 De Féo, Agnès (12 October 2009). "Behind the Veil, In the Ranks of the Tablighi Jamaat". World Religion Watch. Retrieved 23 January 2016.\xa0 ↑ "The Future of Political Islam". Foreign Affairs. 2002-03-01. Retrieved 2008-03-28. ↑ "Search for a perfect world of Islam". Le Monde diplomatique. 2002-05. Retrieved 2008-03-28. ↑ B. Raman, "Nawaz in a Whirlpool," South Asia Analysis Group, Oct. 10, 1999. ↑ The News (Lahore), Feb. 13, 1995. ↑ Le Monde (Paris), Jan. 25, 2002. ↑ Lewis, Paul. "Inside the Islamic group accused by MI5 and FBI | UK news". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-07-31.\xa0 ↑ "Qaeda used Tablighi Jamaat as cover: WikiLeaks". Zeenews.india.com. Retrieved 2014-07-31.\xa0 ↑ Haahr, Kathryn (February 13, 2008). "Spanish Police Arrest Jamaat al-Tabligh Members in Bomb Threat". Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 24 January 2016.\xa0 ↑ Picard, Joe. "Administration nixed probe into Southern California jihadists". TheHill. Retrieved 2015-12-28.\xa0 ↑ Sperry, Paul (2015-12-27). "Cleric denies ties to San Bernardino killers as phone records surface". New York Post. Retrieved 2015-12-28.\xa0 ↑ "Tablighi Jama\'at | The World Almanac of Islamism". almanac.afpc.org. Retrieved 2015-12-28.\xa0 ↑ Marc Gaborieau, "Transnational Islamic Movements: Tablighi Jamaat in Politics," ISIM Newsletter (International Institute for the Study of Islam in the Modern World), July 1999, p. 21. ↑ "Fadhaa\'il A\'maal & the truth about Tableegh Jaam\'aat. What is Fazaail-e-Aa’maal?". ummah.com. December 2004. Retrieved 24 January 2016.\xa0 ↑ The Jamaat Tableegh and the Deobandis: A Critical Analysis of their Beliefs, Books and Dawah by Sajid Abdul-Kayum 1 2 Marty 1994, p.\xa0518 ↑ "Jama\'atul Tableegh & the Prayer Within Mosques That Contain Graves". FatwaIslam.Com. Retrieved 2014-07-31.\xa0 ↑ Marty 1994, p.\xa0519 ↑ Marty 1994, p.\xa0517 ↑ "Investigative Reports & findings of Saudi Scholars on Tableeghi Jamaat | Civil". Central-mosque.com. Retrieved 2014-07-31.\xa0 1 2 "Pervaiz invited to attend BD congregation". The Nation. 28 November 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Religious harmony: Dousing the flames of sectarianism". The Express Tribune. June 11, 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Top Stories". The News. 18 December 2006. Retrieved 9 January 2010.\xa0 ↑ "Entertainment industry of Frontier hangs in the balance". The News. 20 January 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2009.\xa0[dead link] ↑ "Popular comedian quits showbiz". The News. 17 January 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2009.\xa0[dead link] ↑ Raman, B (3 June 2003). "Cambodia meets Islam head on". Asia Times. Retrieved 15 April 2010.\xa0 ↑ "Annual Karachi Tablighi Ijtima". Daily Times. 28 July 2007. Retrieved 15 April 2010.\xa0 ↑ "Pakistan\'s Youhana embraces Islam". BBC News. 19 September 2005. Retrieved 22 February 2010.\xa0'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '1 2 3 4 5 6 Khalid Hasan (13 August 2006). "Tableeghi Jamaat: all that you know and don\'t". Daily Times. Retrieved 21 January 2010.\xa0 1 2 Rotar, Igor (23 June 2007). "Pakistani Islamic Missionary Group Establishes a Strong Presence in Central Asia". EurasiaNet. Retrieved 20 November 2008.\xa0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Burton, Fred; Scott Stewart (23 January 2008). "Tablighi Jamaat: An Indirect Line to Terrorism". Stratfor Intelligence. Retrieved 10 August 2009.\xa0 ↑ Islamic Contestations: Essays On Muslims In India And Pakistan Oxford University Press (19 October 2006) ISBN 0-19-568513-X ↑ Taylor, Jenny. "What is the Tablighi Jamaat?". the Guardian. Retrieved 12 January 2016.\xa0 ↑ Butt, Riazat (18 February 2011). "Tablighi Jamaat mosque accused of encouraging Muslim isolationism". The Guardian.\xa0 ↑ Rabasa, Angel (2004). The Muslim World After 9/11. Rand Corporation. p.\xa015. Retrieved 24 January 2016.\xa0 1 2 3 Masoodi, Ashwaq (16 September 2013). "Inside the Tablighi Jamaat". Live Mint. Retrieved 24 January 2016.\xa0 1 2 3 4 Sameer Arshad (22 July 2007). "Tabligh, or the enigma of revival". Times of India. Retrieved 2 May 2009.\xa0 1 2 3 Dietrich Reetz, Sûfî spirituality fires reformist zeal: The Tablîghî Jamâ‘at in today\'s India and Pakistan, Archives de sciences sociales des religions [En ligne], 135 | juillet - septembre 2006, mis en ligne le 01 septembre 2009, consulté le 29 novembre 2014. p 33. ↑ Dominic Kennedy and Hannah Devlin (19 August 2006). "Disbelief and shame in a community of divided faith". The Times (London). Retrieved 8 May 2009.\xa0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Metcalf, Barbara. "Traditionalist" Islamic Activism: Deoband, Tablighis, and Talibs". Social Science Research Council. Retrieved 24 January 2010.\xa0 ↑ http://www.dawn.com/news/1236278 1 2 3 Ayoob 2007, p.\xa0135 ↑ Jenkins, Philip (2007). God\'s continent (illustrated, annotated ed.). US: Oxford University Press. p.\xa0340. ISBN\xa00-19-531395-X.\xa0 ↑ "Tablighi Jamaat does not preach jihad, says senior Muslim leader". The Hindu. 9 July 2007. Retrieved 9 July 2007.\xa0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Alexiev, Alex (Winter 2005). "Tablighi Jamaat: Jihad\'s Stealthy Legions". Middle East Quarterly 12 (1): 3–11. Retrieved 11 January 2016.\xa0 1 2 Ballard 1994, p.\xa064 1 2 Quran\xa03:104 1 2 Ballard 1994, p.\xa065 ↑ Masud 2000, p.\xa0xiii ↑ Agwani, Mohammad Shafi (1986). "Islamic Fundamentalism in India 1986". Twenty First Century Indian Society: 41.\xa0 ↑ Marty 1994, p.\xa0513. 1 2 3 Marty 1994, p.\xa0152 1 2 3 4 Kepel, War for Muslim Minds, 2004: p.261 ↑ Roy 2007, p.\xa0342 1 2 Marty 1994, p.\xa0514 ↑ Marty 1994, p.\xa0524 ↑ Masud 2000, p.\xa0127 1 2 3 4 Smith, Craig S. (April 29, 2005). "French Islamic group offers rich soil for militancy". New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2016.\xa0 ↑ Kepel, War for Muslim Minds, 2004: p.260-2 1 2 3 4 Howenstein, Nicholas; Dr. Eva Borreguero. "Islamist Networks: The Case of Tablighi Jamaat". Retrieved 14 June 2007.\xa0 ↑ Norfolk, Andrew (10 September 2007). "Muslim group behind \'mega-mosque\' seeks to convert all Britain" (ece). London: TimesOnline. Retrieved 7 April 2008.\xa0 ↑ Masud 2000, p.\xa0xxi ↑ Masud 2000, p.\xa0xxii ↑ Quran\xa041:33 ↑ Marty 1994, p.\xa0515 1 2 3 Kepel, War for Muslim Minds, 2004: p.83 1 2 3 "DAWAT O TABLIGH & ISLAH: What is and What not in Fazail e Amaal,Haqeeqat Reality of allegation Propaganda discussion". Tablighijamaattruth.blogspot.in. Retrieved 2014-07-31.\xa0 1 2 "Tableeghi Jamaat: On the scale of Qur\'aan & Sunnah | Civil". Central-mosque.com. Retrieved 2014-07-31.\xa0 1 2 3 Marty 1994, p.\xa0516 ↑ Masud 2000, p.\xa082 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Metcalf, Barbara (27 February 1996). "Islam and women: The case of the Tablighi Jama`at". Stanford University. Retrieved 9 January 2010.\xa0 1 2 Marty 1994, p.\xa0511. ↑ Masud 2000, p.\xa0104 ↑ Marty 1994, p.\xa0513 ↑ Marty 1994, p.\xa0459. ↑ Alexiev, Alex (Winter 2005). "Tablighi Jamaat: Jihad\'s Stealthy Legions". Middle East Quarterly. Retrieved 1 February 2007.\xa0 ↑ Khattak, Inamullah (27 April 2009). "Tableeghi Jamaat leaders denounce gunpoint Sharia". Dawn. Retrieved 29 April 2009.\xa0 ↑ Marty 1994, p.\xa0154 ↑ Marty 1994, p.\xa0156 1 2 Masud 2000, p.\xa0166 ↑ Masud 2000, p.\xa027 ↑ Masud 2000, p.\xa028 ↑ Uddin, Sufia M. (2006). Constructing Bangladesh (illustrated ed.). UNC Press. p.\xa0224. ISBN\xa00-8078-3021-6.\xa0 ↑ "Millions of Muslims gather in Bangladesh". Reuters, UK. 2 February 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2009.\xa0 ↑ "600 couples wedded at Ijtema". Daily Times. 21 November 2004. Retrieved 19 March 2010.\xa0 ↑ "Raiwind Ijtema: Thousands head home as first session ends". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 2014-07-31.\xa0 ↑ "Religious conference: Second Raiwind Ijtema session ends". The Express Tribune. 2011-11-28. Retrieved 2014-07-31.\xa0 1 2 De Féo, Agnès (12 October 2009). "Behind the Veil, In the Ranks of the Tablighi Jamaat". World Religion Watch. Retrieved 23 January 2016.\xa0 ↑ "The Future of Political Islam". Foreign Affairs. 2002-03-01. Retrieved 2008-03-28. ↑ "Search for a perfect world of Islam". Le Monde diplomatique. 2002-05. Retrieved 2008-03-28. ↑ B. Raman, "Nawaz in a Whirlpool," South Asia Analysis Group, Oct. 10, 1999. ↑ The News (Lahore), Feb. 13, 1995. ↑ Le Monde (Paris), Jan. 25, 2002. ↑ Lewis, Paul. "Inside the Islamic group accused by MI5 and FBI | UK news". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-07-31.\xa0 ↑ "Qaeda used Tablighi Jamaat as cover: WikiLeaks". Zeenews.india.com. Retrieved 2014-07-31.\xa0 ↑ Haahr, Kathryn (February 13, 2008). "Spanish Police Arrest Jamaat al-Tabligh Members in Bomb Threat". Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 24 January 2016.\xa0 ↑ Picard, Joe. "Administration nixed probe into Southern California jihadists". TheHill. Retrieved 2015-12-28.\xa0 ↑ Sperry, Paul (2015-12-27). "Cleric denies ties to San Bernardino killers as phone records surface". New York Post. Retrieved 2015-12-28.\xa0 ↑ "Tablighi Jama\'at | The World Almanac of Islamism". almanac.afpc.org. Retrieved 2015-12-28.\xa0 ↑ Marc Gaborieau, "Transnational Islamic Movements: Tablighi Jamaat in Politics," ISIM Newsletter (International Institute for the Study of Islam in the Modern World), July 1999, p. 21. ↑ "Fadhaa\'il A\'maal & the truth about Tableegh Jaam\'aat. What is Fazaail-e-Aa’maal?". ummah.com. December 2004. Retrieved 24 January 2016.\xa0 ↑ The Jamaat Tableegh and the Deobandis: A Critical Analysis of their Beliefs, Books and Dawah by Sajid Abdul-Kayum 1 2 Marty 1994, p.\xa0518 ↑ "Jama\'atul Tableegh & the Prayer Within Mosques That Contain Graves". FatwaIslam.Com. Retrieved 2014-07-31.\xa0 ↑ Marty 1994, p.\xa0519 ↑ Marty 1994, p.\xa0517 ↑ "Investigative Reports & findings of Saudi Scholars on Tableeghi Jamaat | Civil". Central-mosque.com. Retrieved 2014-07-31.\xa0 1 2 "Pervaiz invited to attend BD congregation". The Nation. 28 November 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Religious harmony: Dousing the flames of sectarianism". The Express Tribune. June 11, 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Top Stories". The News. 18 December 2006. Retrieved 9 January 2010.\xa0 ↑ "Entertainment industry of Frontier hangs in the balance". The News. 20 January 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2009.\xa0[dead link] ↑ "Popular comedian quits showbiz". The News. 17 January 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2009.\xa0[dead link] ↑ Raman, B (3 June 2003). "Cambodia meets Islam head on". Asia Times. Retrieved 15 April 2010.\xa0 ↑ "Annual Karachi Tablighi Ijtima". Daily Times. 28 July 2007. Retrieved 15 April 2010.\xa0 ↑ "Pakistan\'s Youhana embraces Islam". BBC News. 19 September 2005. Retrieved 22 February 2010.\xa0'}},
 {'id': '112781/mwBA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Tablighi Jamaat (Urdu: تبلیغی جماعت\u200e, Tablīghī Jamā‘at; Arabic: جماعة التبليغ\u200e, Jamā‘at at-Tablīgh; Bengali: তাবলীগ জামাত; Hindi: तबलीग़ी जमात; English: Society for spreading faith) is a global Sunni Islamic proselytizing and revivalist movement that focuses on urging Muslims return to orthodox Sunni Islam,[5][6] and particularly in matters of ritual, dress, and personal behavior.[7] The organisation is estimated to have between twelve[8] and 150 million adherents[3] (the majority living in South Asia[9]), and a presence in somewhere between 150[8] and 213 countries.[3]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'तबलीगी जमाअत (Urdu: تبلیغی جماعت\u200e, Tablīghī Jamā‘at; Arabic: جماعة التبليغ\u200e, Jamā‘at at-Tablīgh; Bengali: তাবলীগ জামাত; Hindi: तबलीग़ी जमात; English: Society for spreading faith) विश्व की सतह पर सुन्नी इस्लामी धर्म प्रचार आंदोलन है, जो मुसलमानों को मूल इस्लामी पद्दतियों की तरफ़ बुलाता है।\xa0[5][6]\xa0खास तौर पर धार्मिक तरीके, वेशाभूश, वैयक्तिक गति विधियां।\xa0[7] माना\xa0जाता\xa0है\xa0कि\xa0इस\xa0चिन्तन\xa0वाले\xa0लोगों\xa0की\xa0संख्या\xa0बारह\xa0[8]\xa0और 150 मिलियन है।[3] (दक्षिण एशिया में इनकी संख्या अधिक है[9]), और 150[8]\xa0से 213 देशों में हैं।[3]'}},
 {'id': '112781/mwEg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The movement was started in 1927 by Muhammad Ilyas al-Kandhlawi in India.[10] Its stated primary aim is spiritual reformation of Islam by reaching out to Muslims across social and economic spectra and working at the grass roots level, to bring them in line with the group\'s understanding of Islam.[3][11] The teachings of Tabligh Jamaat are expressed in "Six Principles" (Kalimah, Salat, Ilm, Ikraam-e-Muslim, Ikhlas-e-Niyyat, Dawat-o-Tableegh). Tablighi Jamaat believes that Muslims are in a constant state of spiritual Jihad in the sense of fight against evil, the weapon of choice is Dawah (proselytization) and that battles are won or lost in the "hearts of men."'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'इस आंदोलन 1927 को मुहम्मद इलियास अल-कांधलवी ने भारत में\xa0शुरू किया था। [10]\xa0इस का मूल उद्देश्य आध्यात्मिक इसलाम को मुसलमानों तक पहुंचाना और फैलाना।\xa0[3][11]\xa0इस जमाअत के मुख्य उद्देश्य "छ: उसूल" \xa0(कलिमा,\xa0सलात,\xa0इल्म,\xa0इक्राम-ए-मुस्लिम,\xa0इख्लास-ए-निय्यत,\xa0दावत-ओ-तबलीग)\xa0हैं।\xa0यह\xa0एक धर्म\xa0प्रचार\xa0आंदोलन\xa0माना\xa0गया।'}},
 {'id': '112781/mwpw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Organization'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'संस्था'}},
 {'id': '112781/mwqA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Kakrail Mosque, Dhaka. The Tablighi Jamaat movement in Bangladesh is mostly based here.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'Kakrail Mosque, Dhaka. The Tablighi Jamaat movement in Bangladesh is mostly based here.'}},
 {'id': '113629/mw9Q',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'References'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'References'}},
 {'id': '113629/mw9w',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "al-Quduri, Ahmad ibn Muhammad (2010). Mukhtasar al-Quduri. Translated by Tahir Mahmood al-Kiani (First ed.). Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd. ISBN\xa01842001183.\xa0 Nu'mani, Shibli (1998). Imām Abū Ḥanīfah\xa0— Life and Works. Translated by M. Hadi Hussain. Islamic Book Service, New Delhi. ISBN\xa081-85738-59-9.\xa0"},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': "al-Quduri, Ahmad ibn Muhammad (2010). Mukhtasar al-Quduri. Translated by Tahir Mahmood al-Kiani (First ed.). Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd. ISBN\xa01842001183.\xa0 Nu'mani, Shibli (1998). Imām Abū Ḥanīfah\xa0— Life and Works. Translated by M. Hadi Hussain. Islamic Book Service, New Delhi. ISBN\xa081-85738-59-9.\xa0"}},
 {'id': '113629/mwAw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Nuʿmān ibn Thābit ibn Zūṭā ibn Marzubān (Persian: ابوحنیفه\u200e\u200e,Arabic: نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان\u200e), also known as Imam Abū Ḥanīfah (Arabic: أبو حنيفة\u200e dated 699 – 767 AD / 80 – 150 AH),[4] was the founder of the Sunni Hanafi school of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). He is also considered a renowned Islamic scholar and personality by Zaydi Shia Muslims.[5] He was often called "the Great Imam" (ألإمام الأعظم, al-imām al-aʿẓam).[2]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '\'\'\'नोमान इब्न साइत इब्न ज़ौता इब्न मरज़ुबान\'\'\' ( फारसी : ابوحنیفه, अरबी : نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان), भी इमाम अबू हनीफा के रूप में जाना जाता है ( अरबी : أبو حنيفة 699 दिनांकित - 767 ई / 80-150 एएच ),\xa0[4]\xa0के संस्थापक थे सुन्नी हनाफी स्कूल की फिक (इस्लामी न्यायशास्त्र)। उन्होंने यह भी द्वारा एक प्रसिद्ध इस्लामी विद्वान और व्यक्तित्व माना जाता है Zaydi शिया मुसलमानों.[5] \'\'\'नोमान इब्न साइत इब्न ज़ौता इब्न मरज़ुबान\'\'\' ( फारसी : ابوحنیفه, अरबी : نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان), भी इमाम अबू हनीफा के रूप में जाना जाता है ( अरबी : أبو حنيفة 699 दिनांकित - 767 ई / 80-150 एएच ), \xa0वह अक्सर "महान इमाम" कहा जाता था (ألإمام الأعظم, अल इमाम अल आज़म)[2]'}},
 {'id': '113629/mwEw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Life'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'जीवनी'}},
 {'id': '113629/mwFA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Childhood'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': ''}},
 {'id': '113629/mwFQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "Abū Ḥanīfah was born in the city of Kufa in Iraq,[6][7] during the reign of the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan. His father, Thabit bin Zuta, a trader from Kabul, Afghanistan, was 40 years old at the time of Abū Ḥanīfah's birth."},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'अबू हनीफा इराक के शहर कूफ़ा में पैदा हुए थे। उनका काल में उमय्यद खलीफा अब्द अल मलिक इब्न मरवान थे।\xa0[6][7]\xa0उनके पिता, थबित बिन Zuta से एक व्यापारी काबुल, अफगानिस्तान , अबू हनीफा के जन्म के समय 40 साल का था।'}},
 {'id': '113629/mwHA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "His ancestry is generally accepted as being of Persian origin as suggested by the etymology of the names of his grandfather (Zuta) and great-grandfather (Mah). The historian Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi records a statement from Imām Abū Ḥanīfah's grandson, Ismail bin Hammad, who gave Abū Ḥanīfah's lineage as Thabit bin Numan bin Marzban and claiming to be of Persian origin.[2][3] The discrepancy in the names, as given by Ismail of Abū Ḥanīfah's grandfather and great-grandfather, are thought to be due to Zuta's adoption of the Arabic name (Numan) upon his acceptance of Islam and that Mah and Marzban were titles or official designations in Persia, with the latter, meaning a margrave, referring to the noble ancestry of Abū Ḥanīfah's family as the Sasanian Marzbans (equivalent of margraves) of Kabul (Modern day Afghanistan). Those stories maintain for his ancestors having been slaves purchased by some Arab benefactor are, therefore, untenable and seemingly fabricated. There is a discussion[by whom?] on being of Turkic or Persian origin.[citation needed] But the widely accepted opinion, however, is that most probably he was of Persian ancestry from Kabul.[2][3]"},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': ''}},
 {'id': '113629/mwLA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Adulthood and death'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'यौवन\xa0और\xa0'}},
 {'id': '113629/mwLQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Abu Hanifa Mosque in Baghdad, Iraq'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'Abu Hanifa Mosque in Baghdad, Iraq'}},
 {'id': '113629/mwNA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'In 763, al-Mansur, the Abbasid monarch offered Abu Hanifa the post of Chief Judge of the State, but he declined the offer, choosing to remain independent. His student Abu Yusuf was appointed Qadi Al-Qudat (Chief Judge of the State) instead.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '\xa0अबू हनीफा मस्जिद में बगदाद , इराक 763 में, अल-मंसूर , अबु सम्राट अबू हनीफा राज्य के मुख्य न्यायाधीश के पद की पेशकश की है, लेकिन वह स्वतंत्र रहने के लिए चुनने, पेशकश को ठुकरा दिया। अपने छात्र अबू यूसुफ नियुक्त किया गया Qadi अल-Qudat (राज्य के मुख्य न्यायाधीश) के बजाय। अल-मंसूर के लिए अपने जवाब में अबू हनीफा वह इस पद के लिए फिट नहीं कर रही है। अल-मंसूर, जो पद की पेशकश के लिए अपने विचारों और कारण था, अपना आपा खो दिया और झूठ बोलने का अबू हनीफा का आरोप लगाया। "मैं झूठ बोल रहा हूँ," अबू हनीफा "तो फिर मेरे बयान आप एक मुख्य Qadi (न्यायाधीश) का ऊंचा पद के लिए एक झूठा नियुक्त कर सकते हैं कैसे। दोगुना सही है?" ने कहा, इस जवाब से नाराज, शासक अबू हनीफा जेल में बंद कर दिया और अत्याचार को गिरफ्तार किया था। वह तंग आ गया था और न ही कभी नहीं के लिए परवाह है। [8] वहाँ भी, विधिवेत्ता जो उसे करने के लिए आने के लिए अनुमति दी गई पढ़ाना जारी रखा। 767 में, अबू हनीफा जेल में मृत्यु हो गई। उसकी मौत का कारण कुछ अबू हनीफा अल-मंसूर के खिलाफ हथियार असर के लिए एक कानूनी राय जारी है, और बाद में उसे जहर था कि कहते हैं, स्पष्ट नहीं है। [9] यह बहुत सारे लोगों कि अंतिम संस्कार उनके अंतिम संस्कार में भाग लिया है कि कहा गया था सेवा वह वास्तव में दफनाया गया था से पहले जमा कर रखे थे जिन्होंने 50,000 से अधिक लोगों के लिए छह बार दोहराया गया था। इतिहासकार अल Khatib की सत्ता पर है, यह पूर्ण बीस दिनों लोगों के लिए उसके लिए अंतिम संस्कार प्रार्थना प्रदर्शन पर चला गया है कि कहा जा सकता है। बाद में, कई वर्षों के बाद, अबू हनीफा मस्जिद में बनाया गया था Adhamiyah के पड़ोस बगदाद ।\xa0'}},
 {'id': '113629/mwQQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The tomb of Abū Ḥanīfah and the tomb of Abdul Qadir Gilani were destroyed by Shah Ismail of Safavi empire in 1508.[10] In 1533, Ottomans reconquered Iraq and rebuilt the tomb of Abū Ḥanīfah and other Sunni sites.[11]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'अबू हनीफा और की कब्र की कब्र अब्दुल कादिर गिलानी द्वारा नष्ट कर दिया गया शाह इस्माइल की Safavi साम्राज्य 1508. में .[10]\xa01533 में, तुर्क reconquered इराक और अबू हनीफा और अन्य सुन्नी साइटों के मकबरे का पुनर्निर्माण किया।[11]'}},
 {'id': '113629/mwUA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "As the fourth Caliph, Ali had transferred the Islamic capital to Kufa, and many of the first generation of Muslims had settled there, the Hanafi school of law based many of its rulings on the prophetic tradition as transmitted by those first generation Muslims residing in Iraq. Thus, the Hanafi school came to be known as the Kufan or Iraqi school in earlier times. Ali and Abdullah, son of Masud formed much of the base of the school, as well as other personalities from the direct relatives (or Ahli-ll-Bayṫ) of Moḥammad from whom Abu Hanifa had studied such as Muhammad al-Baqir (thus apparently creating a link between Sunnis and Shias). Many jurists and historians had reportedly lived in Kufa, including one of Abu Hanifa's main teachers, Hammad ibn Sulayman.[citation needed]"},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': ''}},
 {'id': '113629/mwXQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Generational status'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'Generational status'}},
 {'id': '113629/mwXg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Abū Ḥanīfah is regarded by some as one of the Tabi‘un, the generation after the Sahaba, who were the companions of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. This is based on reports that he saw the Sahabi Anas ibn Malik, with some even reporting that he transmitted Hadith from him and other companions of Muhammad.[13][14] Others take the view that Abū Ḥanīfah only saw around half a dozen companions, possibly at a young age, and did not directly narrate hadith from them.[13]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'Abū Ḥanīfah is regarded by some as one of the Tabi‘un, the generation after the Sahaba, who were the companions of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. This is based on reports that he saw the Sahabi Anas ibn Malik, with some even reporting that he transmitted Hadith from him and other companions of Muhammad.[13][14] Others take the view that Abū Ḥanīfah only saw around half a dozen companions, possibly at a young age, and did not directly narrate hadith from them.[13]'}},
 {'id': '113629/mw_g',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'External links'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'बाहरी\xa0कडियां\xa0'}},
 {'id': '113629/mw_w',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The Life of Imam Abu Hanifa Biography at Lost Islamic History Imam Abu Hanifa by Jamil Ahmad Al-Wasiyyah of Imam Abu Hanifah Translated into English by Shaykh Imam Tahir Mahmood al-Kiani Book on Imam e Azam Abu Hanifa Biographical summary of Abu Hanifa Abu Hanifa on Muslim heritage Imām Abū Ḥanīfah By Shiekh G. F. Haddad Tajik president’s articles about Imam Azam attract interest in Muslim countries Some teachers and students of Imam Abu Hanifa'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'The Life of Imam Abu Hanifa Biography at Lost Islamic History Imam Abu Hanifa by Jamil Ahmad Al-Wasiyyah of Imam Abu Hanifah Translated into English by Shaykh Imam Tahir Mahmood al-Kiani Book on Imam e Azam Abu Hanifa Biographical summary of Abu Hanifa Abu Hanifa on Muslim heritage Imām Abū Ḥanīfah By Shiekh G. F. Haddad Tajik president’s articles about Imam Azam attract interest in Muslim countries Some teachers and students of Imam Abu Hanifa'}},
 {'id': '113629/mwag',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Reception'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'Reception'}},
 {'id': '113629/mwaw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Map of the Muslim world. Hanafi (grass green) is the Sunni school predominant in Turkey, the Northern Middle East, many parts of Egypt, Central Asia and most of the Indian subcontinent'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'Map of the Muslim world. Hanafi (grass green) is the Sunni school predominant in Turkey, the Northern Middle East, many parts of Egypt, Central Asia and most of the Indian subcontinent'}},
 {'id': '113629/mwjg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Early Islam scholars'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'प्रारंभ\xa0काल\xa0के\xa0विद्वान\xa0'}},
 {'id': '113629/mwkA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Works'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'काम\xa0'}},
 {'id': '113629/mwkQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "Kitaab-ul-Aathaar narrated by Imaam Muhammad al-Shaybani – compiled from a total of 70,000 hadith Kitabul Aathaar narrated by Imaam Abu Yusuf Aalim wa'l-muta‘allim Musnad Imaam ul A'zam Kitaabul Rad alal Qaadiriyah"},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': "Kitaab-ul-Aathaar narrated by Imaam Muhammad al-Shaybani – compiled from a total of 70,000 hadith Kitabul Aathaar narrated by Imaam Abu Yusuf Aalim wa'l-muta‘allim Musnad Imaam ul A'zam Kitaabul Rad alal Qaadiriyah"}},
 {'id': '113629/mwog',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Citations'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'Citations'}},
 {'id': '113629/mwow',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '↑ Mohsen Zakeri (1995), Sasanid soldiers in early Muslim society: the origins of \'Ayyārān and Futuwwa, p.293 1 2 3 4 S. H. Nasr (1975), "The religious sciences", in R.N. Frye, The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4, Cambridge University Press. pg 474: "Abū Ḥanīfah, who is often called the "grand imam"(al-Imam al-\'Azam) was Persian 1 2 3 Cyril Glasse, "The New Encyclopedia of Islam", Published by Rowman & Littlefield, 2008. pg 23: "Abu Hanifah, a Persian, was one of the great jurists of Islam and one of the historic Sunni Mujtahids" ↑ ABŪ ḤANĪFA, Encyclopædia Iranica ↑ Abu Bakr al-Jassas al-Razi. Ahkam al-Quran. Dar Al-Fikr Al-Beirutiyya. pp.\xa0volume 1 page 100.\xa0 ↑ Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, 1 edition, (Routledge: 2005), p.5 ↑ Hisham M. Ramadan, Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, (AltaMira Press: 2006), p.26 ↑ Ya\'qubi, vol. III, p.86; Muruj al-dhahab, vol. III, pp. 268–270. ↑ Najeebabadi, Akbar S. (2001). The History of Islam. vol, 2. Darussalam Press. pp. 287. ISBN 9960-892-88-3. ↑ Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire ↑ History of the Ottoman Empire and modern Turkey ↑ See: *Reuben Levy, Introduction to the Sociology of Islam, pg. 236–237. London: Williams and Norgate, 1931–1933. *Chiragh Ali, The Proposed Political, Legal and Social Reforms. Taken from Modernist Islam 1840–1940: A Sourcebook, pg. 280. Edited by Charles Kurzman. New York City: Oxford University Press, 2002. *Mansoor Moaddel, Islamic Modernism, Nationalism, and Fundamentalism: Episode and Discourse, pg. 32. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005. *Keith Hodkinson, Muslim Family Law: A Sourcebook, pg. 39. Beckenham: Croom Helm Ltd., Provident House, 1984. *Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, edited by Hisham Ramadan, pg. 18. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006. *Christopher Roederrer and Darrel Moellendorf, Jurisprudence, pg. 471. Lansdowne: Juta and Company Ltd., 2007. *Nicolas Aghnides, Islamic Theories of Finance, pg. 69. New Jersey: Gorgias Press LLC, 2005. *Kojiro Nakamura, "Ibn Mada\'s Criticism of Arab Grammarians." Orient, v. 10, pgs. 89–113. 1974 1 2 Imām-ul-A’zam Abū Ḥanīfah, The Theologian ↑ http://www.islamicinformationcentre.co.uk/alsunna7.htm last accessed 8 June 2011 ↑ "Imam-ul-A’zam Abū Ḥanīfah, The Theologian". Masud.co.uk. Archived from the original on 12 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-07.\xa0 ↑ Frank N. Magill and Alison Ayes, Dictionary of World Biography (Routledge, 1 Nov 1998), The Middle Ages, p. 18 ↑ Frank N. Magill and Alison Ayes, Dictionary of World Biography (Routledge, 1 Nov 1998), The Middle Ages, p. 17 ↑ The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law, Wael B. Hallaq, Cambridge University Press 2005, p. 159 ↑ E. J. Brill\'s First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936, Volume 4, p840 ↑ Eirini Kakoulido, The background and formation of the Four Schools of Islamic Law, p. 6. The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Modern Islamic World p. 450 Law: Legal Thought and Jurisprudence / Juristic Schools and Hermeneutical Traditions, p. 456: Sunni Schools of Law. ↑ Abū Ḥanīfah: The Quintessence of Islamic Law, p15 ↑ Camilla Adang, "This Day I have Perfected Your Religion For You: A Zahiri Conception of Religious Authority," p.33. Taken from Speaking for Islam: Religious Authorities in Muslim Societies. Ed. Gudrun Krämer and Sabine Schmidtke. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2006 ↑ Ignác Goldziher, The Zahiris, pg. 15. Volume 3 of Brill Classics in Islam. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2008. ISBN 9789004162419 ↑ David Waines, An introduction to Islam, p. 66 ↑ Frank N. Magill and Alison Ayes, Dictionary of World Biography, p18 ↑ The Quran ↑ The Great Fiqh ↑ Al-Muwatta\' ↑ Sahih al-Bukhari ↑ Sahih Muslim ↑ Jami` at-Tirmidhi ↑ Mishkât Al-Anwar ↑ The Niche for Lights ↑ Women in Islam: An Indonesian Perspective by Syafiq Hasyim. Page 67 ↑ ulama, bewley.virtualave.net ↑ 1.Proof & Historiography - The Islamic Evidence. theislamicevidence.webs.com ↑ Atlas Al-sīrah Al-Nabawīyah. Darussalam, 2004. Pg 270 ↑ Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz by Imam Abu Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Hakam died 829 ↑ Zubair Ali ZaiIs Fiqh ul-Akbar Imaam Abu Haneefah\'s book. Taken from The Story of the Fabricated book and the Rabbaanee Scholars, pg. 19–20. Trns. Abu Hibbaan and Abu Khuzaimah Ansaari.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '↑ Mohsen Zakeri (1995), Sasanid soldiers in early Muslim society: the origins of \'Ayyārān and Futuwwa, p.293 1 2 3 4 S. H. Nasr (1975), "The religious sciences", in R.N. Frye, The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4, Cambridge University Press. pg 474: "Abū Ḥanīfah, who is often called the "grand imam"(al-Imam al-\'Azam) was Persian 1 2 3 Cyril Glasse, "The New Encyclopedia of Islam", Published by Rowman & Littlefield, 2008. pg 23: "Abu Hanifah, a Persian, was one of the great jurists of Islam and one of the historic Sunni Mujtahids" ↑ ABŪ ḤANĪFA, Encyclopædia Iranica ↑ Abu Bakr al-Jassas al-Razi. Ahkam al-Quran. Dar Al-Fikr Al-Beirutiyya. pp.\xa0volume 1 page 100.\xa0 ↑ Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, 1 edition, (Routledge: 2005), p.5 ↑ Hisham M. Ramadan, Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, (AltaMira Press: 2006), p.26 ↑ Ya\'qubi, vol. III, p.86; Muruj al-dhahab, vol. III, pp. 268–270. ↑ Najeebabadi, Akbar S. (2001). The History of Islam. vol, 2. Darussalam Press. pp. 287. ISBN 9960-892-88-3. ↑ Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire ↑ History of the Ottoman Empire and modern Turkey ↑ See: *Reuben Levy, Introduction to the Sociology of Islam, pg. 236–237. London: Williams and Norgate, 1931–1933. *Chiragh Ali, The Proposed Political, Legal and Social Reforms. Taken from Modernist Islam 1840–1940: A Sourcebook, pg. 280. Edited by Charles Kurzman. New York City: Oxford University Press, 2002. *Mansoor Moaddel, Islamic Modernism, Nationalism, and Fundamentalism: Episode and Discourse, pg. 32. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005. *Keith Hodkinson, Muslim Family Law: A Sourcebook, pg. 39. Beckenham: Croom Helm Ltd., Provident House, 1984. *Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, edited by Hisham Ramadan, pg. 18. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006. *Christopher Roederrer and Darrel Moellendorf, Jurisprudence, pg. 471. Lansdowne: Juta and Company Ltd., 2007. *Nicolas Aghnides, Islamic Theories of Finance, pg. 69. New Jersey: Gorgias Press LLC, 2005. *Kojiro Nakamura, "Ibn Mada\'s Criticism of Arab Grammarians." Orient, v. 10, pgs. 89–113. 1974 1 2 Imām-ul-A’zam Abū Ḥanīfah, The Theologian ↑ http://www.islamicinformationcentre.co.uk/alsunna7.htm last accessed 8 June 2011 ↑ "Imam-ul-A’zam Abū Ḥanīfah, The Theologian". Masud.co.uk. Archived from the original on 12 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-07.\xa0 ↑ Frank N. Magill and Alison Ayes, Dictionary of World Biography (Routledge, 1 Nov 1998), The Middle Ages, p. 18 ↑ Frank N. Magill and Alison Ayes, Dictionary of World Biography (Routledge, 1 Nov 1998), The Middle Ages, p. 17 ↑ The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law, Wael B. Hallaq, Cambridge University Press 2005, p. 159 ↑ E. J. Brill\'s First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936, Volume 4, p840 ↑ Eirini Kakoulido, The background and formation of the Four Schools of Islamic Law, p. 6. The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Modern Islamic World p. 450 Law: Legal Thought and Jurisprudence / Juristic Schools and Hermeneutical Traditions, p. 456: Sunni Schools of Law. ↑ Abū Ḥanīfah: The Quintessence of Islamic Law, p15 ↑ Camilla Adang, "This Day I have Perfected Your Religion For You: A Zahiri Conception of Religious Authority," p.33. Taken from Speaking for Islam: Religious Authorities in Muslim Societies. Ed. Gudrun Krämer and Sabine Schmidtke. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2006 ↑ Ignác Goldziher, The Zahiris, pg. 15. Volume 3 of Brill Classics in Islam. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2008. ISBN 9789004162419 ↑ David Waines, An introduction to Islam, p. 66 ↑ Frank N. Magill and Alison Ayes, Dictionary of World Biography, p18 ↑ The Quran ↑ The Great Fiqh ↑ Al-Muwatta\' ↑ Sahih al-Bukhari ↑ Sahih Muslim ↑ Jami` at-Tirmidhi ↑ Mishkât Al-Anwar ↑ The Niche for Lights ↑ Women in Islam: An Indonesian Perspective by Syafiq Hasyim. Page 67 ↑ ulama, bewley.virtualave.net ↑ 1.Proof & Historiography - The Islamic Evidence. theislamicevidence.webs.com ↑ Atlas Al-sīrah Al-Nabawīyah. Darussalam, 2004. Pg 270 ↑ Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz by Imam Abu Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Hakam died 829 ↑ Zubair Ali ZaiIs Fiqh ul-Akbar Imaam Abu Haneefah\'s book. Taken from The Story of the Fabricated book and the Rabbaanee Scholars, pg. 19–20. Trns. Abu Hibbaan and Abu Khuzaimah Ansaari.'}},
 {'id': '114651/mwBA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
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  'source': {'content': 'Tirumala is a census town in Chittoor district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The town is a part of Tirupati Urban Development Authority and located in Tirupati (rural) mandal of Tirupati revenue division.[1] It is a hill town where Tirumala Venkateswara Temple is located, which is the abode of Lord Venkateswara.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'तिरुमला\xa0भारत के राज्य आंध्रप्रदेश के जिला चितूर का एक पहाडी टौन है, जो तिरूपती रूरल मंडल और तिरुपती रेवेन्यू क्षेत्र में आता है।[1] इस\xa0पहाडी\xa0गांव\xa0में\xa0तिरुमला\xa0वेंकटेश्वर\xa0मन्दिर\xa0है,\xa0जो\xa0श्री\xa0वेंकटेश्वरा\xa0का\xa0मन्दिर\xa0है।'}},
 {'id': '114651/mwFw',
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  'source': {'content': 'At 21nbsp;km point on the Tirupati - Tirumala Ghat road, there is a major discontinuity of stratigraphic significance that represents a period of remarkable serenity in the geological history of the Earth. This is referred to as Eparchaean Unconformity. This Unconformity separates the Proterozoic Nagari Quartazite and Archean granite representing a time gap of 800 Ma.[3] In 2001, the Geological Survey of India(GSI) declared the Eparchaean Unconfirmity to be one of the 26 "Geological Monuments of India".'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': ''}},
 {'id': '114651/mwJQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Silathoranam(Natural arch) at Tirumala Hills, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'तिरूमला\xa0पहाडियों\xa0पर\xa0प्रकृतिसिद्ध\xa0शिला\xa0तोरण।'}},
 {'id': '114651/mwNA',
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  'source': {'content': 'Etymology'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'पद\xa0व्युत्पत्ती'}},
 {'id': '114651/mwNQ',
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  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "Tirumala is the combination of two words: Tiru meaning 'holy' or 'sacred' and mala meaning 'hill' in Tamil, translating to holy mountain.[5][verification needed]"},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'तिरुमला दो शब्दें से बना है। तिरु और मला। तिरु का अर्थ श्रे, पवित्र और लक्ष्मी के हैं, और मला का अर्थ मलय, पहाड या पर्वत के हैं। अर्थात तिरुमला का अर्थ, श्री पर्वत, पवित्र पर्वत या लक्ष्मी पर्वत के हैं।[5][verification needed]'}},
 {'id': '114651/mwUw',
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  'source': {'content': 'Lord Venkateswara on Gaja Vahanam'},
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  'source': {'content': 'See Also'},
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  'target': {'content': 'यह\xa0भी\xa0देखें'}},
 {'id': '114651/mwxQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams Hindu Temples in Tirupati'},
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  'source': {'content': 'References'},
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 {'id': '114651/mwzQ',
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  'source': {'content': '1 2 "District Census Handbook - Chittoor" (PDF). Census of India. p.\xa014,226. Retrieved 20 November 2015.\xa0 ↑ http://www.rediff.com/news/2007/jun/08ap.htm ↑ "Geological Survey of India - Monuments of Stratigraphic Significance". Retrieved 2015-07-22.\xa0 ↑ "Geological Survey of India - Monuments of Stratigraphic Significance". Retrieved 2015-07-22.\xa0 ↑ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=_fi1AAAAIAAJ&q=tirupathi+tamil+name&dq=tirupathi+tamil+name&hl=en&sa=X&ei=BFUFT_n6N4G0rAe3nv3YDw&ved=0CFwQ6AEwBA ↑ http://www.srivaishnava.org/ddesam/ddesam.htm ↑ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.\xa0 ↑ "Pilgrims throng Tirumala". Deccan Herrald. Retrieved 21 June 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Rathasapthami photos". Archived from the original on 2009-10-27.\xa0 ↑ "Only TTD entitled to make or sell ‘Tirupati laddu’: High Court". The Hindu. Retrieved 23 June 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Now, Geographical Indication rights for \'Tirupati laddu\'". Business Standard. Retrieved 23 June 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Heritage in Tirupati-SV Musueum". Andhra Pradesh Tourism board. Retrieved 23 June 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Tirumala Temple". Retrieved 13 September 2007.\xa0 ↑ "Tirupati to Tirumala on Foot". Tirumala Tirupati Devastanams. Retrieved 2015-06-06.\xa0 ↑ "By Walk to Tirumala Hills". Go Tirupati. Retrieved 2015-06-06.\xa0 1 2 "Tirupati to Tirumala on Foot". Pedestrian path (foot way) to Tirumala. Retrieved 19 December 2012.\xa0 line feed character in |work= at position 31 (help) ↑ "Tirupati Main". Indiarailinfo. Retrieved 1 June 2015.\xa0'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '1 2 "District Census Handbook - Chittoor" (PDF). Census of India. p.\xa014,226. Retrieved 20 November 2015.\xa0 ↑ http://www.rediff.com/news/2007/jun/08ap.htm ↑ "Geological Survey of India - Monuments of Stratigraphic Significance". Retrieved 2015-07-22.\xa0 ↑ "Geological Survey of India - Monuments of Stratigraphic Significance". Retrieved 2015-07-22.\xa0 ↑ http://books.google.co.in/books?id=_fi1AAAAIAAJ&q=tirupathi+tamil+name&dq=tirupathi+tamil+name&hl=en&sa=X&ei=BFUFT_n6N4G0rAe3nv3YDw&ved=0CFwQ6AEwBA ↑ http://www.srivaishnava.org/ddesam/ddesam.htm ↑ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.\xa0 ↑ "Pilgrims throng Tirumala". Deccan Herrald. Retrieved 21 June 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Rathasapthami photos". Archived from the original on 2009-10-27.\xa0 ↑ "Only TTD entitled to make or sell ‘Tirupati laddu’: High Court". The Hindu. Retrieved 23 June 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Now, Geographical Indication rights for \'Tirupati laddu\'". Business Standard. Retrieved 23 June 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Heritage in Tirupati-SV Musueum". Andhra Pradesh Tourism board. Retrieved 23 June 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Tirumala Temple". Retrieved 13 September 2007.\xa0 ↑ "Tirupati to Tirumala on Foot". Tirumala Tirupati Devastanams. Retrieved 2015-06-06.\xa0 ↑ "By Walk to Tirumala Hills". Go Tirupati. Retrieved 2015-06-06.\xa0 1 2 "Tirupati to Tirumala on Foot". Pedestrian path (foot way) to Tirumala. Retrieved 19 December 2012.\xa0 line feed character in |work= at position 31 (help) ↑ "Tirupati Main". Indiarailinfo. Retrieved 1 June 2015.\xa0'}},
 {'id': '114917/mwBw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The Asian Age is an English-language Indian daily newspaper with editions published in Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. It also prints an "international edition" in London. It was launched in February 1994.[1]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'द एशियन एज (The Asian Age) अंग्रेज़ी भाषा में प्रकाशित होने वाला भारत का दैनिक समाचार पत्र है। यह दिल्ली, मुम्बई और कोलकाता में प्रकाशित होता है। लंदन में इसका "अंतर्राष्ट्रीय संस्करण" भी प्रकाशित होता है। यह 1994 में प्रकाशित होना आरम्भ हुआ।[1]'}},
 {'id': '114917/mwDQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The same publishing company also produces the Deccan Chronicle.[1]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'यह प्रकाशन कंपनी डेक्कन क्रॉनिकल को भी प्रकाशित करती है।[1]'}},
 {'id': '114917/mwEA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'See also'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'इन्हें भी देखें'}},
 {'id': '114917/mwEQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'M. J. Akbar, founder and erstwhile editor-in-chief of The Asian Age. Seema Mustafa, erstwhile resident editor and bureau chief of The Asian Age.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'एम॰जे॰ अकबर, द एशियन एज के संस्थापक तथा तत्कालीन प्रमुख सम्पादक भी हैं।'}},
 {'id': '114917/mwGA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
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  'source': {'content': 'References'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'सन्दर्भ'}},
 {'id': '114917/mwGQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '1 2 "About Us". The Asian Age. 2011.\xa0'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '1 2 "About Us". The Asian Age. 2011.\xa0'}},
 {'id': '114917/mwIA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'External links'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'बाहरी\xa0कड़ियाँ'}},
 {'id': '114917/mwIQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Link to Asian Age web site Asian Age ePaper The Asian Age - Daily Newspaper Cover'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'द एशियन एज का जालस्थल एशियन एज ई-पेपर द\xa0एशियन\xa0एज - दैनिक समाचार पत्र का आवरण'}},
 {'id': '118018/mwAV8',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
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  'source': {'content': 'References'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'References'}},
 {'id': '118018/mwAWA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '1 2 3 Majumder, Sanjoy. "India and the death penalty." BBC News 4 August 2005. ↑ "Yakub Memon, third terror convict executed in 4 years".\xa0 1 2 "Explained: In the Supreme Court, some questions of Life and Death".\xa0 ↑ "Yakub Memon case: Death penalty in India, by the numbers".\xa0 ↑ "भारत में फाँसी की सज़ा पर एक नज़र".\xa0 ↑ "\'Just 4 of 26 hanged since \'91 Muslims\'".\xa0 1 2 VENKATESAN, V. (7 September 2012). "A case against the death penalty". Frontline. Retrieved 30 July 2013.\xa0 ↑ "\'Number of executions much higher than 52.\'" Times of India. 10 March 2005. ↑ "Death penalty cannot be arbitrarily imposed: Expert".\xa0 ↑ "Trial courts give death freely, but just 5% confirmed".\xa0 ↑ "Death penalty files \'lost, eaten by termites\'".\xa0 ↑ "72 Muslims Hanged in India against 1,342 Hindus and Others".\xa0 ↑ "Data on death penalty convicts goes \'missing\'".\xa0 ↑ "General Assembly GA/10678 Sixty-second General Assembly Plenary 76th & 77th Meetings". ANNEX VI. Retrieved 30 July 2013.\xa0 ↑ "General Assembly GA/11331 , Sixty-seventh General Assembly Plenary 60th Meeting". 20 December 2012. ANNEX XIII. Retrieved 30 July 2013.\xa0 ↑ "End death penalty, keep it only for terror: Law panel tells government". 1 September 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Yakub Memon first to be hanged in Maharashtra after Ajmal Kasab". 30 July 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.\xa0 ↑ "A case against the death penalty".\xa0 ↑ "Rajendra Prasad vs. State of Uttar Pradesh on 9 February, 1979". indiankanoon.org.\xa0 ↑ "Jagmohan Singh vs. State of Uttar Pradesh on 3 October, 1972". indiankanoon.org.\xa0 ↑ "Bachan Singh vs. State of Punjab on 9 May, 1980". indiankanoon.org.\xa0 ↑ "Honour killings: India\'s top court calls for death penalty". The Sydney Morning Herald. 10 May 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Hang cops involved in fake encounters: Supreme Court". NDTV.com. 8 August 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2013.\xa0 ↑ "Is death for kidnap and ransom fair?". The Hindu. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.\xa0 ↑ "The Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987". PART II , Punishment for offences relating to Sati. Retrieved 30 July 2013.\xa0 ↑ "The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989." (PDF). Chapter II , Section 2 (1). Retrieved 30 July 2013.\xa0 ↑ "BBC News – India president approves tough rape laws". Bbc.co.uk. 4 February 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013.\xa0 ↑ "Notorious Attack Spurs India to Approve New Rape Laws". New York Times. 3 February 2013.\xa0 ↑ "India top court commutes 15 death sentences over \'delay\'".\xa0 ↑ "India top court commutes 15 death sentences due to delays".\xa0 ↑ "The case of the sisters on death row".\xa0 ↑ "Yakub Memon hanging: Top lawyers seek late night meeting with CJI, ask for 14 days stay per SC guidelines".\xa0 ↑ "Mercy and the machinery of death".\xa0 ↑ "Supreme Court\'s judgement on death penalty a humane approach".\xa0 ↑ "Supreme Court commutes death sentence for Rajiv Gandhi\'s killers to life".\xa0 ↑ "Death commuted to life for 3 in Rajiv Gandhi killing".\xa0 ↑ "Rajiv Gandhi assassination case: SC upholds commutation of death to life sentence for killers".\xa0 ↑ "Bhullar\'s death sentence commuted to life term by Supreme Court".\xa0 ↑ "SC commutes Devinder Pal Singh Bhullar\'s death sentence to life imprisonment".\xa0 ↑ "Yakub Memon to be hanged, but what about Bhullar and Rajoana?".\xa0 ↑ "Explained- 1993 Mumbai serial blast: What is curative petition?".\xa0 ↑ "The curious case of a curative petition".\xa0 ↑ http://indiacode.nic.in/acts-in-pdf/132013.pdf ↑ "Gujarat introduces death penalty for toxic alcohol". BBC News.\xa0 ↑ "Bengal hooch tragedy: Alcohol among major global killers". The Times of India.\xa0 ↑ "Supreme Court Judgement, Devinder Pal Singh Bhullar vs. National Capital Territory of Delhi": 43–46.\xa0 ↑ "The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 Act No. 2 of 1974" (PDF). 25 January 1974. Retrieved 22 June 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Consultation paper on mode of execution of death sentence and incidental matters" (PDF). Law commission of India. Retrieved 29 July 2013.\xa0 ↑ "Centre sends final opinion to President on 27 mercy petitions". The Times of India.\xa0 ↑ "Will the Gavit sisters, serial killers of children, be the first women to be hanged?".\xa0 ↑ "Yakub Memon and 23 other mercy pleas rejected by President Pranab Mukherjee".\xa0 ↑ "President Pranab rejects 12 mercy pleas, a first in India".\xa0 ↑ "The last hanging took 14 years after rape and murder".\xa0 ↑ "Book review: KR Meera borrows liberally from the mystique of the Dhananjoy hanging in Hangwoman".\xa0 ↑ "How India hanged a poor watchman whose guilt was far from established".\xa0 ↑ Irani, Delnaaz (3 May 2010). "Surviving Mumbai gunman convicted over attacks". BBC News. Retrieved 3 May 2010.\xa0 ↑ "Bombay HC upholds Kasab\'s death sentence".\xa0 ↑ "Kasab waged war against India: court". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 22 February 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Supreme court confirms death sentence for Kasab". The Hindu (Pune, India). 29 August 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.\xa0 ↑ "After Afzal Guru\'s hanging, curfew, tight security in Kashmir Valley". NDTV.com. 9 February 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013.\xa0 ↑ "Parliament House attack convict Afzal Guru hanged to death at 8\xa0am – Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 23 April 2013.\xa0 ↑ "India executes Mumbai bomb plotter Yakub Memon".\xa0 ↑ "India Executes Yakub Memon, Man Tied to 1993 Mumbai Bombings".\xa0 ↑ "The Memon family".\xa0 ↑ "Punjab govt to challenge order to hang Beant Singh\'s killer". The Times of India. 27 March 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Punjab on high alert as court orders execution of Beant Singh\'s killer". The Times of India. 27 March 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Beant killer won\'t be hanged on March 31, News – Nation". Mumbai Mirror. Retrieved 23 April 2013.\xa0 ↑ "Chandigarh: Youth gets death for rape, murder of 75-year-old woman\xa0: North, News – India Today". Indiatoday.intoday.in. 13 March 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2013.\xa0 ↑ "Youth gets death for rape, murder of 75-year-old". The Times of India. 14 March 2012.\xa0 ↑ http://www.hindustantimes.com/Punjab/Chandigarh/Youth-gets-death-for-rape-murder-of-75-yr-old-in-Sirsa/SP-Article1-824876.aspx ↑ "Death Upheld for 3 Gandhi Assassins\xa0: Judges\' Ruling Comes Day After Violent Sikh-Hindu Fighting". latimes.\xa0 ↑ "President Pratibha Patil goes on mercy overdrive". The Times of India. 22 June 2012.\xa0 ↑ "President Pratibha Patil gives life to dead man". The Times of India. 23 June 2012.\xa0 ↑ http://ncrb.gov.in/PSI-2012/TABLE-7.3.pdf ↑ http://ncrb.gov.in/PSI-2013/TABLE-7.3.pdf ↑ "Yakub Memon hanging: Are we using death penalty far too often?".\xa0 ↑ "India one of top 10 nations where death sentences were handed out last year".\xa0'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '1 2 3 Majumder, Sanjoy. "India and the death penalty." BBC News 4 August 2005. ↑ "Yakub Memon, third terror convict executed in 4 years".\xa0 1 2 "Explained: In the Supreme Court, some questions of Life and Death".\xa0 ↑ "Yakub Memon case: Death penalty in India, by the numbers".\xa0 ↑ "भारत में फाँसी की सज़ा पर एक नज़र".\xa0 ↑ "\'Just 4 of 26 hanged since \'91 Muslims\'".\xa0 1 2 VENKATESAN, V. (7 September 2012). "A case against the death penalty". Frontline. Retrieved 30 July 2013.\xa0 ↑ "\'Number of executions much higher than 52.\'" Times of India. 10 March 2005. ↑ "Death penalty cannot be arbitrarily imposed: Expert".\xa0 ↑ "Trial courts give death freely, but just 5% confirmed".\xa0 ↑ "Death penalty files \'lost, eaten by termites\'".\xa0 ↑ "72 Muslims Hanged in India against 1,342 Hindus and Others".\xa0 ↑ "Data on death penalty convicts goes \'missing\'".\xa0 ↑ "General Assembly GA/10678 Sixty-second General Assembly Plenary 76th & 77th Meetings". ANNEX VI. Retrieved 30 July 2013.\xa0 ↑ "General Assembly GA/11331 , Sixty-seventh General Assembly Plenary 60th Meeting". 20 December 2012. ANNEX XIII. Retrieved 30 July 2013.\xa0 ↑ "End death penalty, keep it only for terror: Law panel tells government". 1 September 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Yakub Memon first to be hanged in Maharashtra after Ajmal Kasab". 30 July 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.\xa0 ↑ "A case against the death penalty".\xa0 ↑ "Rajendra Prasad vs. State of Uttar Pradesh on 9 February, 1979". indiankanoon.org.\xa0 ↑ "Jagmohan Singh vs. State of Uttar Pradesh on 3 October, 1972". indiankanoon.org.\xa0 ↑ "Bachan Singh vs. State of Punjab on 9 May, 1980". indiankanoon.org.\xa0 ↑ "Honour killings: India\'s top court calls for death penalty". The Sydney Morning Herald. 10 May 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Hang cops involved in fake encounters: Supreme Court". NDTV.com. 8 August 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2013.\xa0 ↑ "Is death for kidnap and ransom fair?". The Hindu. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.\xa0 ↑ "The Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987". PART II , Punishment for offences relating to Sati. Retrieved 30 July 2013.\xa0 ↑ "The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989." (PDF). Chapter II , Section 2 (1). Retrieved 30 July 2013.\xa0 ↑ "BBC News – India president approves tough rape laws". Bbc.co.uk. 4 February 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013.\xa0 ↑ "Notorious Attack Spurs India to Approve New Rape Laws". New York Times. 3 February 2013.\xa0 ↑ "India top court commutes 15 death sentences over \'delay\'".\xa0 ↑ "India top court commutes 15 death sentences due to delays".\xa0 ↑ "The case of the sisters on death row".\xa0 ↑ "Yakub Memon hanging: Top lawyers seek late night meeting with CJI, ask for 14 days stay per SC guidelines".\xa0 ↑ "Mercy and the machinery of death".\xa0 ↑ "Supreme Court\'s judgement on death penalty a humane approach".\xa0 ↑ "Supreme Court commutes death sentence for Rajiv Gandhi\'s killers to life".\xa0 ↑ "Death commuted to life for 3 in Rajiv Gandhi killing".\xa0 ↑ "Rajiv Gandhi assassination case: SC upholds commutation of death to life sentence for killers".\xa0 ↑ "Bhullar\'s death sentence commuted to life term by Supreme Court".\xa0 ↑ "SC commutes Devinder Pal Singh Bhullar\'s death sentence to life imprisonment".\xa0 ↑ "Yakub Memon to be hanged, but what about Bhullar and Rajoana?".\xa0 ↑ "Explained- 1993 Mumbai serial blast: What is curative petition?".\xa0 ↑ "The curious case of a curative petition".\xa0 ↑ http://indiacode.nic.in/acts-in-pdf/132013.pdf ↑ "Gujarat introduces death penalty for toxic alcohol". BBC News.\xa0 ↑ "Bengal hooch tragedy: Alcohol among major global killers". The Times of India.\xa0 ↑ "Supreme Court Judgement, Devinder Pal Singh Bhullar vs. National Capital Territory of Delhi": 43–46.\xa0 ↑ "The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 Act No. 2 of 1974" (PDF). 25 January 1974. Retrieved 22 June 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Consultation paper on mode of execution of death sentence and incidental matters" (PDF). Law commission of India. Retrieved 29 July 2013.\xa0 ↑ "Centre sends final opinion to President on 27 mercy petitions". The Times of India.\xa0 ↑ "Will the Gavit sisters, serial killers of children, be the first women to be hanged?".\xa0 ↑ "Yakub Memon and 23 other mercy pleas rejected by President Pranab Mukherjee".\xa0 ↑ "President Pranab rejects 12 mercy pleas, a first in India".\xa0 ↑ "The last hanging took 14 years after rape and murder".\xa0 ↑ "Book review: KR Meera borrows liberally from the mystique of the Dhananjoy hanging in Hangwoman".\xa0 ↑ "How India hanged a poor watchman whose guilt was far from established".\xa0 ↑ Irani, Delnaaz (3 May 2010). "Surviving Mumbai gunman convicted over attacks". BBC News. Retrieved 3 May 2010.\xa0 ↑ "Bombay HC upholds Kasab\'s death sentence".\xa0 ↑ "Kasab waged war against India: court". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 22 February 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Supreme court confirms death sentence for Kasab". The Hindu (Pune, India). 29 August 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.\xa0 ↑ "After Afzal Guru\'s hanging, curfew, tight security in Kashmir Valley". NDTV.com. 9 February 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013.\xa0 ↑ "Parliament House attack convict Afzal Guru hanged to death at 8\xa0am – Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 23 April 2013.\xa0 ↑ "India executes Mumbai bomb plotter Yakub Memon".\xa0 ↑ "India Executes Yakub Memon, Man Tied to 1993 Mumbai Bombings".\xa0 ↑ "The Memon family".\xa0 ↑ "Punjab govt to challenge order to hang Beant Singh\'s killer". The Times of India. 27 March 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Punjab on high alert as court orders execution of Beant Singh\'s killer". The Times of India. 27 March 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Beant killer won\'t be hanged on March 31, News – Nation". Mumbai Mirror. Retrieved 23 April 2013.\xa0 ↑ "Chandigarh: Youth gets death for rape, murder of 75-year-old woman\xa0: North, News – India Today". Indiatoday.intoday.in. 13 March 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2013.\xa0 ↑ "Youth gets death for rape, murder of 75-year-old". The Times of India. 14 March 2012.\xa0 ↑ http://www.hindustantimes.com/Punjab/Chandigarh/Youth-gets-death-for-rape-murder-of-75-yr-old-in-Sirsa/SP-Article1-824876.aspx ↑ "Death Upheld for 3 Gandhi Assassins\xa0: Judges\' Ruling Comes Day After Violent Sikh-Hindu Fighting". latimes.\xa0 ↑ "President Pratibha Patil goes on mercy overdrive". The Times of India. 22 June 2012.\xa0 ↑ "President Pratibha Patil gives life to dead man". The Times of India. 23 June 2012.\xa0 ↑ http://ncrb.gov.in/PSI-2012/TABLE-7.3.pdf ↑ http://ncrb.gov.in/PSI-2013/TABLE-7.3.pdf ↑ "Yakub Memon hanging: Are we using death penalty far too often?".\xa0 ↑ "India one of top 10 nations where death sentences were handed out last year".\xa0'}},
 {'id': '118018/mwAw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'India retains capital punishment for a number of serious offences.[1] The Supreme Court of India has allowed the death penalty to be carried out in 5 instances since 1995,[2][3][4][5] while a total of 26 executions have taken place in India since 1991.[6]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'भारत में मौत की सज़ा कुछ गंभीर अपराधों के लिए दी जाती है।[1] भारत\xa0के उच्चतम न्यायालय ने १९९५ के बाद ५ घटनाओं में मौत की सज़ा दी है[2][3][4][5] जबकि १९९१ से अब तक इसकी कुल संख्या २६ है।[6]'}},
 {'id': '118018/mwBg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "The Supreme Court in Mithu vs. State of Punjab struck down Section 303 of the Indian Penal Code, which provided for a mandatory death sentence for offenders serving a life sentence.[7] The number of people executed in India since independence in 1947 is a matter of dispute; official government statistics claim that only 52 people had been executed since independence. However, research by the People's Union for Civil Liberties indicates that the actual number of executions is in fact much higher, as they located records of 1,422 executions in the decade from 1953 to 1963 alone.[8] A research by National Law University, Delhi on death row convicts since 2000 has found that of the 1,617 prisoners sentenced to death by trial courts in India, the capital punishment was confirmed in only 71 cases.[9][10] NLU Delhi confirmed 755 executions in India since 1947.[11] National Law University, Delhi examined 1,414 prisoners who were executed, in the available list of convicts hanged in post-Independence since 1947.[12] According to a report of the Law Commission of India (1967), the total number of cases in which the sentence of death in India was executed from 1953 to 1963 was 1,410.[13]"},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'मिथु बनाम पंजाब राज्य मामले में उच्चतम न्यायालय ने भारतीय दण्ड संहिता की धारा ३०३ के तहत आजीवन कारावास की सज़ा काट रहे किसी व्यक्ति को आवश्यक रूप से मौत की सज़ा देने को गैरकानूनी माना है।[7] भारत में\xa0१९४७\xa0में स्वतंत्रता के बाद मौत की सजा प्राप्त लोगों की संख्या विवादित है; अधिकारिक सरकारी आँकड़ों के अनुसार\xa0स्वतंत्रता\xa0के\xa0बाद\xa0अब\xa0तक केवल ५२ लोगों को फाँसी की सजा दी गयी है।\xa0यद्यपि पीपुल्स यूनियन फॉर सिविल लिबर्टीज\xa0के\xa0एक शोध के\xa0अनुसार\xa0यह\xa0संख्या\xa0बहुत\xa0अधिक है\xa0और\xa0इसके\xa0अनुसार\xa0केवल १९५३\xa0से\xa0१९६३\xa0के\xa0दशक\xa0में\xa0ही\xa0यह\xa0संख्या\xa0१,४२२\xa0है।[8] नेशनल लॉ यूनिवर्सिटी, दिल्ली के एक शोध के अनुसार भारत में वर्ष २००० से अब तक नीचली अदालतों द्वारा कुल १,६१७\xa0कैदियों\xa0को\xa0मौत\xa0की\xa0सज़ा\xa0सुनाई\xa0जा\xa0चुकी\xa0है,\xa0जिनमें\xa0से\xa0केवल\xa0७१\xa0मामलों\xa0में\xa0मृत्यु\xa0दण्ड\xa0की\xa0पुष्टि\xa0केवल\xa0७१\xa0मामलों\xa0में\xa0हुई।[9][10] नेशनल लॉ यूनिवर्सिटी दिल्ली के अनुसार १९४७ से अब तक भारत में कुल ७५५ लोगों को मृत्यु दण्ड दिया जा चुका है।[11] नेशनल लॉ यूनिवर्सिटी, दिल्ली की जाँच में पाया गया कि १९४७\xa0से\xa0स्वतंत्रता\xa0के\xa0बाद के\xa0बाद\xa0उपलब्ध\xa0अपराधियों\xa0की\xa0सूची\xa0में\xa0१,४१४\xa0कैदियों\xa0को\xa0फाँसी\xa0पर\xa0लटकाना\xa0पाया\xa0गया।[12] भारतीय विधि आयोग (१९६७) की एक रपट के अनुसार\xa0१९५३\xa0से\xa0१९६३\xa0तक\xa0मृत्यु\xa0दण्ड\xa0को\xa0प्राप्त\xa0लोगों\xa0की\xa0संख्या\xa0१,४१० है।[13]'}},
 {'id': '118018/mwDw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'In December 2007, India voted against a United Nations General Assembly resolution calling for a moratorium on the death penalty.[14] In November 2012, India again upheld its stance on capital punishment by voting against the UN General Assembly draft resolution seeking to ban death penalty.[15]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'दिसम्बर २००७ में, भारत ने मौत की सजा पर रोक के संयुक्त राष्ट्र महासभा संकल्प के विरुद्ध मतदान किया था।[14] नवम्बर २०१२ में, मौत की सजा को प्रतिबन्धित करने के लिए रखे गये संयुक्त राष्ट्र महासभा के मसौदे के विरुद्ध मतदान करते हुये अपने फैसले को\xa0बरकरार रखा।[15]'}},
 {'id': '118018/mwEw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'On 31 August 2015, the Law Commission of India submitted a report to the government which recommended the abolition of capital punishment for all crimes in India, excepting the crime of waging war against the nation or for terrorism-related offences. The report cited several factors to justify abolishing the death penalty, including its abolition by 140 other nations, its arbitrary and flawed application and its lack of any proven deterring effect on criminals.[16]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '३१ अगस्त २०१५ को, भारत के विधि आयोग ने सरकार को एक प्रतिवेदन सौंपा जिसमें देश्द्रोह अथवा आतंकी अपराधों के अतिरिक्त अन्य अपराधों के लिए मौत की सजा को समाप्त करने की संस्तुति की।\xa0इस प्रतिवेदन\xa0में\xa0मौत\xa0की\xa0सजा\xa0को\xa0समाप्त\xa0करने\xa0के\xa0लिए\xa0विभिन्न कारकों\xa0को\xa0उद्धृत\xa0किया\xa0गया\xa0है\xa0जिसमें\xa0१४०\xa0अन्य\xa0देशों\xa0में\xa0इसकी\xa0समाप्त\xa0का\xa0भी\xa0उल्लेख\xa0है।\xa0यह\xa0एक त्रुटिपूर्ण तथा\xa0एकपक्षीय सोच\xa0वाला\xa0प्रतिवेदन\xa0था\xa0तथा\xa0इसमें\xa0अपराधियों\xa0में\xa0भय\xa0पैदा\xa0करने\xa0वाले\xa0किसी\xa0भी\xa0प्रभाव\xa0का\xa0उल्लेख\xa0नहीं\xa0था।[16]'}},
 {'id': '118018/mwFA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'History'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'इतिहास'}},
 {'id': '118018/mwFQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'In colonial India, death was prescribed as one of the punishments in the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (IPC),[7] which listed a number of capital crimes. It remained in effect after independence in 1947. The first hanging in Independent India was that of Nathuram Godse and Narayan Apte in the Mahatma Gandhi assassination case on 15 November 1949.[17]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'औपनिवेशिक भारत में, भारतीय दण्ड संहिता, १८६० के अनुसार मौत की सजा को निर्धारित किया गया था,[7] जो विभिन्न संगीन अपराधों के लिए निर्धारित थी। यह १९४७ में देश की स्वतंत्रता के बाद भी जारी रही। स्वतंत्र भारत में पहली मौत की सजा\xa0१५\xa0नवम्बर\xa0१९४९\xa0को महात्मा गांधी की हत्या मामले\xa0में नाथुराम गोडसे और नारायण आप्टे को दी गयी।[17]'}},
 {'id': '118018/mwGg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Under Article 21 of the Constitution of India, no person can be deprived of his life except according to procedure established by law.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'भारतीय संविधान के अनुच्छेद २१ के अनुसार विधि द्वारा निर्धारित प्रक्रिया के अतिरिक्त किसी भी व्यक्ति को उसके जीवन से वंचित नहीं किया जा सकता।'}},
 {'id': '118018/mwHQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Bachan Singh vs. State of Punjab (1980)'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'बचन\xa0सिंह\xa0बनाम\xa0पंजाब\xa0राज्य (१९८०)'}},
 {'id': '118018/mwHg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The Constitution Bench judgment of Supreme Court of India in Bachan Singh vs. State of Punjab (1980) (2 SCC 684) made it very clear that Capital punishment in India can be given only in rarest of rare cases.[3][18] This judgement was in line with the previous verdicts in Jagmohan Singh vs. State of Uttar Pradesh (1973), and then in Rajendra Prasad vs. State of Uttar Pradesh (1979).[19][20][21] The Supreme Court of India ruled that the death penalty should be imposed only in "the rarest of rare cases."[1] While stating that honour killings fall within the "rarest of the rare" category, Court has recommended the death penalty be extended to those found of committing "honour killings", which deserve to be a capital crime.[22] The Supreme Court also recommended death sentences to be imposed on police officials who commit police brutality in the form of encounter killings.[23]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'बचन सिंह बनाम पंजाब राज्य (१९८०) में भारत के उच्चतम न्यायालय की संवैधानिक पीठ के फैसले के अनुसार भारत में विरल से विरले मामलों में ही मौत की सजा दी जा सकती है।[3][18] यह निर्णय\xa0जगमोहन\xa0सिंह\xa0बनाम\xa0उत्तर\xa0प्रदेश\xa0राज्य (१९७३)\xa0और\xa0उसके\xa0बाद\xa0राजेन्द्र\xa0प्रसाद\xa0बनाम\xa0उत्तर\xa0प्रदेश\xa0राज्य (१९७९) पूर्व निर्णयों के उल्लेख के साथ हुआ।[19][20][21] भारत\xa0के उच्चतम न्यायालय ने रेखांकित किया कि मौत की सजा "विरले से विरले मामलों" में ही देनी चाहिए।[1] जबकि इसके साथ यह भी कहा कि सम्मान के लिए हत्या "विरले से विरले" श्रेणी में ही आती है, न्यायालय ने इसकी संस्तुति की कि "सम्मान\xa0के\xa0लिए हत्या" के मामलों में मौत की सजा बढ़ाया जा सकता है।[22] उच्चतम न्यायालय ने उन पुलिस अधिकारियों के लिए भी मौत की सजा सुनाई जो फ़र्जी मुठभेड़ के मामलों में बर्बरता फैलाते हैं।[23]'}},
 {'id': '118018/mwJw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'An appeal filed in 2013 by Vikram Singh and another person facing the death sentence questioned the constitutional validity of Section 364A of the Indian Penal Code.[24]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'विक्रम सिंह और मृत्यु-दण्ड की सजा प्राप्त अन्य व्यक्ति ने २०१३ में भारतीय पैनल संहिता के अनुच्छेद ३६४ए की संवैधानिक वैधता पर सवाल उठाते हुये अपील दायर की।[24]'}},
 {'id': '118018/mwKA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Other legislation'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'अन्य\xa0कानून'}},
 {'id': '118018/mwKQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'In addition to the Indian Penal Code, a series of legislation enacted by the Parliament of India have provisions for the death penalty.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'भारतीय दण्ड संहिता के साथ-साथ भारतीय संसद द्वारा कानूनों की नयी शृंखला अधिनियमित की गयी जिनमें मौत की सजा का प्रावधान है।'}},
 {'id': '118018/mwSQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Capital offences'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'बड़े\xa0अपराध'}},
 {'id': '118018/mwSg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "Section under IPC or other law Nature of crime 120B of IPC Being a party to a criminal conspiracy to commit a capital offence 121 of IPC Waging, or attempting to wage war, or abetting waging of war, against the Government of India 132 of IPC Abetting a mutiny in the armed forces (if a mutiny occurs as a result), engaging in mutiny 194 of IPC Giving or fabricating false evidence with intent to procure a conviction of a capital offence 302, 303 of IPC Murder 305 of IPC Abetting the suicide of a minor, mentally ill person, or intoxicated person Part II Section 4 of Prevention of Sati Act Aiding or abetting an act of Sati 364A of IPC Kidnapping, in the course of which the victim was held for ransom or other coercive purposes. 31A of the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act Drug trafficking in cases of repeat offences 396 of IPC Banditry with murder – in cases where a group of five or more individuals commit banditry and one of them commits murder in the course of that crime, all members of the group are liable for the death penalty. 376A of IPC and Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013 Rape if the perpetrator inflicts injuries that result in the victim's death or incapacitation in a persistent vegetative state, or is a repeat offender.[43] Bombay Prohibition (Gujarat Amendment) Bill, 2009 In Gujarat only – Manufacture and sale of poisoned alcohol which results in death(s).[44][45]"},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'भारतीय दण्ड संहिता (भादसं) में अनुच्छेद अथवा अन्य नियम अपराध की प्रकृति भादसं का 120बी दोषी षड्यंत्र की हिस्सा होना भादसं का 121 भारत\xa0सरकार\xa0के\xa0विरुद्ध\xa0युद्ध\xa0संचालित\xa0करना, इसके\xa0लिए\xa0उकसाना\xa0चालू\xa0करनाअथवा\xa0लड़ाई\xa0करना। भादसं का 132 सैनिक विद्रोह के लिए उकसाना (यदि परिणामस्वरूप सैनिक विद्रोह होता है) अथवा इसमें शामिल होना। भादसं का 194 मौत की सजा के सिद्ध हो जाने के बाद झूठे\xa0सबूत\xa0देना भादसं के 302, 303 हत्या भादसं का 305 नाबालिग अथवा मानसिक रोगी अथवा मदहोश व्यक्ति को आत्महत्या के लिए उकसाना सती निवारण अधिनियम के अनुच्छेद 4 के भाग II सती कार्य में सहयोग अथवा उकसाना भादसं का 364A अपहरण, जिसमें शिकार व्यक्ति को फिरौती अथवा अन्य किसी बलपूर्वक कार्य को पूर्ण करने के लिए काम में लिया गया हो। मादक पदार्थ और साइकोट्रॉपिक पदार्थ अधिनियम के 31ए मादक पदार्थों की तस्करी के अपराध को दोहराना भादसं का 396 डकैती के साथ हत्या – पाँच और इससे अधिक लोग एक ही समय पर डकैती कर रहे हों और उसी समय कोई एक व्यक्ति अपराध को अंजाम देता है, तो डकैती की घटना में शामिल सभी सदस्य मौत की सजा के उत्तरदायी होंगे। भादसं के 376ए\xa0और आपराधिक अधिनियम (संशोधन), 2013 बलात्कार की घटना जिसमें अपराधी को ऐसी पीड़ा पहुँचे जिसके परिणामस्वरूप उसकी मौत हो जाये अथवा अपनी अवस्था खो दे अर्थात मानसिक अथवा अन्य तरह का संतुलन खो देना, अथवा इस तरह के अपराध की पुनरावृत्ति[43] बॉम्बे अधिनियम (गुजरात संशोधन) बिल, 2009 केवल गुजरात में – विषाक्त शराब का निर्माण करना अथवा बेचना जिसमें किसी की मौत हो गयी हो।[44][45]'}},
 {'id': '118170/mwAg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Jai Gurudev was the name used by Tulsidas Maharaj, a religious leader in northern India.Jai GuruDev was a Yadav. He was imprisoned for 20 months during a period of political unrest in 1975 and led the Doordarshi political party in the 1980s and 1990s, unsuccessfully campaigning for election to the Indian national parliament. He died in 2012 at an unconfirmed age of 116.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'जय\xa0गुरुदेव\xa0नाम तुलसीदास महाराज के लिए प्रयोग किया गया, ये उत्तर भारत के एक धर्मिक गुरु थे।\xa0जय\xa0गुरुदेव\xa0यादव\xa0थे।\xa0ये\xa0१९७५\xa0के\xa0आपातकाल\xa0के\xa0दौरन\xa0२०\xa0महिने जेल में रहें और\xa0दूरदर्शी पार्टी का गठन किया जो १९८० और १९९०\xa0के आम चुनाव में असफल रही। बाबा जय गुरुदेव का २०१२\xa0में ११६\xa0(असत्यापीत) वर्ष की उम्र में देहांत हुआ।'}},
 {'id': '118170/mwBg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Early life'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'प्रारंभिक जीवन'}},
 {'id': '118170/mwBw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Tulsidas ji Maharaj also known as Baba Jai Gurudev (Hindi: बाबा जय गुरुदेव) was an Indian spiritual guru, regarded by his devotees as a saint.Jai GuruDev was a Yadav. No firm information is available on Baba Jai Gurudev’s birth date or early life. A hagiography has grown around him including stories that hold special meaning to his devotees and are considered evidence of his divine nature. Jai Gurudev is said to have been born in Khitora, a small village in the Etawah district in Uttar Pradesh, India. His father was a landlord. When he was a child he lost his parents. As she died his mother is said to have asked him to find God and avoid being ensnared in transient worldly pleasures.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'बाबा जय गुरुदेव के प्रारंभिक जीवन और जन्म तिथि के बारे में कोई ठोस जानकारी नहीं है। बीबीए ने कहा था कि उनका जन्म उत्तर प्रदेश के एक छोटे से गाँव इटवाँ में हुआ था। जब वे बच्चे थें तब उनके माता-पिता का देहांत हो गया. उनके पिता जमींदार थें। उनकी माँ मरते समय उनसे कहा कि वे इश्वर को खोज लें और शादी न\xa0करे।'}},
 {'id': '118170/mwEA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Spiritual Education'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'आध्यात्मिक शिक्षा'}},
 {'id': '118170/mwEQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'He left home when seven years old. He visited temples, mosques and churches seeking a perfect spiritual master. His search ended when he met saint Ghurelal Sharma in the village of Chirauli, Aligarh district, Uttar Pradesh and was initiated by him. baba Jai Gurudev followed and practised the path as guided by his spiritual master, initially performing sadhana for over 18 hours a day. Just before his death in December 1950 saint Ghurelal Sharma instructed his three sons to follow baba jai guru dev and instructed him to spread his message to mankind.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'उन्होंने सात वर्ष की उम्र में अपना घर छोड़ दिया। वे इश्वर की खोज में मंदिर, मस्जिद और गिरिजाघर गए। उनके खोज क अंत उत्तर प्रदेश के अलीगढ़ जिले में चिरौली गाँव के संत घुरेलाल शर्मा कै मिलने पर हुआ.\xa0'}},
 {'id': '118433/mwBw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The Statue of Ahimsa is located at Mangi-Tungi, near Nashik in the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the tallest Jain statue in the World. The statue depicts the first Jain Tirthankara, Rishabhanatha.[3] The statue is 108 feet (33\xa0m) tall.[3][4] The statue has been carved out of the Mangi-Tungi hills, which are considered to be sacred by the Jains.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'अहिंसा की मूर्ति मांगी तुंगी महाराष्ट्र में स्थित हैं मूर्ति की ऊंचाई १०८ फीट है\xa0[3][4]\xa0मूर्ति मांगी तुंगी में ऋषभगिरी पहाड़ी पर है\xa0 मांगी तुंगी जैन धर्मावलम्बियों के लिए प्रमुख तीर्थ स्थल है\xa0 ऐसा माना जाता है की यहाँ से कई मुनियों को मोक्ष की प्राप्ति हुई थी राम'}},
 {'id': '118433/mwPA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'References'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'References'}},
 {'id': '118433/mwPQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '↑ "मांगी-तुंगीतील कामांच्या संथपणाबद्दल मुख्यमंत्र्यांकडे तक्रार", Loksatta, 29 December 2015\xa0 1 2 3 4 5 Balajiwale, Vaishali (11 February 2016), Vinaya Patil, ed., "World’s tallest statue of Lord Rishabhdeva consecrated at Mangi Tungi in Nashik", DNA\xa0 1 2 3 4 "Preparations on for mega religious ceremony of Jains", Business Standard (Nashik), PTI, 13 January 2016\xa0 ↑ "Rs 18.5 crore state nod for infra work at Nashik hills", DNA, 24 December 2015\xa0 ↑ Facets of Jainology\xa0 ↑ People of India\xa0 ↑ Trek the Sahyadris\xa0 ↑ "Amit Shah felicitated by Jain community", The Statesman (Nashik), PTI, 14 February 2016\xa0 1 2 Botekar, Abhilash (4 December 2015), "70-crore plan for idol installation at Mangi-Tungi", The Times of India (Nashik), TNN\xa0 ↑ "Amit Shah to visit twin-pinnacled Mangi Tungi hills today", The Times of India, 13 February 2016\xa0'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '↑ "मांगी-तुंगीतील कामांच्या संथपणाबद्दल मुख्यमंत्र्यांकडे तक्रार", Loksatta, 29 December 2015\xa0 1 2 3 4 5 Balajiwale, Vaishali (11 February 2016), Vinaya Patil, ed., "World’s tallest statue of Lord Rishabhdeva consecrated at Mangi Tungi in Nashik", DNA\xa0 1 2 3 4 "Preparations on for mega religious ceremony of Jains", Business Standard (Nashik), PTI, 13 January 2016\xa0 ↑ "Rs 18.5 crore state nod for infra work at Nashik hills", DNA, 24 December 2015\xa0 ↑ Facets of Jainology\xa0 ↑ People of India\xa0 ↑ Trek the Sahyadris\xa0 ↑ "Amit Shah felicitated by Jain community", The Statesman (Nashik), PTI, 14 February 2016\xa0 1 2 Botekar, Abhilash (4 December 2015), "70-crore plan for idol installation at Mangi-Tungi", The Times of India (Nashik), TNN\xa0 ↑ "Amit Shah to visit twin-pinnacled Mangi Tungi hills today", The Times of India, 13 February 2016\xa0'}},
 {'id': '118569/mwAh4',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '↑ Estimate for India, from India, The Hindu ↑ "India Literacy Rate". UNICEF. Retrieved 10 October 2013.\xa0 1 2 "World Development Indicators: Participation in education". World Bank. Retrieved 21 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Education in India". World Bank.\xa0 ↑ India achieves 27% decline in poverty, Press Trust of India via Sify.com, 2008-09-12 ↑ "Gross enrollment ratio by level of education". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 10 December 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Global Education". University Analytics. Retrieved 10 December 2015.\xa0 1 2 "Over a quarter of enrollments in rural India are in private schools". The Hindu. Retrieved 21 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Indian education: Sector outlook" (PDF). Retrieved 23 January 2014.\xa0 ↑ Enrolment in schools rises 14% to 23 crore The Times of India (22 January 2013) ↑ Sharath Jeevan & James Townsend, Teachers: A Solution to Education Reform in India Stanford Social Innovation Review (17 July 2013) ↑ B.P. Khandelwal, Examinations and test systems at school level in India UNESCO, pages 100-114 ↑ Indian Education System: What needs to change? 1 2 3 "National Policy on Education (with modifications undertaken in 1992)" (PDF). National Council of Educational Research and Training. Retrieved 10 December 2012.\xa0 ↑ Vyas, Neena (30 June 2012). "10+2+3: A Game of Numbers?". India Today. Retrieved 10 December 2012.\xa0 ↑ Bamzai, Kaveree (24 December 2009). "1977-10+2+3 system of education: The new class structure". India Today. Retrieved 10 December 2012.\xa0 1 2 3 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 233 ↑ India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 230–234 ↑ "National University of Educational Planning and Administration". Nuepa.org. Retrieved 16 August 2012.\xa0 ↑ "NCTE\xa0: National Council For Teacher Education". Ncte-india.org. Retrieved 16 August 2012.\xa0 1 2 3 4 Blackwell, 93–94 ↑ [dead link] Archived 31 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine[dead link] ↑ flashstatistics2009-10.pdf ↑ Archived 17 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine ↑ [dead link] Archived 19 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine[dead link] 1 2 3 4 5 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 215 ↑ 100% Primary educationa, Kerala (14 January 2016). "Kerala becomes 1st Indian state to achieve 100% primary education". International Business Times. International Business Times. Retrieved 14 January 2016.\xa0 ↑ Blackwell, 94–95 ↑ Microsoft Word – Framework_Final_RMSA.doc. (PDF). Retrieved on 21 March 2011. Archived 7 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine ↑ Secondary Education. Education.nic.in. Retrieved on 21 March 2011. Archived 22 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine ↑ India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 231 1 2 Desai, Sonalde, Amaresh Dubey, Reeve Vanneman and Rukmini Banerji. 2009. "Private Schooling in India: A New Landscape," India Policy Forum Vol. 5. Pp. 1-58, Bery, Suman, Barry Bosworth and Arvind Panagariya (Editors). New Delhi: Sage ↑ "4 Montessori schools make it to top 10 list author=TNN". December 7, 2014. Retrieved August 12, 2015.\xa0 ↑ "A special report on India: Creaking, groaning: Infrastructure is India’s biggest handicap". The Economist. 11 December 2008.\xa0 ↑ Geeta Gandhi Kingdon. "The progress of school education in India" (PDF).\xa0 1 2 Amit Varma (15 January 2007). "Why India Needs School Vouchers". Wall Street Journal.\xa0 1 2 "Private Education in India can Benefit Poor People".\xa0 ↑ http://www.iscresearch.com/ 1 2 http://www.iscresearch.com/information/isc-news.aspx ↑ http://www.economist.com/news/international/21636757-english-language-schools-once-aimed-expatriates-now-cater-domestic-elites-new ↑ "RTE: Homeschooling too is fine, says Sibal". Times of India. 2010.\xa0 ↑ Singh, Y.K.; Nath, R. History of Indian education system. APH Publishing. pp.\xa0172–175. ISBN\xa0978-81-7648-932-4. Retrieved 11 January 2013.\xa0 ↑ "India Country Summary of Higher Education" (PDF). World Bank.\xa0 1 2 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 237 ↑ "Higher Education, National Informatics Centre, Government of India". Education.nic.in. Archived from the original on 16 December 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "No of Universities in India". Retrieved 25 February 2014.\xa0 ↑ "No of Colleges in India - India Education Statistics". Retrieved 25 February 2014.\xa0 ↑ Blackwell, 95–96 1 2 3 Blackwell, 96 ↑ "Govt launches Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan for bouldering Higher Education". Retrieved 7 October 2013.\xa0 ↑ The World\'s Best Engineering Schools - Business Insider ↑ Vrat, 230–231 ↑ India doesn\'t figure in world top-100 universities, Press Trust of India via timesofindia.com, 2010-09-12 ↑ "University Business". Frontline. 17 April 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Shouldering the Quality Responsibility". EDU Magazine. January 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.\xa0 ↑ Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. "PM’s address at the 150th Anniversary Function of University of Mumbai". Archived from the original on 12 January 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Education faces lawmakers’ test". livemint. 4 August 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Foreign universities - a reality check". UniversityWorldNews.com. 21 March 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Call for a national policy on internationalisation". EDU Magazine. August 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Times Higher Education". Times Higher Education. 6 October 2006. Archived from the original on 31 March 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "Asia\'s Best Science and Technology Schools". Cgi.cnn.com. 22 June 2000. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "MBA global Top 100 rankings – FT". ft.com. Retrieved 4 March 2009.\xa0 ↑ "Medical Meccas: An Oasis for India\'s Poorest | Newsweek Health for Life | Newsweek.com". Newsweek.com. Retrieved 3 November 2008.\xa0 ↑ The World\'s Best Engineering Schools - Business Insider ↑ QS University Rankings: BRICS 2013 | Top Universities ↑ Top Universities in India | Top Universities ↑ "Infrastructure: S&T Education", Science and Technology in India, 30 1 2 3 4 "Infrastructure: S&T Education", Science and Technology in India, 31 ↑ "Infrastructure: S&T Education", Science and Technology in India, 32 ↑ Nandakumar, Indu (24 November 2011). "Number of tech graduates swells; salaries at IT firms stay stagnant". The Economic Times. Retrieved 19 March 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Knowledge Professionals". Indian IT-BPO: Trends & Insights. NASSCOM. Retrieved 19 March 2012.\xa0 ↑ Anand, Geeta (5 April 2011). "India Graduates Millions, but Too Few Are Fit to Hire". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 March 2012.\xa0 ↑ Information Technology AICTE (2012) Archived 7 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine ↑ Bharucha, Jamshed (2013). "Education in South Asia: Time bomb or silver bullet?". In A. Najam & M. Yusuf (Eds.), South Asia 2060: Envisioning Regional Futures. NY: Anthem Press.\xa0 ↑ Bharucha, Jamshed (25 January 2008). "America can teach Asia a lot about science, technology, and math.". Chronicle of Higher Education, 54(20).\xa0 ↑ Growth of Technical Institutes in the Country AICTE, Govt of India ↑ "Bihar Sate open school". Retrieved 16 April 2013.\xa0 ↑ DATT, SUNDHARAM (2010). INDIAN ECONOMY. S. CHAND.\xa0 ↑ "Jamia - Centres -Centre for Distance and Open Learning - Study Centres". Jmi.ac.in. Retrieved 23 January 2014.\xa0 1 2 3 4 5 6 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 225 ↑ "Country Profiles - India". UNESCO. Retrieved 22 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ . National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2). International Institute for Population Sciences & ORC Macro. 2000.\xa0 Missing or empty |title= (help) ↑ "A special report on India: Creaking, groaning: Infrastructure is India’s biggest handicap". The Economist. 11 December 2008.\xa0 ↑ "Indian schools dwarfed in global ratings programme". Indian Express. Retrieved 15 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "India backs out of global education test for 15-year-olds". Times of India. Retrieved 14 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "India chickens out of international students assessment programme again". Times of India. Retrieved 14 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Many of India’s Poor Turn to Private Schools". New York Times. Retrieved 15 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "World Bank: Pupil-teacher ratio, primary". World Bank. Retrieved 15 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Teachers Skipping Work". World Bank. Retrieved 14 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "The Hidden Cost of Corruption: Teacher Absenteeism and Loss in Schools".\xa0 1 2 4–6 p.m. (30 October 2009). "Kremer etc. (2004), "Teacher Absence in India: A Snapshot", Journal of the European Economic Association" (PDF). Globetrotter.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "12. Report of the HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA Issues Related to Expansion, Inclusiveness, Quality and Finance, May 2008". Ugc.ac.in. Archived from the original on 22 August 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "A special report on India: An elephant, not a tiger". The Economist. 11 December 2008.\xa0 ↑ Kalyani Menon-Sen, A. K. Shiva Kumar (2001). "Women in India: How Free? How Equal?". United Nations. Archived from the original on 11 September 2006. Retrieved 24 December 2006.\xa0 ↑ Dube, L. 1988. On the construction of gender: Hindu girls in patrilineal India. In Socialization, education, and women: Explorations in gender identity,ed. K. Chanana, New Delhi: Orient Longman. ↑ "In India, Can Schools Offer Path Out Of Poverty?". 14 May 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010.\xa0 1 2 Raman, 235 ↑ Raman, 236 1 2 Raman, 238 ↑ . S. Chandrasekhar and A. Jayaraman, District Level Analysis of the Total Fertility Rate Using Indian Census Data (viewed on 9 March 2011), http://paa2004.princeton.edu/download.asp?submissionId=41578 ↑ Women Education in India, (viewed on 9 March 2011), http://www.slideshare.net/siddharth4mba/women-education-in-india ↑ Literacy Rate and Gender Gap in Sechduled Castes in India, (viewed on 9 March 2011), http://www.capabilityapproach.com/pubs/NavjeetKaur.pdf ↑ Nutrition in India, Viewed on 11 March 2011, http://www.icosgroup.net/static/foodsec/text/accscnun_indiacasestudy.pdf ↑ Landscaping Women\'s Empowerment through Learning and Education in India, A study, Viewed on 11 March 2011,http://dasra.org/n/forwebsite/factsheet/Landscaping_Women_Empowerment_Report.pdf ↑ Saraswathi, T.S. & Verma, Suman. Adolescence in India: \'\'Street Urchins or Silicon Valley Millionaires?\'\' pg. 17 from Brown, B. Bradford, Larson, Reed W, & Saraswathi, T.S., The World\'s Youth: adolescence in eight regions of the globe. Cambridge University Press, 2002. 1 2 3 4 Setty and Ross, 120 ↑ Setty and Ross, 121 1 2 3 Setty and Ross, 122 1 2 Setty and Ross, 125 ↑ Verma, Suman; Saraswathi, T.S. (2002). The World\'s Youth: Adolescence in Eight Regions of the Globe. Cambridge, UK: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. p.\xa0117. ISBN\xa00-521-00605-8.\xa0 |access-date= requires |url= (help) ↑ De, Anuradha; Drèze, Jean (3 June 1999). Public Report on Basic Education in India. UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN\xa00195648706.\xa0 Check date values in: |access-date= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help) ↑ "Human Development Report 1999" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 1999.\xa0 Check date values in: |access-date= (help) ↑ "Human Development Report 2000" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 2000.\xa0 Check date values in: |access-date= (help) ↑ "The Science Garage - Tinker Lab". http://sciencegarage.net/. The Science Garage. Retrieved 24 February 2015.\xa0 External link in |website= (help) ↑ "U.S.A, India Announce Innovation, Science, and Technology Awards". India Education Diary. June 25, 2013.\xa0 ↑ Basu, Kaushik (29 November 2004). "Combating India\'s truant teachers". BBC. Retrieved 3 January 2010.\xa0 ↑ Singh, Shivani (7 April 2005). "Education chess: Are govt schools any better now?". The Times of India.\xa0 ↑ "\'Indian Education: creating Zombies focussed on passing exam\'".\xa0 ↑ "India". BusinessWeek.\xa0 ↑ "‘Rote system of learning still rules the roost’". ExpressIndia. 2008. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Reality Check for Parents: Preschools in India – Reviews, Top, Compare, List, Good". Preschool for Child Rights. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2014.\xa0 ↑ "44 institutions to lose deemed university status – Economy and Politics". livemint.com. 18 January 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "22 universities across India fake: UGC". ExpressIndia. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Country Strategy for India (CAS) 2009–2012" (PDF). World Bank.\xa0 1 2 3 4 Elder, 227 1 2 3 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 226–227 1 2 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 236–237 1 2 3 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 216 1 2 3 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 218 1 2 3 4 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 239 ↑ India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 223 ↑ "Network for Social Accountability". NSA. 28 December 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "345 NSA Response to Education Sector Interventions in Union Budget-UPA Rule and the Education Sector by Siba Sankar Mohanty". Nsa.org.in. 21 February 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "309: How the Working Class has Performed in the Turbulent Years of Liberalisation-A Priliminary Study of Working Class Income and Expenditure Survey1999-2000 Page-1". Nsa.org.in. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 150 1 2 Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 149–50 ↑ Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 152–154 1 2 3 Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 154 1 2 3 Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 156 ↑ Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 149 ↑ "Really Old School," Garten, Jeffrey E. New York Times, 9 December 2006.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '↑ Estimate for India, from India, The Hindu ↑ "India Literacy Rate". UNICEF. Retrieved 10 October 2013.\xa0 1 2 "World Development Indicators: Participation in education". World Bank. Retrieved 21 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Education in India". World Bank.\xa0 ↑ India achieves 27% decline in poverty, Press Trust of India via Sify.com, 2008-09-12 ↑ "Gross enrollment ratio by level of education". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 10 December 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Global Education". University Analytics. Retrieved 10 December 2015.\xa0 1 2 "Over a quarter of enrollments in rural India are in private schools". The Hindu. Retrieved 21 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Indian education: Sector outlook" (PDF). Retrieved 23 January 2014.\xa0 ↑ Enrolment in schools rises 14% to 23 crore The Times of India (22 January 2013) ↑ Sharath Jeevan & James Townsend, Teachers: A Solution to Education Reform in India Stanford Social Innovation Review (17 July 2013) ↑ B.P. Khandelwal, Examinations and test systems at school level in India UNESCO, pages 100-114 ↑ Indian Education System: What needs to change? 1 2 3 "National Policy on Education (with modifications undertaken in 1992)" (PDF). National Council of Educational Research and Training. Retrieved 10 December 2012.\xa0 ↑ Vyas, Neena (30 June 2012). "10+2+3: A Game of Numbers?". India Today. Retrieved 10 December 2012.\xa0 ↑ Bamzai, Kaveree (24 December 2009). "1977-10+2+3 system of education: The new class structure". India Today. Retrieved 10 December 2012.\xa0 1 2 3 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 233 ↑ India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 230–234 ↑ "National University of Educational Planning and Administration". Nuepa.org. Retrieved 16 August 2012.\xa0 ↑ "NCTE\xa0: National Council For Teacher Education". Ncte-india.org. Retrieved 16 August 2012.\xa0 1 2 3 4 Blackwell, 93–94 ↑ [dead link] Archived 31 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine[dead link] ↑ flashstatistics2009-10.pdf ↑ Archived 17 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine ↑ [dead link] Archived 19 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine[dead link] 1 2 3 4 5 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 215 ↑ 100% Primary educationa, Kerala (14 January 2016). "Kerala becomes 1st Indian state to achieve 100% primary education". International Business Times. International Business Times. Retrieved 14 January 2016.\xa0 ↑ Blackwell, 94–95 ↑ Microsoft Word – Framework_Final_RMSA.doc. (PDF). Retrieved on 21 March 2011. Archived 7 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine ↑ Secondary Education. Education.nic.in. Retrieved on 21 March 2011. Archived 22 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine ↑ India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 231 1 2 Desai, Sonalde, Amaresh Dubey, Reeve Vanneman and Rukmini Banerji. 2009. "Private Schooling in India: A New Landscape," India Policy Forum Vol. 5. Pp. 1-58, Bery, Suman, Barry Bosworth and Arvind Panagariya (Editors). New Delhi: Sage ↑ "4 Montessori schools make it to top 10 list author=TNN". December 7, 2014. Retrieved August 12, 2015.\xa0 ↑ "A special report on India: Creaking, groaning: Infrastructure is India’s biggest handicap". The Economist. 11 December 2008.\xa0 ↑ Geeta Gandhi Kingdon. "The progress of school education in India" (PDF).\xa0 1 2 Amit Varma (15 January 2007). "Why India Needs School Vouchers". Wall Street Journal.\xa0 1 2 "Private Education in India can Benefit Poor People".\xa0 ↑ http://www.iscresearch.com/ 1 2 http://www.iscresearch.com/information/isc-news.aspx ↑ http://www.economist.com/news/international/21636757-english-language-schools-once-aimed-expatriates-now-cater-domestic-elites-new ↑ "RTE: Homeschooling too is fine, says Sibal". Times of India. 2010.\xa0 ↑ Singh, Y.K.; Nath, R. History of Indian education system. APH Publishing. pp.\xa0172–175. ISBN\xa0978-81-7648-932-4. Retrieved 11 January 2013.\xa0 ↑ "India Country Summary of Higher Education" (PDF). World Bank.\xa0 1 2 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 237 ↑ "Higher Education, National Informatics Centre, Government of India". Education.nic.in. Archived from the original on 16 December 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "No of Universities in India". Retrieved 25 February 2014.\xa0 ↑ "No of Colleges in India - India Education Statistics". Retrieved 25 February 2014.\xa0 ↑ Blackwell, 95–96 1 2 3 Blackwell, 96 ↑ "Govt launches Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan for bouldering Higher Education". Retrieved 7 October 2013.\xa0 ↑ The World\'s Best Engineering Schools - Business Insider ↑ Vrat, 230–231 ↑ India doesn\'t figure in world top-100 universities, Press Trust of India via timesofindia.com, 2010-09-12 ↑ "University Business". Frontline. 17 April 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Shouldering the Quality Responsibility". EDU Magazine. January 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.\xa0 ↑ Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. "PM’s address at the 150th Anniversary Function of University of Mumbai". Archived from the original on 12 January 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Education faces lawmakers’ test". livemint. 4 August 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Foreign universities - a reality check". UniversityWorldNews.com. 21 March 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Call for a national policy on internationalisation". EDU Magazine. August 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Times Higher Education". Times Higher Education. 6 October 2006. Archived from the original on 31 March 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "Asia\'s Best Science and Technology Schools". Cgi.cnn.com. 22 June 2000. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "MBA global Top 100 rankings – FT". ft.com. Retrieved 4 March 2009.\xa0 ↑ "Medical Meccas: An Oasis for India\'s Poorest | Newsweek Health for Life | Newsweek.com". Newsweek.com. Retrieved 3 November 2008.\xa0 ↑ The World\'s Best Engineering Schools - Business Insider ↑ QS University Rankings: BRICS 2013 | Top Universities ↑ Top Universities in India | Top Universities ↑ "Infrastructure: S&T Education", Science and Technology in India, 30 1 2 3 4 "Infrastructure: S&T Education", Science and Technology in India, 31 ↑ "Infrastructure: S&T Education", Science and Technology in India, 32 ↑ Nandakumar, Indu (24 November 2011). "Number of tech graduates swells; salaries at IT firms stay stagnant". The Economic Times. Retrieved 19 March 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Knowledge Professionals". Indian IT-BPO: Trends & Insights. NASSCOM. Retrieved 19 March 2012.\xa0 ↑ Anand, Geeta (5 April 2011). "India Graduates Millions, but Too Few Are Fit to Hire". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 March 2012.\xa0 ↑ Information Technology AICTE (2012) Archived 7 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine ↑ Bharucha, Jamshed (2013). "Education in South Asia: Time bomb or silver bullet?". In A. Najam & M. Yusuf (Eds.), South Asia 2060: Envisioning Regional Futures. NY: Anthem Press.\xa0 ↑ Bharucha, Jamshed (25 January 2008). "America can teach Asia a lot about science, technology, and math.". Chronicle of Higher Education, 54(20).\xa0 ↑ Growth of Technical Institutes in the Country AICTE, Govt of India ↑ "Bihar Sate open school". Retrieved 16 April 2013.\xa0 ↑ DATT, SUNDHARAM (2010). INDIAN ECONOMY. S. CHAND.\xa0 ↑ "Jamia - Centres -Centre for Distance and Open Learning - Study Centres". Jmi.ac.in. Retrieved 23 January 2014.\xa0 1 2 3 4 5 6 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 225 ↑ "Country Profiles - India". UNESCO. Retrieved 22 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ . National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2). International Institute for Population Sciences & ORC Macro. 2000.\xa0 Missing or empty |title= (help) ↑ "A special report on India: Creaking, groaning: Infrastructure is India’s biggest handicap". The Economist. 11 December 2008.\xa0 ↑ "Indian schools dwarfed in global ratings programme". Indian Express. Retrieved 15 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "India backs out of global education test for 15-year-olds". Times of India. Retrieved 14 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "India chickens out of international students assessment programme again". Times of India. Retrieved 14 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Many of India’s Poor Turn to Private Schools". New York Times. Retrieved 15 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "World Bank: Pupil-teacher ratio, primary". World Bank. Retrieved 15 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Teachers Skipping Work". World Bank. Retrieved 14 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "The Hidden Cost of Corruption: Teacher Absenteeism and Loss in Schools".\xa0 1 2 4–6 p.m. (30 October 2009). "Kremer etc. (2004), "Teacher Absence in India: A Snapshot", Journal of the European Economic Association" (PDF). Globetrotter.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "12. Report of the HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA Issues Related to Expansion, Inclusiveness, Quality and Finance, May 2008". Ugc.ac.in. Archived from the original on 22 August 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "A special report on India: An elephant, not a tiger". The Economist. 11 December 2008.\xa0 ↑ Kalyani Menon-Sen, A. K. Shiva Kumar (2001). "Women in India: How Free? How Equal?". United Nations. Archived from the original on 11 September 2006. Retrieved 24 December 2006.\xa0 ↑ Dube, L. 1988. On the construction of gender: Hindu girls in patrilineal India. In Socialization, education, and women: Explorations in gender identity,ed. K. Chanana, New Delhi: Orient Longman. ↑ "In India, Can Schools Offer Path Out Of Poverty?". 14 May 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010.\xa0 1 2 Raman, 235 ↑ Raman, 236 1 2 Raman, 238 ↑ . S. Chandrasekhar and A. Jayaraman, District Level Analysis of the Total Fertility Rate Using Indian Census Data (viewed on 9 March 2011), http://paa2004.princeton.edu/download.asp?submissionId=41578 ↑ Women Education in India, (viewed on 9 March 2011), http://www.slideshare.net/siddharth4mba/women-education-in-india ↑ Literacy Rate and Gender Gap in Sechduled Castes in India, (viewed on 9 March 2011), http://www.capabilityapproach.com/pubs/NavjeetKaur.pdf ↑ Nutrition in India, Viewed on 11 March 2011, http://www.icosgroup.net/static/foodsec/text/accscnun_indiacasestudy.pdf ↑ Landscaping Women\'s Empowerment through Learning and Education in India, A study, Viewed on 11 March 2011,http://dasra.org/n/forwebsite/factsheet/Landscaping_Women_Empowerment_Report.pdf ↑ Saraswathi, T.S. & Verma, Suman. Adolescence in India: \'\'Street Urchins or Silicon Valley Millionaires?\'\' pg. 17 from Brown, B. Bradford, Larson, Reed W, & Saraswathi, T.S., The World\'s Youth: adolescence in eight regions of the globe. Cambridge University Press, 2002. 1 2 3 4 Setty and Ross, 120 ↑ Setty and Ross, 121 1 2 3 Setty and Ross, 122 1 2 Setty and Ross, 125 ↑ Verma, Suman; Saraswathi, T.S. (2002). The World\'s Youth: Adolescence in Eight Regions of the Globe. Cambridge, UK: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. p.\xa0117. ISBN\xa00-521-00605-8.\xa0 |access-date= requires |url= (help) ↑ De, Anuradha; Drèze, Jean (3 June 1999). Public Report on Basic Education in India. UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN\xa00195648706.\xa0 Check date values in: |access-date= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help) ↑ "Human Development Report 1999" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 1999.\xa0 Check date values in: |access-date= (help) ↑ "Human Development Report 2000" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 2000.\xa0 Check date values in: |access-date= (help) ↑ "The Science Garage - Tinker Lab". http://sciencegarage.net/. The Science Garage. Retrieved 24 February 2015.\xa0 External link in |website= (help) ↑ "U.S.A, India Announce Innovation, Science, and Technology Awards". India Education Diary. June 25, 2013.\xa0 ↑ Basu, Kaushik (29 November 2004). "Combating India\'s truant teachers". BBC. Retrieved 3 January 2010.\xa0 ↑ Singh, Shivani (7 April 2005). "Education chess: Are govt schools any better now?". The Times of India.\xa0 ↑ "\'Indian Education: creating Zombies focussed on passing exam\'".\xa0 ↑ "India". BusinessWeek.\xa0 ↑ "‘Rote system of learning still rules the roost’". ExpressIndia. 2008. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Reality Check for Parents: Preschools in India – Reviews, Top, Compare, List, Good". Preschool for Child Rights. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2014.\xa0 ↑ "44 institutions to lose deemed university status – Economy and Politics". livemint.com. 18 January 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "22 universities across India fake: UGC". ExpressIndia. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Country Strategy for India (CAS) 2009–2012" (PDF). World Bank.\xa0 1 2 3 4 Elder, 227 1 2 3 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 226–227 1 2 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 236–237 1 2 3 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 216 1 2 3 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 218 1 2 3 4 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 239 ↑ India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 223 ↑ "Network for Social Accountability". NSA. 28 December 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "345 NSA Response to Education Sector Interventions in Union Budget-UPA Rule and the Education Sector by Siba Sankar Mohanty". Nsa.org.in. 21 February 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "309: How the Working Class has Performed in the Turbulent Years of Liberalisation-A Priliminary Study of Working Class Income and Expenditure Survey1999-2000 Page-1". Nsa.org.in. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 150 1 2 Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 149–50 ↑ Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 152–154 1 2 3 Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 154 1 2 3 Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 156 ↑ Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 149 ↑ "Really Old School," Garten, Jeffrey E. New York Times, 9 December 2006.'}},
 {'id': '118569/mwBg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: central, state, and local. Under various articles of the Indian Constitution, free and compulsory education is provided as a fundamental right to children between the ages of 6 and 14. The ratio of public schools to private schools in India is 7:5.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '5.'}},
 {'id': '118569/mwDg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "India has made progress in terms of increasing the primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately three-quarters of the population in the 7-10 age group, by 2011.[4] India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development.[5] Much of the progress, especially in higher education and scientific research, has been credited to various public institutions. While enrollment in higher education has increased steadily over the past decade, reaching a Gross Enrollment Ratio of 24% in 2013,[6] there still remains a significant distance to catch up with tertiary education enrollment levels of developed nations,[7] a challenge that will be necessary to overcome in order to continue to reap a demographic dividend from India's comparatively young population."},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': ''}},
 {'id': '118569/mwNA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The central and most state boards uniformly follow the "10+2+3" pattern of education.[14]:3 In this pattern, study of 12 years is done in schools or in colleges,[14]:44 and then 3 years of graduation for a bachelor\'s degree.[15] The first 10 years is further subdivided into 5 years of primary education, 3 years of upper primary, followed by 2 years of high school.[14]:5 This pattern originated from the recommendation of the Education Commission of 1964–66.[16]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '.[16]'}},
 {'id': '118569/mwTQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Primary education'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'Primary education'}},
 {'id': '118569/mwTg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'A primary school in Kerala, India.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'A primary school in Kerala, India.'}},
 {'id': '118569/mwUw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Indian School children'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'Indian School children'}},
 {'id': '118569/mwVw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The Indian government lays emphasis on primary education, also referred to as elementary education, to children aged 6 to 14 years old.[21] The Indian government has also banned child labor in order to ensure that the children do not enter unsafe working conditions.[21] However, both free education and the ban on child labour are difficult to enforce due to economic disparity and social conditions.[21] 80% of all recognized schools at the elementary stage are government run or supported, making it the largest provider of education in the country.[22]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'भारत सरकार दव्रा \xa0प्राथमिक शिक्षा,(शिशु ,आयु ६-१४) पर काफी ध्यान दिया गया है\xa0।[21] भारत सरकार\xa0दव्रा\xa0बाल\xa0मजदूरी\xa0मे\xa0भी\xa0प्रतिबंध\xa0लगा\xa0दिया\xa0है\xa0ताकि\xa0बच्चे किसी भी तरह के खतरनाक \xa0काय मे न आये।[21] \xa0.[22]'}},
 {'id': '118873/mwAQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The Bechdel test (/ˈbɛkdəl/ BEK-dəl) asks whether a work of fiction features at least two women who talk to each other about something other than a man. The requirement that the two women must be named is sometimes added.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'बेक्ड़ेल टेस्ट (/ˈbɛkdəl/ BEK-dəl) को अमरीकी व्यंगचित्रकार एलिसन बेक्ड़ेल का नाम दिया गया है। यह टेस्ट इस बात को प्रमाणित करता है की किसी काल्पनिक उपन्यास, फिल्म, इत्यादि में दो अथवा दो से अधिक महिला पात्र हैं, जो एक दुसरे से पुरुषों के अलावा किसी अन्य विषय के बारे में बात करती हैं। \xa0इस टेस्ट की एक अपेक्षा यह भी होती है कि दो महिलाओं के नाम उल्लेखित किये जाएँ।\xa0'}},
 {'id': '118873/mwBQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Only about half of all films meet these requirements, according to user-edited databases and the media industry press. The test is used as an indicator for the active presence of women in films and other fiction, and to call attention to gender inequality in fiction due to sexism.[1]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'उपभोगताओं द्वारा सम्पादित डेटाबेस एवं मीडिया इंडस्ट्री प्रेस के अनुसार केवल ५०% इन शर्तों को पूरा करती हैं।\xa0यह टेस्ट इस बात का प्रमाण है कि महिलाएं सक्रिय रूप से फिल्मों एवं अन्य रचनाओं में सम्मिलित हैं। इसका उपयोग लिंग असमानता एवं लिंगवाद की ओर संकेत करने में भी होता है।'}},
 {'id': '118873/mwBw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Also known as the Bechdel-Wallace test,[2] the test is named after the American cartoonist Alison Bechdel, in whose comic strip Dykes to Watch Out For it first appeared in 1985. Bechdel credited the idea to a friend, Liz Wallace, and to the writings of Virginia Woolf. After the test became more widely discussed in the 2000s, a number of variants and tests inspired by it have been introduced.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'इस टेस्ट को बेक्ड़ेल -वॉलेस टेस्ट[2] के नाम से भी जाना जाता है। बेक्ड़ेल टेस्ट का पहला उल्लेख एलिसन बेक्ड़ेल की कॉमिक Dykes to Watch Out For में १९८५ में किया गया। बेक्ड़ेल ने इस विचार का श्रेय अपनी मित्र लिज़ वॉलेस, और वर्जिनिया वुल्फ़ की रचनाओं को दिया। २१ वीं सदी में जब इस टेस्ट के बारे में चर्चा बढ़ने लगी, तो इस के सामान कई अन्य टेस्ट प्रयोग में लए जाने लगे। ण\xa0'}},
 {'id': '118873/mwDQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'History'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'इतिहास\xa0'}},
 {'id': '118873/mwDg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Gender portrayal in popular fiction'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'लोकप्रिय उपन्यास में लिंग चित्रण\xa0'}},
 {'id': '118873/mwDw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "In her 1929 essay A Room of One's Own, Virginia Woolf observed about the literature of her time what the Bechdel test would later highlight in more recent fiction:[3]"},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': "जो बातें वर्जिनिया वुल्फ़ ने १९२९ में लिखे अपने निबंध- अ रूम ऑफ़ वन्स ओन [A Room of One's Own] में कहीं, बेक्ड़ेल टेस्ट ने समान रूप से आधुनिक रचनाओं के बारे में टिप्पणी की। [3]\xa0"}},
 {'id': '118873/mwFA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'In film, a study of gender portrayals in 855 of the most financially successful U.S. films from 1950 to 2006 showed that there were, on average, two male characters for each female character, a ratio that remained stable over time. Female characters were portrayed as being involved in sex twice as often as male characters, and their proportion of scenes with explicit sexual content increased over time. Violence increased over time in male and female characters alike.[5]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '१९५० और २००५ के बीच की ८५५ अमरीकी फिल्मों में लिंग चित्रण पर की गयी एक जांच में यह स्पष्ट हुआ औसत रूप से एक महिला पात्र की तुलना में दो पुरुष पात्र थे और यह अनुपात इतने वर्षों तक सामान रहा। महिला पात्रों को मैथुन क्रिया में पुरुषों से दो गुना ज़्यादा बार दर्शाया गया, और साथ ही ऐसे दृश्यों का अनुपात समय के साथ बढ़ता गया। महिला और पुरुष पात्रों में हिंसा का प्रदर्शन भी बढ़ता रहा।\xa0'}},
 {'id': '118873/mwFQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'According to a 2014 study by the Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media, in 120 films made worldwide from 2010 to 2013, only 31% of named characters were female, and 23% of the films had a female protagonist or co-protagonist. 7% of directors are women.[6] Another study looking at the 700 top‐grossing films from 2007 to 2014 found that only 30% of the speaking characters were female.[7]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'जीना डेविस इंस्टिट्यूट ऑन जेंडर एंड मीडिया\xa0द्वारा २०१४ में की गयी एक जांच के अनुसार विश्वभर में २०१० से २०१३ के बीच बनायी गयी १२० फिल्मों में केवल ३१% नामित पात्र महिलाएं थीं, केवल २३% फिल्मों में मुख्य किरदार एक महिला पात्र का था, एवं केवल ७% फिल्म निर्देशक महिलाएं थीं। एक अन्य जांच ने यह दर्शाया की २००७ से २०१४ के बीच ७०० सबसे अधिक कमाई करने वाली फिल्मों में केवल ३०% बात करने वाले पात्र महिलाओं के थे।\xa0'}},
 {'id': '118873/mwFw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The Bechdel test'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'बेक्ड़ेल टेस्ट\xa0'}},
 {'id': '118873/mwHg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The rules now known as the Bechdel test first appeared in 1985 in Alison Bechdel\'s comic strip Dykes To Watch Out For. In a strip titled "The Rule", two women, who resemble the future characters Mo and Ginger,[8] discuss seeing a film and the black woman explains that she only goes to a movie if it satisfies the following requirements:'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'जिन नियमों को अब बेक्ड़ेल टेस्ट के रूप से जाना जाता है, उन्हें पहली बार एलिसन बेक्ड़ेल की कॉमिक स्ट्रिप डाइक्स तो वॉच आउट फॉर\xa0[Dykes To Watch Out For]\xa0में दर्शाया गया। \xa0द रूल\xa0[The Rule] नामक कॉमिक में दो महिलाओं को\xa0\xa0(जो भविष्य में मो और जिंजर[8] के किरदार बनीं), एक फिल्म के विषय में चर्चा करते हुए दिखाया गया है। \xa0उनमे जो ब्लैक महिला है, वह समझाती है की वह फिल्म देखने तभी जाती है जब निम्नलिखित शर्तें पूरी हों :\xa0'}},
 {'id': '118873/mwIA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The movie has to have at least two women in it, who talk to each other, about something besides a man.[9][10][11]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'फिल्म में कम से कम दो महिलाएं हों, वे एक दुसरे से बात करें,\xa0 एक पुरुष के अलावा किसी अन्य विषय पर बात करें। \xa0[9][10][11]'}},
 {'id': '118873/mwJA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The white woman acknowledges that the idea is pretty strict, but good. Not finding any films that meet their requirements, they go home together.[8]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'व्हाइट महिला कहती है की यह विचार सख्त है, परन्तु अच्छा भी है। \xa0जब उन्हें यह समझ आता है की कोई भी फिल्में उनकी शर्तों पर खरी नहीं उतरतीं, तो वे साथ घर लौट जाती हैं। \xa0[8]'}},
 {'id': '118873/mwdg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Sexy lamp test'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'सेक्सी लैंप टेस्ट\xa0'}},
 {'id': '118873/mwdw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'In 2012, comic book writer Kelly Sue DeConnick proposed a different test for female characters, that became known as the sexy lamp test: "If you can replace your female character with a sexy lamp and the story still basically works, maybe you need another draft."[44] The sexy lamp test checks for protagonism and non-stereotypical characters rather than only the representation of women as in the Bechdel test.[45]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'वर्ष २०१२ में हास्य पुस्तक लेखिका कैली सू डीकॉंनिक ने एक अलग टेस्ट का प्रस्ताव रखा, जिसे सेक्सी लैंप टेस्ट का नाम दिया गया। \xa0उनका कहना यह था की "यदि महिला किरदार की जगह एक कामुक लैंप को खड़ा कर दिया जाए और कहानी तोह भी आगे बढ़ सकती हो, तो कथानक के\xa0पुनर्लेखन की आवश्यकता है. "\xa0[44]\xa0सेक्सी लैंप टेस्ट यह देखने में सहायक है की मुख्य किरदार किस रूप से निश्चित किये गए हैं और साथ ही\xa0The sexy lamp test checks for protagonism and non-stereotypical characters rather than only the representation of women as in the Bechdel test.[45]'}},
 {'id': '118873/mweQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Sphinx test'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'स्फिंक्स टेस्ट\xa0'}},
 {'id': '118873/mweg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'In 2015, the Sphinx theater company of London proposed the "Sphinx test" in order to "encourage theatremakers to think about how to write more and better roles for women", in reaction to research indicating that only 37% of theater roles were written for women as of 2014. The test asks about the interaction of women with other characters, as well as how prominently women characters feature in the action, how proactive rather than reactive they are, and whether they are portrayed stereotypically.[46]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': "वर्ष २०१५ में लंदन की स्फिंक्स थिएटर कंपनी ने 'नाटककारों को महिलाओं के लिए अधिक और अच्छे किरदार लिखने के लिए' प्रोत्साहित करने हेतु\xa0'स्फिंक्स टेस्ट' का प्रस्ताव रखा। \xa0यह प्रस्ताव इस लिए दिया गया था क्यूंकि एक शोध में यह पता लगा की वर्ष २०१४ में\xa0नाटकों में केवल ३७% रोल महिलाओं के लिए लिखे गए थे।\xa0इस टेस्ट में देखा जाता है की महिलाओं की\xa0अन्य पात्रों के साथ क्या बातचीत है, महिला पात्र कितने सक्रिय हैं, उन्हें कितने प्रतिक्रियाशील रूप में दर्शाया गया है, और उनके किरदार को किस हद तक रूढ़िबद्ध धारणा से देखा गया है।\xa0[46]"}},
 {'id': '118873/mwgQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'References'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'References'}},
 {'id': '118873/mwgg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '1 2 Bechdel, Allison. "Testy". Alison Bechdel blog. Posted November 8, 2013. ↑ "Alison Bechdel Would Like You to Call It the "Bechdel-Wallace Test," ThankYouVeryMuch". 25 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Bechdel-Test: Frauen spielen keine Rolle". Kurier. 8 August 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012.\xa0 ↑ Woolf, Virginia. Thomas, Stephen, ed. "A Room of One\'s Own: Chapter 5". The University of Adelaide Library. University of Adelaide Press. Retrieved 24 December 2012.\xa0 ↑ Bleakley, A.; Jamieson, P. E.; Romer, D. (2012). "Trends of Sexual and Violent Content by Gender in Top-Grossing U.S. Films, 1950–2006". Journal of Adolescent Health 51 (1): 73–79. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.02.006. PMID\xa022727080.\xa0 ↑ Sakoui, Anousha; Magnusson, Niklas (22 September 2014). "\'Hunger Games\' success masks stubborn gender gap in Hollywood". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 22 September 2014.\xa0 ↑ Smith, Stacy L.; Choueiti, Marc; Pieper, Katherine; Gillig, Traci; Lee, Carmen; Dylan, DeLuca. "Inequality in 700 Popular Films: Examining Portrayals of Gender, Race, & LGBT Status from 2007 to 2014". USC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism. Retrieved 6 August 2015.\xa0 1 2 Martindale, Kathleen (1997). Un/Popular Culture: Lesbian Writing After the Sex Wars. Albany, NY: State Univ. of New York Press. p.\xa069. ISBN\xa00791432890.\xa0 ↑ Bechdel, Allison. Dykes to Watch Out For. Firebrand Books (October 1, 1986). ISBN 978-0932379177 ↑ "The Rule" comic page posted on Alison Bechdel\'s online photostream 1 2 Alisonbechdel.blogspot.com 1 2 Lawrence, Faith (June 2011). "SPARQLing Conversation: Automating The Bechdel-Wallace Test" (PDF). Paper presented at the Narrative and Hypertext Workshop, Hypertext 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2012.\xa0 ↑ On the Fresh Air program on NPR on August 17, 2015, in response to a question from host Terry Gross, Bechdel said she would prefer the test be referred to as the Bechdel-Wallace Test. 1 2 Wilson, Sarah (28 June 2012). "Bechdel Rule still applies to portrayal of women in films". The Oklahoma Daily.\xa0 1 2 Stross, Charles (28 July 2008). "Bechdel\'s Law". Charlie\'s Diary. Retrieved 26 July 2012.\xa0 1 2 3 4 NPR Ulaby, Neda "The \'Bechdel Rule,\' Defining Pop-Culture Character". September 2, 2008. ↑ Friend, Tad (11 April 2011). "Funny Like a Guy: Anna Faris and Hollywood\'s woman problem". The New Yorker (Condé Nast): 55. Retrieved 2011-09-17.\xa0 ↑ Morlan, Kinsee (23 July 2014). "Comic-Con vs. the Bechdel Test". San Diego City Beat. Retrieved 15 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ Steiger, Kay (2011). "No Clean Slate: Unshakeable race and gender politics in The Walking Dead". In Lowder, James. Triumph of The Walking Dead. BenBella Books. p.\xa0104. ISBN\xa09781936661138. Retrieved 2014-04-20.\xa0 ↑ Romano, Aja (18 August 2013). "The Mako Mori Test: \'Pacific Rim\' inspires a Bechdel Test alternative". The Daily Dot. Retrieved 15 September 2013.\xa0 1 2 McGuinness, Ross (18 July 2013). "The Bechdel test and why Hollywood is a man\'s, man\'s, man\'s world". Metro. Retrieved 15 September 2013.\xa0 ↑ Bechdel test academic paper. 1 2 Harris, Mark (6 August 2010). "I Am Woman. Hear Me... Please!". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 26 July 2012.\xa0 ↑ "The Oscars and the Bechdel Test". Feminist Frequency. February 15, 2012. Retrieved 2013-11-08.\xa0 ↑ "Swedish cinemas take aim at gender bias with Bechdel test rating". The Guardian. Associated Press. November 6, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-08.\xa0 ↑ "Gender equality within Eurimages: current situation and scope for evolution". European Women\'s Audiovisual Network. Retrieved 6 August 2015.\xa0 ↑ Gray, Kishonna (2014). Race, Gender, and Deviance in Xbox Live: Theoretical Perspectives from the Virtual Margins. Routledge. p.\xa028. ISBN\xa01317521803.\xa0 ↑ Anthropy, Anna (2012). Rise of the videogame zinesters: How freaks, normals, amateurs, artists, dreamers, dropouts, queers, housewives, and people like you are taking back an art form (Seven Stories Press 1st ed.). Seven Stories Press. ISBN\xa09781609803735. Retrieved 2014-04-20.\xa0 ↑ Agnello, Anthony John (July 2012). "Something other than a man: 15 games that pass the Bechdel Test". Gameological. Retrieved 26 July 2012.\xa0 ↑ Zalben, Alex (22 February 2012). "Witchblade/Red Sonja #1 Passes The Bechdel Test". MTV Geek!. Retrieved 26 July 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Does your show pass the Bechdel test? | Opinion | The Stage". The Stage. Retrieved 2016-02-05.\xa0 ↑ "Statistics". bechdeltest.com. Retrieved 13 November 2013.\xa0 1 2 Sharma, Versha; Sender, Hanna (2 January 2014). "Hollywood Movies With Strong Female Roles Make More Money". Vocativ. Retrieved 2 January 2014.\xa0 1 2 Power, Nina (2009). One-dimensional woman. Zero Books. pp.\xa039 et seq. ISBN\xa01846942411. Retrieved 2014-04-20.\xa0 1 2 Hickey, Walt (1 April 2014). "The Dollar-And-Cents Case Against Hollywood\'s Exclusion of Women". FiveThirtyEight.\xa0 ↑ Collin, Robbie (15 November 2013). "Bechdel test is damaging to the way we think about film". The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 November 2013.\xa0 ↑ Laurie Voss [seldo] (27 Feb 2015). "Does your project pass the Bechdel test? To pass, a function written by a woman dev must call a function written by another woman dev." (Tweet).\xa0 ↑ Williams, Lauren C. (March 19, 2015), There\'s Now A Bechdel Test For The Tech World, ThinkProgress\xa0 ↑ Kolakowski, Nick (Mar 24, 2015), A Bechdel Test for Tech?, Dice.com\xa0 ↑ Elaine Kamlley; Melody Kramer (March 17, 2015). "Does 18F Pass the Bechdel Test for Tech?".\xa0 ↑ Brainard, Curtis (22 March 2013). "\'The Finkbeiner Test\' Seven rules to avoid gratuitous gender profiles of female scientists". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved 31 March 2013.\xa0 ↑ "GLAAD introduces \'Studio Responsibility Index\', report on LGBT images in films released by \'Big Six\' studios". GLAAD. August 20, 2013. Retrieved August 24, 2013.\xa0 ↑ John, Arit (21 August 2013). "Beyond the Bechdel Test: Two (New) Ways of Looking at Movies". The Atlantic. Retrieved 15 September 2013.\xa0 ↑ Hudson, Laura (March 19, 2012). "Kelly Sue Deconnick on the Evolution of Carol Danvers to Captain Marvel [Interview]". Comics Alliance. Retrieved April 27, 2015.\xa0 ↑ Helvie, Forrest (November 21, 2013). "The Bechdel Test and a Sexy Lamp". Sequart Organization. Retrieved April 27, 2015.\xa0 ↑ Snow, Georgia (30 November 2015). "Theatre gets its own Bechdel Test". The Stage. Retrieved 6 December 2015.\xa0'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '1 2 Bechdel, Allison. "Testy". Alison Bechdel blog. Posted November 8, 2013. ↑ "Alison Bechdel Would Like You to Call It the "Bechdel-Wallace Test," ThankYouVeryMuch". 25 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Bechdel-Test: Frauen spielen keine Rolle". Kurier. 8 August 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012.\xa0 ↑ Woolf, Virginia. Thomas, Stephen, ed. "A Room of One\'s Own: Chapter 5". The University of Adelaide Library. University of Adelaide Press. Retrieved 24 December 2012.\xa0 ↑ Bleakley, A.; Jamieson, P. E.; Romer, D. (2012). "Trends of Sexual and Violent Content by Gender in Top-Grossing U.S. Films, 1950–2006". Journal of Adolescent Health 51 (1): 73–79. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.02.006. PMID\xa022727080.\xa0 ↑ Sakoui, Anousha; Magnusson, Niklas (22 September 2014). "\'Hunger Games\' success masks stubborn gender gap in Hollywood". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 22 September 2014.\xa0 ↑ Smith, Stacy L.; Choueiti, Marc; Pieper, Katherine; Gillig, Traci; Lee, Carmen; Dylan, DeLuca. "Inequality in 700 Popular Films: Examining Portrayals of Gender, Race, & LGBT Status from 2007 to 2014". USC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism. Retrieved 6 August 2015.\xa0 1 2 Martindale, Kathleen (1997). Un/Popular Culture: Lesbian Writing After the Sex Wars. Albany, NY: State Univ. of New York Press. p.\xa069. ISBN\xa00791432890.\xa0 ↑ Bechdel, Allison. Dykes to Watch Out For. Firebrand Books (October 1, 1986). ISBN 978-0932379177 ↑ "The Rule" comic page posted on Alison Bechdel\'s online photostream 1 2 Alisonbechdel.blogspot.com 1 2 Lawrence, Faith (June 2011). "SPARQLing Conversation: Automating The Bechdel-Wallace Test" (PDF). Paper presented at the Narrative and Hypertext Workshop, Hypertext 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2012.\xa0 ↑ On the Fresh Air program on NPR on August 17, 2015, in response to a question from host Terry Gross, Bechdel said she would prefer the test be referred to as the Bechdel-Wallace Test. 1 2 Wilson, Sarah (28 June 2012). "Bechdel Rule still applies to portrayal of women in films". The Oklahoma Daily.\xa0 1 2 Stross, Charles (28 July 2008). "Bechdel\'s Law". Charlie\'s Diary. Retrieved 26 July 2012.\xa0 1 2 3 4 NPR Ulaby, Neda "The \'Bechdel Rule,\' Defining Pop-Culture Character". September 2, 2008. ↑ Friend, Tad (11 April 2011). "Funny Like a Guy: Anna Faris and Hollywood\'s woman problem". The New Yorker (Condé Nast): 55. Retrieved 2011-09-17.\xa0 ↑ Morlan, Kinsee (23 July 2014). "Comic-Con vs. the Bechdel Test". San Diego City Beat. Retrieved 15 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ Steiger, Kay (2011). "No Clean Slate: Unshakeable race and gender politics in The Walking Dead". In Lowder, James. Triumph of The Walking Dead. BenBella Books. p.\xa0104. ISBN\xa09781936661138. Retrieved 2014-04-20.\xa0 ↑ Romano, Aja (18 August 2013). "The Mako Mori Test: \'Pacific Rim\' inspires a Bechdel Test alternative". The Daily Dot. Retrieved 15 September 2013.\xa0 1 2 McGuinness, Ross (18 July 2013). "The Bechdel test and why Hollywood is a man\'s, man\'s, man\'s world". Metro. Retrieved 15 September 2013.\xa0 ↑ Bechdel test academic paper. 1 2 Harris, Mark (6 August 2010). "I Am Woman. Hear Me... Please!". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 26 July 2012.\xa0 ↑ "The Oscars and the Bechdel Test". Feminist Frequency. February 15, 2012. Retrieved 2013-11-08.\xa0 ↑ "Swedish cinemas take aim at gender bias with Bechdel test rating". The Guardian. Associated Press. November 6, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-08.\xa0 ↑ "Gender equality within Eurimages: current situation and scope for evolution". European Women\'s Audiovisual Network. Retrieved 6 August 2015.\xa0 ↑ Gray, Kishonna (2014). Race, Gender, and Deviance in Xbox Live: Theoretical Perspectives from the Virtual Margins. Routledge. p.\xa028. ISBN\xa01317521803.\xa0 ↑ Anthropy, Anna (2012). Rise of the videogame zinesters: How freaks, normals, amateurs, artists, dreamers, dropouts, queers, housewives, and people like you are taking back an art form (Seven Stories Press 1st ed.). Seven Stories Press. ISBN\xa09781609803735. Retrieved 2014-04-20.\xa0 ↑ Agnello, Anthony John (July 2012). "Something other than a man: 15 games that pass the Bechdel Test". Gameological. Retrieved 26 July 2012.\xa0 ↑ Zalben, Alex (22 February 2012). "Witchblade/Red Sonja #1 Passes The Bechdel Test". MTV Geek!. Retrieved 26 July 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Does your show pass the Bechdel test? | Opinion | The Stage". The Stage. Retrieved 2016-02-05.\xa0 ↑ "Statistics". bechdeltest.com. Retrieved 13 November 2013.\xa0 1 2 Sharma, Versha; Sender, Hanna (2 January 2014). "Hollywood Movies With Strong Female Roles Make More Money". Vocativ. Retrieved 2 January 2014.\xa0 1 2 Power, Nina (2009). One-dimensional woman. Zero Books. pp.\xa039 et seq. ISBN\xa01846942411. Retrieved 2014-04-20.\xa0 1 2 Hickey, Walt (1 April 2014). "The Dollar-And-Cents Case Against Hollywood\'s Exclusion of Women". FiveThirtyEight.\xa0 ↑ Collin, Robbie (15 November 2013). "Bechdel test is damaging to the way we think about film". The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 November 2013.\xa0 ↑ Laurie Voss [seldo] (27 Feb 2015). "Does your project pass the Bechdel test? To pass, a function written by a woman dev must call a function written by another woman dev." (Tweet).\xa0 ↑ Williams, Lauren C. (March 19, 2015), There\'s Now A Bechdel Test For The Tech World, ThinkProgress\xa0 ↑ Kolakowski, Nick (Mar 24, 2015), A Bechdel Test for Tech?, Dice.com\xa0 ↑ Elaine Kamlley; Melody Kramer (March 17, 2015). "Does 18F Pass the Bechdel Test for Tech?".\xa0 ↑ Brainard, Curtis (22 March 2013). "\'The Finkbeiner Test\' Seven rules to avoid gratuitous gender profiles of female scientists". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved 31 March 2013.\xa0 ↑ "GLAAD introduces \'Studio Responsibility Index\', report on LGBT images in films released by \'Big Six\' studios". GLAAD. August 20, 2013. Retrieved August 24, 2013.\xa0 ↑ John, Arit (21 August 2013). "Beyond the Bechdel Test: Two (New) Ways of Looking at Movies". The Atlantic. Retrieved 15 September 2013.\xa0 ↑ Hudson, Laura (March 19, 2012). "Kelly Sue Deconnick on the Evolution of Carol Danvers to Captain Marvel [Interview]". Comics Alliance. Retrieved April 27, 2015.\xa0 ↑ Helvie, Forrest (November 21, 2013). "The Bechdel Test and a Sexy Lamp". Sequart Organization. Retrieved April 27, 2015.\xa0 ↑ Snow, Georgia (30 November 2015). "Theatre gets its own Bechdel Test". The Stage. Retrieved 6 December 2015.\xa0'}},
 {'id': '119369/mwCA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "Rajshahi College (Bengali: রাজশাহী কলেজ Rajshahi Kôlej) is the third oldest institutions of higher education in Bangladesh. Established in 1873 in Rajshahi city, it is said to be the third oldest college in Bangladesh after Dhaka College and Chittagong College. In 1895 Rajshahi College was the first institution in the territories now comprising Bangladesh to award a master's degree. The first two master's degree candidates, Mr. Choyon Uddin Ahmed and Mr. N. N. Lehari, who after graduation became Chief Secretary of Bengal and Session Judge respectively. Later both were awarded Khan Bahadur and Roy Bahadur titles. Rajshahi College offers three years bachelor and four years honours degree courses in various disciplines. The college is affiliated with the National University. Since 1996 it has stopped enrolling Higher Secondary students. Situated in the city center, Rajshahi College is adjacent to Rajshahi Collegiate School and is very near the famous Barendra Museum."},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'राजशाही कॉलेज बांग्लादेश में उच्च शिक्षा के तीसरे सबसे पुराने संस्थानों है। राजशाही शहर में 1873 में स्थापित, यह कहा जाता है कि ढाका कॉलेज और कॉलेज के बाद चटगांव बांग्लादेश में तीसरी सबसे पुराना कॉलेज होने के लिए।'}},
 {'id': '121482/mwBA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'A set of 52 playing cards of the Rouennais or English pattern by Piatnik & Söhne'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'सारे पत्ते, अंग्रेज़ी पैटर्न में।'}},
 {'id': '121482/mwCQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The deck of 52 French playing cards is the most common deck of playing cards used today. It includes thirteen ranks of each of the four French suits: clubs (♣), diamonds (♦), hearts (♥) and spades (♠), with reversible "court" or face cards. Some modern designs, however, have done away with reversible face cards. Each suit includes an ace, depicting a single symbol of its suit; a king, queen, and jack, each depicted with a symbol of its suit; and ranks two through ten, with each card depicting that many symbols (pips) of its suit. Anywhere from one to four (most often two) Jokers, often distinguishable with one being more colorful than the other, are added to commercial decks, as some games require this extended deck. Modern playing cards carry index labels on opposite corners (rarely, all four corners) to facilitate identifying the cards when they overlap and so that they appear identical for players on opposite sides. The most popular stylistic pattern of the French Deck is sometimes referred to as "English" or "Anglo-American playing cards".'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '52 फ़्रांसीसी ताश\xa0सबसे सामान्य पत्तियाँ की समूह है आजकल। चार सूट्स है इस प्रकार का ताश में:\xa0क्लब (♣), डाइमंड (♦), हार्ट (♥) और हुकुम (♠)।'}},
 {'id': '121591/mwAUk',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Sources'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'Sources'}},
 {'id': '121591/mwAUo',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Jain, Bhavarlal (2003), A Telling Tale (ISBN 81-89502-00-X) (PDF), archived (PDF) from the original on 26 February 2007, retrieved 16 April 2007\xa0'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'Jain, Bhavarlal (2003), A Telling Tale (ISBN 81-89502-00-X) (PDF), archived (PDF) from the original on 26 February 2007, retrieved 16 April 2007\xa0'}},
 {'id': '121591/mwBw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Bhavarlal Hiralal Jain (12 December 1937 – 25 February 2016) also known as Bade Bhau (Big Brother) or Bhumiputra (Son of the Earth), was an Indian businessman, the Founder Chairman of Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd. (JISL), now the second largest micro-irrigation company in the world.[1] He was a staunch Gandhian and philanthropist. He was the founder of Gandhi Research Foundation.[2]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'भवरलाल हीरालाल जैन\xa0(पद्म श्री), जैन इरीगेशन\xa0(JISL) के संस्थापक थे[1]\xa0वह एक पक्के गांधीवादी थे और उन्होंने जलगाँव में गाँधी तीर्थ (म्यूजियम) की स्थापना थी [2]'}},
 {'id': '121591/mwDA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Life (1937 to 2016)'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'जीवन\xa0'}},
 {'id': '121591/mwDQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Bhavarlal Jain was born into a farming family of a village named Wakod located in Jalgaon district, Maharashtra, India in 1937. A law graduate, he spurned the offer for a civil service job to pursue agriculture as a profession at the age of twenty-three.[1] In 1963, selling kerosene from a pushcart, Jain started the family business with trading. The family formed a partnership with a meager Rs. 7,000, the accumulated savings of three generations, as capital. In 1972-74, Jain decided to revert to his ancestral farms from trading and business.[3] In 1980, he commenced PVC pipe manufacturing operations. In 1987-88, he set up a Public Corporation – the first of its kind in the private sector in the Khandesh region – for production, promotion and propagation of drip irrigation in the country.[3] He purchased a piece of land that was lying between the hill and the Jalgaon – Pachora road. The revenue classification of the land was less than that of degraded land.[4] He converted this land into cultivable land, now recognised as the Jain Hills and Jain Valley, or Jain Agri Park and Jain Food Park respectively.[4] Then, he went on to pioneer the concept of micro irrigation in India. He received many awards and accolades for outstanding work in agriculture including the prestigious Crawford Reid Memorial Award instituted by Irrigation Association, USA for "Significant achievements in promoting proper irrigation techniques and in fostering major advancements in the Industry outside the United States of America" in 1997. He was the first Indian and the second Asian to receive this honor. He was greatly influenced by the Jain teachings of Ahimsa (non-violence) and Anekāntavāda (multiplicity of view points).[2] Mr. Jain died on 25th February, 2016.[5]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'भवरलाल जैन जी का जन्म महाराष्ट्र के जलगाँव जिले में स्थित वकोड़ नामक छोटे से गाँव में हुआ था\xa0 उन्हें लॉ की पढाई करने के उपरांत, भारतीय प्रशासनिक सेवा अधिकारी (डिप्टी कलेक्टर) की नौकरी का ऑफर आया\xa0 [1] तेईस वर्ष के भवरलाल ने इस नौकरी को न चुन कर खेती करने का निश्चय किया I १९७४ में भवरलाल जैन ने अपने पुश्तैनी खेतों का रुख किया[3]\xa0 १९८७-८८ में उन्होंने ड्रिप इरीगेशन को बढ़ावा देने के लिए एक कंपनी की शरुवात की\xa0 [3]\xa0उन्होंने एक बंजर जमीन खरीदकर उसे उपजाओ जमीन में दब्दील कर दिया\xa0[4]\xa0इसे अब जैन हिल, जैन वैली, जैन फ़ूड पार्क जैसे नामों से जाना जाता है \xa0[4]\xa0१९९७ में उन्हें "क्रावफोर्ड अवार्ड" से सम्मानित किया वह प्रथम भारतीय थे जिन्हें यह सम्मान प्राप्त हुआ था. भवरलाल जैन अहिंसा, अपरिग्रह, अनेकांतवाद, जैसे जैन सिद्धांतों से प्रभावित थे\xa0[2] २५ फरवरी २०१६ को भवरलाल जैन जी का निधन हो गया\xa0[5]'}},
 {'id': '121591/mwFw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Works'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'Works'}},
 {'id': '121591/mwGA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'View of Gandhi Teerth, a museum dedicated to Mahatma Gandhi, founded by Mr. Jain'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'View of Gandhi Teerth, a museum dedicated to Mahatma Gandhi, founded by Mr. Jain'}},
 {'id': '121591/mwHg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Inspired by a quote, "Agriculture: a profession with future" young Bhavarlal Jain added dealerships of tractors, sprinkler systems, PVC pipes, and other farm equipment. To broad-base the business, he also added agencies for farm inputs such as fertilizers, seeds, and pesticides. His business grew from Rs. 1 million in 1963 to Rs. 110 million till 1978.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '"खेती भविष्य का प्रोफेशन है" इस सूक्ति से प्रभावित होकर भवरलाल जैन ने अपने उद्योगिक सफ़र की शरुवात की'}},
 {'id': '121591/mwIg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "In July 2007, he founded the Anubhuti School,[7] a strictly vegetarian, residential school with a difference which judiciously blends classroom learning with experiential project work. This school recently achieved 'Green School Award'."},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': "२००७ में उन्होंने अनुभूति स्कूल की स्थापना की\xa0[7]\xa0इस स्कूल को कुछ वर्षों पूर्व 'ग्रीन स्कूल अवार्ड' मिला\xa0"}},
 {'id': '121591/mwJA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "Mr. Jain was the Managing Trustee of 'Jain Charities', an organisation dedicated to social causes like education and rural development.[8] The organisation is now known as 'Bhavarlal and Kantabai Jain Multipurpose Foundation'.[9]"},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'भवरलाल जैन एक समाजसेवी संस्था के संस्थापक थे जो गाँव में शिक्षा प्रदान करने की और अग्रसर है[8]\xa0'}},
 {'id': '121591/mwJQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Writings'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'पुस्तके'}},
 {'id': '121591/mwJg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Mr. Jain authored many books in English and Marathi. The following table contains his writings according to the year of publishing. His speeches, articles and interviews have been collected and published extensively.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'भवरलाल जैन जी ने कईं पुस्तके भी लिखी\xa0'}},
 {'id': '121591/mwJw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "Index Number Title of Book Year of Publication Subject Language 1 Aajchi Samajrachna, tiche swarup va punarbandhani 2001 Present social system and its reconstruction Marathi 2 A Telling Tale 2003 Water Management and Conservation English 3 Ti aani Mi 2009 Autobiographical and inspirational sketch of a spiritually united couple Marathi 4 Uniting Bond 2010 25 years' journey between two friends English 5 Then and Now 2011 Transformation of Jain Hills English 6 The Enlightened Entrepreneur[10] 2013 Compilation of lectures delivered by Mr. Jain English"},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': "Index Number बुक का नामYear of Publication Subject Language 1 Aajchi Samajrachna, tiche swarup va punarbandhani 2001 Present social system and its reconstruction Marathi 2 A Telling Tale 2003 Water Management and Conservation English 3 Ti aani Mi 2009 Autobiographical and inspirational sketch of a spiritually united couple Marathi 4 Uniting Bond 2010 25 years' journey between two friends English 5 Then and Now 2011 Transformation of Jain Hills English 6 The Enlightened Entrepreneur[10] २०१३ Compilation of lectures delivered by Mr. Jain English"}},
 {'id': '121591/mwUw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Awards and Recognitions'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'सम्मान'}},
 {'id': '121591/mwVA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Mr. Jain received 22 International and National Awards.[11] He was conferred the prestigious UNESCO-West-Net "Water Conserver of India" award in November 2007 by the Hon\'ble Union Minister of Water Resources, Prof. Saif-Ud-Din Soz at a function held in New Delhi attended by eminent delegates from the World Bank, UNICEF, UNESCO, Central Water Commission and TERI .[12] In 2008, he was awarded with Padma Shri, India\'s fourth highest civilian award by the Government of India .[13] The North Maharashtra University awarded him with the degree of Doctor of Letters (Honoris causa) for "Remarkable achievements in the field of agriculture, industry and social work". Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Rajasthan and Konkan Krishi Vidhyapith, Maharashtra awarded the degrees of Doctor of Science (Honoris Causa ) to him for "tremendous service to the nation by putting up Research Projects and Drip Irrigation Projects which is a unique boon to the agriculturists all over."[14] and "Significant Contribution in the field of Agriculture, Horticulture, Micro Irrigation & Water Conservation."respectively.[15] In 2012, he was awarded with "The Good Company Award" by Forbes.[16]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'भवरलाल जैन को २२ से अधिक रास्ट्रीय और अन्तराष्ट्रीय पुरस्कार से सम्मानित किया गया था\xa0[11]\xa0२००७ में इन्हें उनेस्को-वेस्ट-नेट "वाटर कांसेर्वेर ऑफ इंडिया" अवार्ड दिया गया था\xa0[12]\xa0२००८ में विज्ञान के क्षेत्र में इनके योगदान के लिए पद्म श्री से नवाजा गया था\xa0.[13]\xa0इन्हें महाराणा प्रताप विश्वविद्यालय द्वारा डॉ ऑफ साइंस की उपाधि प्रदान की गयी थी\xa0[14]\xa0[15]\xa0'}},
 {'id': '121591/mwyg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'References'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'References'}},
 {'id': '121591/mwyw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '1 2 Forbes\xa0 1 2 Gandhi Research Foundation http://www.gandhifoundation.net/Foundersmessage.htm. Retrieved 25 February 2016.\xa0 Missing or empty |title= (help) 1 2 Jain 2003, p.\xa010. 1 2 Jain 2003, p.\xa010-11. ↑ The father of the second green revolution, Bhavarlal Jain, passes away in Mumbai\xa0 ↑ "Grand Nain – Tissue cultured Banana variety" (PDF). Archived from Global Conference on Banana and Plantain the original Check |url= value (help) (PDF) on 20 July 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2007.\xa0 ↑ "Anubhuti School". Retrieved 27 April 2007.\xa0 ↑ "Jain Charities". Retrieved 27 April 2007.\xa0 ↑ "Dr. Appasaheb Pawar Modern Agri High Tech Award".\xa0 ↑ Jain, Bhavarlal H (2013-12-04), The Enlightened Entrepreneur, ISBN\xa09788129131942\xa0 ↑ "Awards Received by the Chairman B. H. Jain". Archived from the original on 18 April 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2007.\xa0 ↑ "Awards Received by the Chairman B. H. Jain". Retrieved 3 April 2008.\xa0[dead link] ↑ Padma Shree ↑ "Doctor of Science (Honoris Causa) from Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology". Archived from University Convocation the original Check |url= value (help) on 10 March 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2007.\xa0 ↑ "Doctor of Science (Honoris Causa)from Konkan Krishi Vidhyapith". Retrieved 16 April 2008.\xa0 ↑ "Jain Irrigation Systems: The Good Company".\xa0'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '1 2 Forbes\xa0 1 2 Gandhi Research Foundation http://www.gandhifoundation.net/Foundersmessage.htm. Retrieved 25 February 2016.\xa0 Missing or empty |title= (help) 1 2 Jain 2003, p.\xa010. 1 2 Jain 2003, p.\xa010-11. ↑ The father of the second green revolution, Bhavarlal Jain, passes away in Mumbai\xa0 ↑ "Grand Nain – Tissue cultured Banana variety" (PDF). Archived from Global Conference on Banana and Plantain the original Check |url= value (help) (PDF) on 20 July 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2007.\xa0 ↑ "Anubhuti School". Retrieved 27 April 2007.\xa0 ↑ "Jain Charities". Retrieved 27 April 2007.\xa0 ↑ "Dr. Appasaheb Pawar Modern Agri High Tech Award".\xa0 ↑ Jain, Bhavarlal H (2013-12-04), The Enlightened Entrepreneur, ISBN\xa09788129131942\xa0 ↑ "Awards Received by the Chairman B. H. Jain". Archived from the original on 18 April 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2007.\xa0 ↑ "Awards Received by the Chairman B. H. Jain". Retrieved 3 April 2008.\xa0[dead link] ↑ Padma Shree ↑ "Doctor of Science (Honoris Causa) from Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology". Archived from University Convocation the original Check |url= value (help) on 10 March 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2007.\xa0 ↑ "Doctor of Science (Honoris Causa)from Konkan Krishi Vidhyapith". Retrieved 16 April 2008.\xa0 ↑ "Jain Irrigation Systems: The Good Company".\xa0'}},
 {'id': '122226/mwBA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Relief depicting Pañca-Parameṣṭhi (Photo: Shri Mahavirji)'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'पंच\xa0परमेष्ठी'}},
 {'id': '122226/mwCw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The Pañca-Parameṣṭhi (Sanskrit for "five supreme beings") in Jainism are a fivefold hierarchy of religious authorities worthy of veneration.[1][2]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'पंच परमेष्ठी जैन धर्म के अनुसार सर्व पूजिए हैं\xa0[1][2]\xa0परमेष्ठी उन्हें कहते है हैं जो परम पद स्थित हों।'}},
 {'id': '122226/mwDw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Overview'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'पंच परमेष्ठी'}},
 {'id': '122226/mwEA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The five supreme beings are:'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'यह पंच\xa0परमेष्ठी हैं-'}},
 {'id': '122226/mwEQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Arhat: The awakened souls who have attained keval gyan are considered as Arihant. The 24 Tirthankaraas or Jinas, the legendary founding figures of Jainism in the present time cycle are Arihants. All Tirthankaras are Arihants but all Arihants are not Thirthankars.[2] Siddha: The souls which have been liberated from the birth and death cycle. Acarya Upadhyaya ("Preceptors") Muni or Jain monks'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'अरिहंत: \xa0जो दिव्य शरीर में स्थित रहते हैं। जिन्होंने चार घातिया कर्मों का नाश कर दिया हो.[2] सिद्ध: जो शरीर रहित हैं जिन्होंने सभी कर्मों का नाश कर दिया है इनके मुख्य आठ गुण होते हैं आचार्य\xa0परमेष्ठी- मुनि संघ के नेता। इनके छत्तीस मूल गुण होते हैं उपाध्याय\xa0परमेष्ठी\xa0- जो नए मुनियों को ज्ञान उपार्जन में सहयोग करते हैं।\xa0 मुनि'}},
 {'id': '122226/mwJw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Five supreme beings'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': ''}},
 {'id': '122226/mwKA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Obeisance to Pañca-Parameṣṭhi (five supreme beings)'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'णमोकर मंत्र'}},
 {'id': '122226/mwQQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Notes'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'संदर्भ'}},
 {'id': '122226/mwQg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '1 2 Jaini, Padmanabh S. (1998). The Jaina Path Of Purification. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p.\xa0163. ISBN\xa09788120815780. Retrieved 10 December 2012.\xa0 1 2 Shah, Natubhai (1998). Jainism: The World of Conquerors, Volume 1. Sussex Academic Press. p.\xa0174. ISBN\xa09781898723301. Retrieved 14 December 2012.\xa0 ↑ Jain 2013, p.\xa0177-196. 1 2 Jain 2013, p.\xa0177. ↑ Jain 2013, p.\xa0182. ↑ Jain 2013, p.\xa0173.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '1 2 Jaini, Padmanabh S. (1998). The Jaina Path Of Purification. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p.\xa0163. ISBN\xa09788120815780. Retrieved 10 December 2012.\xa0 1 2 Shah, Natubhai (1998). Jainism: The World of Conquerors, Volume 1. Sussex Academic Press. p.\xa0174. ISBN\xa09781898723301. Retrieved 14 December 2012.\xa0 ↑ Jain 2013, p.\xa0177-196. 1 2 Jain 2013, p.\xa0177. ↑ Jain 2013, p.\xa0182. ↑ Jain 2013, p.\xa0173.'}},
 {'id': '122226/mwYw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'References'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'संदर्भ सूची'}},
 {'id': '122226/mwZA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "Jain, Vijay K. (2013), Ācārya Nemichandra's Dravyasaṃgraha, ISBN\xa09788190363952, Non-copyright\xa0"},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': "Jain, Vijay K. (2013), Ācārya Nemichandra's Dravyasaṃgraha, ISBN\xa09788190363952, Non-copyright\xa0"}},
 {'id': '123824/mwAQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'an open-air mosque, near Jeddah, Saudi Arabia'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'सऊदी अरब के शहर जेद्दा में एक खुली मस्जिद\xa0'}},
 {'id': '123824/mwBQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Shahi Eidgah, Sylhet'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'सिलहेट\xa0का\xa0शाही\xa0ईद\xa0गाह\xa0'}},
 {'id': '123824/mwCw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "Eidgah or Idgah (Urdu: عید گاہ\u200e) is the term used in south Asian Islamic culture for the open-air gathering place usually outside the city (or at the outskirts) to perform the Salat al Eid (Eid prayers) for Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.[1] It is usually a public place that isn't used as a mosque at other times of the year.[2] At the end of the holy month of Ramadan, Muslims celebrate by first offering prayers at an Eidgah. It is a large open ground for people to assemble and offer their prayers early in the morning on the Eid day.[3][4] Although the term eidgah is of South Asian origin, Muslims around the world generally perform Eid prayers on similar pieces of open ground. [5]"},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'ईद गाह \xa0या ईदगाह (उर्दू: عید گاہ\u200e) : दक्षिण एशिया में उपयोगित इसलामी संस्कृती का एक शब्द है। ईदुल-फ़ित्र और ईद अल-अज़हा के पर्वों के अवसर पर, गांव के बाहर, सामूहिक प्रार्थनाओं के लिये उपयोग किये जाने वाला स्थल या मैदान। खास तौर पर रमदान और बक़र ईद के मौक़ों पर यहां नमाज़ (सलात) पढी जाती है, जिसे ईद की नमाज़ भी कहा जाता है।\xa0[1] साधारण\xa0तौर\xa0पर\xa0जहां\xa0रोज़ाना पांच वक़्त की\xa0नमाज़\xa0पढी\xa0जाती\xa0है\xa0उस\xa0स्थल\xa0को\xa0मसजिद\xa0कहते\xa0हैं[2]\xa0'}},
 {'id': '123824/mwFw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'It was a practice of Muhammad to perform the Eid salaah (prayer) in an open space on the outskirts of the city. Hence, it is considered a sunnah to perform Eid salaah at the Eidgah.[6] The very first Eidgah was at the outskirts of Medina nearly 1,000 footsteps from Masjid al Nabawi.[7],[1]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'इसलामी परंपरा के अनुसार यह माना जाता है कि हज़रत मुहम्मद ने ईद की नमाज़ अदा की थी, इस लिये इस नमाज़ को ईद गाह पर अदा करना सुन्नत (प्रेशित का तरीक़ा) माना जाता है।\xa0[6]\xa0'}},
 {'id': '123824/mwUA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'See also'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'यह\xa0भी\xa0देखिये'}},
 {'id': '123824/mwUg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Eid ul-Fitr Eid al-Adha'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'ईद उल-फ़ितर ईद अल-अज़हा'}},
 {'id': '123824/mwVw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'References'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'सन्दर्भ'}},
 {'id': '123824/mwWg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '1 2 Performance of Eid Salah in Eidgah (Open Field) ↑ "Special prayers in Idgah seeking divine blessings, eternal peace". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 February 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Traffic curbs on Eid". Times of India. Retrieved 9 February 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Traffic restrictions imposed for Eid prayers". Siasat Daily. Retrieved 9 February 2012.\xa0 ↑ ↑ Eidgah ↑ (Mariful Hadîth, Vol. 3, P.399) ↑ (Fatwa Darul Uloom, Vol 5, P. 208) \xa0This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ↑ (Fatwa Darul Uloom, Vol. 5, P.2261) \xa0This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ↑ (Ahsanul Fatwa, Vol. 4, P. 119) \xa0This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ↑ (Fatwa Rahimiyah, Vol. 1, P.276) \xa0This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. 1 2 3 Biography of Pir Saab'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '1 2 Performance of Eid Salah in Eidgah (Open Field) ↑ "Special prayers in Idgah seeking divine blessings, eternal peace". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 February 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Traffic curbs on Eid". Times of India. Retrieved 9 February 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Traffic restrictions imposed for Eid prayers". Siasat Daily. Retrieved 9 February 2012.\xa0 ↑ ↑ Eidgah ↑ (Mariful Hadîth, Vol. 3, P.399) ↑ (Fatwa Darul Uloom, Vol 5, P. 208) \xa0This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ↑ (Fatwa Darul Uloom, Vol. 5, P.2261) \xa0This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ↑ (Ahsanul Fatwa, Vol. 4, P. 119) \xa0This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ↑ (Fatwa Rahimiyah, Vol. 1, P.276) \xa0This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. 1 2 3 Biography of Pir Saab'}},
 {'id': '125327/mwAQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "Industry 4.0, Industrie 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution,[1] is a collective term embracing a number of contemporary automation, data exchange and manufacturing technologies. It had been defined as 'a collective term for technologies and concepts of value chain organization' which draws together Cyber-Physical Systems, the Internet of Things and the Internet of Services.[2][3][4]"},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'उद्योग 4.0, इंडस्ट्री 4.0\xa0अथवा चौथी औद्योगिक क्रांति\xa0एक सामूहिक शब्द है, जो बहुत सारे समकालीन स्वचालन, डाटा एक्सचेंज तथा विनिर्माण प्रौद्योगिकियों को समाविष्ट करता है। यह उन प्रौद्योगिकियों और मूल्य श्रृंखला संगठन की अवधारणाओं के लिए परिभाषित एक सामूहिक शब्द है जो साइबर भौतिक प्रणालियों, इंटरनेट ऑफ थिंग्स तथा इंटरनेट ऑफ सर्विसेज को एक साथ लाते हैं।\xa0 उद्योग 4.0 "स्मार्ट फैक्टरी" के निष्पादन और दृष्टिकोण को सुगम बनाता है। उद्योग 4.0 की मॉड्यूलर संरचित स्मार्ट फैक्ट्री के तहत, साइबर भौतिक प्रणालियां भौतिक प्रक्रियाओं की निगरानी, भौतिक दुनिया के एक आभासी प्रतिलिपि का सृजन और विकेन्द्रीकृत निर्णय लेती हैं। इंटरनेट ऑफ थिंग्स के संदर्भ में, साइबर भौतिक प्रणालियां वास्तविक समय में एक दूसरे के साथ और मनुष्य के साथ संवाद और सहयोग करती हैं, जबकि इंटरनेट ऑफ सर्विसेज के माध्यम से, मूल्य श्रृंखला के प्रतिभागियों द्वारा आंतरिक और पार-संगठनात्मक सेवाओं की पेशकश और इनका उपयोग किया जाता है।'}},
 {'id': '125327/mwCQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Industry 4.0 facilitates the vision and execution of a "Smart Factory". Within the modular structured Smart Factories of Industry 4.0, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralized decisions. Over the Internet of Things, cyber-physical systems communicate and cooperate with each other and with humans in real time, and via the Internet of Services, both internal and cross-organizational services are offered and utilized by participants of the value chain.[2]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': ''}},
 {'id': '125327/mwCg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Name'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'नाम'}},
 {'id': '125327/mwCw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'The term "Industrie 4.0" originates from a project in the high-tech strategy of the German government, which promotes the computerization of manufacturing.[5] The first industrial revolution mobilised the mechanization of production using water and steam power. The second industrial revolution then introduced mass production with the help of electric power, followed by the digital revolution and the use of electronics and IT to further automate production.[6]'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'उद्योग 4.0 शब्द की उत्पति जर्मन सरकार, जो कि विनिर्माण के कंप्यूटरीकरण को प्रोत्साहित करती है, की एक उच्च तकनीकी रणनीति वाली एक परियोजना से हुई है। जल एवं वाष्प चालित मशीनीकृत उत्पादन का संबंध प्रथम औद्योगिक क्रांति से है, जबकि द्वितीय औद्योगिक क्रांति के तहत विद्युत शक्ति के सहयोग से बड़े पैमाने पर उत्पादन को संभव बनाया गया। डिजिटल क्रांति को तीसरी औद्योगिक क्रांति से जोड़ा जाता है, जबकि स्वचालित उत्पादन के लिए आई.टी. और इलेक्ट्रॉनिक्स के प्रयोग का संबंध चौथी\xa0औद्योगिक क्रांति से है।'}},
 {'id': '125327/mwIQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Meaning'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'Meaning'}},
 {'id': '125327/mwIg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'Characteristic for industrial production in an Industry 4.0 environment are the strong customization of products under the conditions of highly flexibilized (mass-) production. The required automation technology is improved by the introduction of methods of self-optimization, self-configuration,[9] Self-diagnosis, cognition and intelligent support of workers in their increasingly complex work.[10] The largest project in Industry 4.0 at the present time (July 2013) is the BMBF leading-edge cluster "Intelligent Technical Systems OstWestfalenLippe (it\'s OWL)". Another major project is the BMBF project RES-COM,[11] as well as the Cluster of Excellence "Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries".[12] In 2015, the European Commission started the international Horizon 2020 research project CREMA[13] (Providing Cloud-based Rapid Elastic MAnufacturing based on the XaaS and Cloud model) as a major initiative to foster the Industry 4.0 topic.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'Characteristic for industrial production in an Industry 4.0 environment are the strong customization of products under the conditions of highly flexibilized (mass-) production. The required automation technology is improved by the introduction of methods of self-optimization, self-configuration,[9] Self-diagnosis, cognition and intelligent support of workers in their increasingly complex work.[10] The largest project in Industry 4.0 at the present time (July 2013) is the BMBF leading-edge cluster "Intelligent Technical Systems OstWestfalenLippe (it\'s OWL)". Another major project is the BMBF project RES-COM,[11] as well as the Cluster of Excellence "Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries".[12] In 2015, the European Commission started the international Horizon 2020 research project CREMA[13] (Providing Cloud-based Rapid Elastic MAnufacturing based on the XaaS and Cloud model) as a major initiative to foster the Industry 4.0 topic.'}},
 {'id': '125327/mwYw',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'References'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'References'}},
 {'id': '125327/mwZA',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '↑ Klaus Schwab 2016: The Fourth Industrial Revolution, accessed on 12 Jan 2016 1 2 3 Hermann, Pentek, Otto, 2015: Design Principles for Industrie 4.0 Scenarios, accessed on 3 February 2015 ↑ Jürgen Jasperneite:Was hinter Begriffen wie Industrie 4.0 steckt in Computer & Automation, 19 Dezember 2012 accessed on 23 December 2012 ↑ Kagermann, H., W. Wahlster and J. Helbig, eds., 2013: Recommendations for implementing the strategic initiative Industrie 4.0: Final report of the Industrie 4.0 Working Group ↑ Zukunftsprojekt Industrie 4.0 ↑ Die Evolution zur Industrie 4.0 in der Produktion Last download on 14. April 2013 ↑ Industrie 4.0: Mit dem Internet der Dinge auf dem Weg zur 4. industriellen Revolution, VDI-Nachrichten, April 2011 ↑ Industrie 4.0 Plattform Last download on 15. Juli 2013 ↑ Selbstkonfiguierende Automation für Intelligente Technische Systeme, Video, last download on 27. Dezember 2012 ↑ Jürgen Jasperneite; Oliver, Niggemann: Intelligente Assistenzsysteme zur Beherrschung der Systemkomplexität in der Automation. In: ATP edition - Automatisierungstechnische Praxis, 9/2012, Oldenbourg Verlag, München, September 2012 ↑ Projekt RES-COM ↑ Webseite Exzellenzcluster "Integrative Produktionstechnik für Hochlohnländer", Last download on 15. July 2013 ↑ Projekt CREMA ↑ The Internet of Things and the future of manufacturing, ↑ Lee, Jay, Industry 4.0 in Big Data Environment, Harting Tech News 26, 2013, http://www.harting.com/fileadmin/harting/documents/lg/hartingtechnologygroup/news/tec-news/tec-news26/EN_tecNews26.pdf ↑ Lee, Jay; Bagheri, Behrad; Kao, Hung-An (2014). "Recent Advances and Trends of Cyber-Physical Systems and Big Data Analytics in Industrial Informatics". IEEE Int. Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN) 2014.\xa0 ↑ Lee, Jay; Lapira, Edzel; Bagheri, Behrad; Kao, Hung-an. "Recent advances and trends in predictive manufacturing systems in big data environment". Manufacturing Letters 1 (1): 38–41. doi:10.1016/j.mfglet.2013.09.005.\xa0 ↑ http://www.imscenter.net/IMS_news/cincinnati-mayor-proclaimed-cincinnati-to-be-industry-4-0-demonstration-city ↑ http://www.thequint.com/business/2016/02/24/india-can-gain-by-leapfrogging-into-fourth-industrial-revolution'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '↑ Klaus Schwab 2016: The Fourth Industrial Revolution, accessed on 12 Jan 2016 1 2 3 Hermann, Pentek, Otto, 2015: Design Principles for Industrie 4.0 Scenarios, accessed on 3 February 2015 ↑ Jürgen Jasperneite:Was hinter Begriffen wie Industrie 4.0 steckt in Computer & Automation, 19 Dezember 2012 accessed on 23 December 2012 ↑ Kagermann, H., W. Wahlster and J. Helbig, eds., 2013: Recommendations for implementing the strategic initiative Industrie 4.0: Final report of the Industrie 4.0 Working Group ↑ Zukunftsprojekt Industrie 4.0 ↑ Die Evolution zur Industrie 4.0 in der Produktion Last download on 14. April 2013 ↑ Industrie 4.0: Mit dem Internet der Dinge auf dem Weg zur 4. industriellen Revolution, VDI-Nachrichten, April 2011 ↑ Industrie 4.0 Plattform Last download on 15. Juli 2013 ↑ Selbstkonfiguierende Automation für Intelligente Technische Systeme, Video, last download on 27. Dezember 2012 ↑ Jürgen Jasperneite; Oliver, Niggemann: Intelligente Assistenzsysteme zur Beherrschung der Systemkomplexität in der Automation. In: ATP edition - Automatisierungstechnische Praxis, 9/2012, Oldenbourg Verlag, München, September 2012 ↑ Projekt RES-COM ↑ Webseite Exzellenzcluster "Integrative Produktionstechnik für Hochlohnländer", Last download on 15. July 2013 ↑ Projekt CREMA ↑ The Internet of Things and the future of manufacturing, ↑ Lee, Jay, Industry 4.0 in Big Data Environment, Harting Tech News 26, 2013, http://www.harting.com/fileadmin/harting/documents/lg/hartingtechnologygroup/news/tec-news/tec-news26/EN_tecNews26.pdf ↑ Lee, Jay; Bagheri, Behrad; Kao, Hung-An (2014). "Recent Advances and Trends of Cyber-Physical Systems and Big Data Analytics in Industrial Informatics". IEEE Int. Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN) 2014.\xa0 ↑ Lee, Jay; Lapira, Edzel; Bagheri, Behrad; Kao, Hung-an. "Recent advances and trends in predictive manufacturing systems in big data environment". Manufacturing Letters 1 (1): 38–41. doi:10.1016/j.mfglet.2013.09.005.\xa0 ↑ http://www.imscenter.net/IMS_news/cincinnati-mayor-proclaimed-cincinnati-to-be-industry-4-0-demonstration-city ↑ http://www.thequint.com/business/2016/02/24/india-can-gain-by-leapfrogging-into-fourth-industrial-revolution'}},
 {'id': '126568/mwBg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': "Kanhaiya Kumar is a leader of the All India Student Federation (AISF), the student wing of the Communist Party of India (CPI). He was elected president of the Jawaharlal Nehru University Students' Union in 2015. In February 2016, he was arrested and charged with sedition on the charges of raising anti-India slogans in a student rally against the 2013 hanging of Mohammed Afzal Guru, a Kashmiri separatist convicted over the 2001 Indian Parliament attack.[1] He was released on interim bail at 2 March 2016, since no evidence of Kumar participating in anti-national slogans has been presented by the police.[2][3]In parallel, a disciplinary committee constituted by JNU Vice-Chancellor is also investigating the controversial event. On the basis of the initial investigation report, Kanhaiya Kumar and seven other students were academically debarred.[4][5]"},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'कन्हैया कुमार All India Student Federation (AISF), जो\xa0 Communist Party of India (CPI) का स्टूडैंट विंग है, का नेता है. वह 2015 में जेएनयू (जवाहरलाल नेहरू विश्वविद्यालय) छात्रसंघ के अध्यक्ष पद के लिए चुने गए थे. फरवरी 2016 में \xa0 जेएनयू में एक कश्मीरी अलगाववादी, 2001 में भारतीय संसद पर हमले के दोषी, मोहम्मद अफजल गुरु को फांसी के खिलाफ एक छात्र रैली में राष्\u200dट्रविरोधी नारे लगाने के आरोप में देशद्रोह का मामला दर्ज किया गया था। उसे दिल्ली पुलिस ने गिरफ्तार किया था।[1] उसे 2 मार्च 2016 में अंतरिम जमानत पर रिहा कर दिया गया था, क्योंकि राष्ट्र विरोधी नारों में भाग लेने का पुलिस द्वारा कुमार का कोई सबूत प्रस्तुत नहीं किया गया।[2][3] इसके इलावा जेएनयू के कुलपति द्वारा गठित एक अनुशासन समिति भी विवादास्पद घटना की जांच कर रही है। प्रारंभिक जांच रिपोर्ट के आधार पर, कन्हैया कुमार और सात अन्य छात्रों को अकादमिक तौर पर वंचित कर दिया गया।[5]'}},
 {'id': '126568/mwPQ',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': 'References'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': 'References'}},
 {'id': '126568/mwPg',
  'sourceLanguage': 'en',
  'targetLanguage': 'hi',
  'source': {'content': '↑ "Why an Indian student has been arrested for sedition". BBC News. Retrieved 17 February 2016.\xa0 1 2 JNU row: Kanhaiya Kumar gets bail and a lesson on thoughts that ‘infect… (like) gangrene’, Indian Express, 3 March 2016. 1 2 JNUSU president Kanhaiya Kumar gets clean chit in AAP government appointed probe, Economic Times, 3 March 2016. ↑ Kanhaiya Had Objected To Cancellation Of Permission For Afzal Guru Event: JNU Registrar, NDTV, 7 March 2016. ↑ Kanhaiya Had Objected to Cancellation of Permission for Afzal Guru Event: JNU Registrar, Indian Express, 8 March 2016. ↑ Anuja. "JNU row: Who is Kanhaiya Kumar?". livemint.com.\xa0 ↑ "JNU row: How Kanhaiya Kumar became president of JNU Students\' Union". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 17 February 2016.\xa0 ↑ http://www.telegraphindia.com/1160219/jsp/bihar/story_70065.jsp#.VtqLOpx97IU ↑ "JNU row: How Kanhaiya Kumar became President of JNU\'s students union". dna. 15 February 2016.\xa0 ↑ "10 Lesser Known Facts about Kanhaiya Kumar – The JNUSU President!". Retrieved 18 February 2016.\xa0 ↑ The Arrest of a Student Leader at a Top University Reignites India’s Intolerance Debate, TIME, 15 February 2016. ↑ "Exclusive: JNUSU chief Kanhaiya Kumar\'s interrogation report accessed".\xa0 ↑ Jason Burke. "Protests to continue at Indian university after student leader\'s arrest". the Guardian.\xa0 ↑ "JNUSU president Kanhaiya Kumar ‘victim of Hindutva politics’ say parents". Hindustan Times.\xa0 ↑ "Sedition case against JNUSU president: Lawyers, BJP MLA take law in their fists". The Indian Express. 16 February 2016.\xa0 ↑ "Lawyers attack arrested JNUSU president Kanhaiya Kumar in Patiala House court complex". The Times of India. Retrieved 17 February 2016.\xa0 ↑ Mathur, Avarnita (22 February 2016). "EXCLUSIVE: Kanhaiya wet his pants while we beat him up in police custody, say lawyers behind Patiala House assault". India today. Retrieved 24 February 2016.\xa0 ↑ "JNU sedition case: Video is out; Kanhaiya Kumar assaulted, breaks down, police duck for cover". The Indian Express. 28 February 2016.\xa0 ↑ Mathur, Aneesha (2 March 2016). "JNU row: Kanhaiya Kumar gets 6-month interim bail by Delhi HC - See more at: http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/kanhaiya-kumar-bail-jnu-delhi-high-court/#sthash.awHRRtAu.dpuf". Indian Express. Retrieved 2 March 2016.\xa0 External link in |title= (help) ↑ Delhi HC gives Kanhaiya Kumar bail quoting Bollywood song and calling slogans an \'infection\', Scroll.in, 2 March 2016. ↑ JNUSU leader Kanhaiya Kumar gives blistering speech after release, The Hindu, 3 March 2016. ↑ Full Speech: Kanhaiya Kumar, Out On Bail, Speaks Of \'Azadi\' On JNU Campus, NDTV, 3 March 2016. ↑ \'Azaadi, azaadi\': Kanhaiya Kumar gives fiery speech mocking Modi govt, Sangh Parivar at JNU campus, DNA India, 3 March 2016. ↑ Govt will provide security to Kanhaiya Kumar: Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi in Rajya Sabha, Indian Express, 8 March 2016. ↑ Bounties, death threats: BJP mounts full-scale attack on JNU’s Kanhaiya, The Hindustan Times, 6 March 2016. ↑ Shoot Kanhaiya Kumar, get a reward of Rs 11 lakh: Posters in Delhi, The Hindustan Times, 5 March 2016. ↑ Arrested for Posters Offering 11 Lakhs for Killing Kanhaiya Kumar, NDTV.com, 7 March 2016. ↑ Kanhaiya in a fresh spot over "anti-national" remarks, Business Standard, 9 March 2016.'},
  'mt': None,
  'target': {'content': '↑ "Why an Indian student has been arrested for sedition". BBC News. Retrieved 17 February 2016.\xa0 1 2 JNU row: Kanhaiya Kumar gets bail and a lesson on thoughts that ‘infect… (like) gangrene’, Indian Express, 3 March 2016. 1 2 JNUSU president Kanhaiya Kumar gets clean chit in AAP government appointed probe, Economic Times, 3 March 2016. ↑ Kanhaiya Had Objected To Cancellation Of Permission For Afzal Guru Event: JNU Registrar, NDTV, 7 March 2016. ↑ Kanhaiya Had Objected to Cancellation of Permission for Afzal Guru Event: JNU Registrar, Indian Express, 8 March 2016. ↑ Anuja. "JNU row: Who is Kanhaiya Kumar?". livemint.com.\xa0 ↑ "JNU row: How Kanhaiya Kumar became president of JNU Students\' Union". Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved 17 February 2016.\xa0 ↑ http://www.telegraphindia.com/1160219/jsp/bihar/story_70065.jsp#.VtqLOpx97IU ↑ "JNU row: How Kanhaiya Kumar became President of JNU\'s students union". dna. 15 February 2016.\xa0 ↑ "10 Lesser Known Facts about Kanhaiya Kumar – The JNUSU President!". Retrieved 18 February 2016.\xa0 ↑ The Arrest of a Student Leader at a Top University Reignites India’s Intolerance Debate, TIME, 15 February 2016. ↑ "Exclusive: JNUSU chief Kanhaiya Kumar\'s interrogation report accessed".\xa0 ↑ Jason Burke. "Protests to continue at Indian university after student leader\'s arrest". the Guardian.\xa0 ↑ "JNUSU president Kanhaiya Kumar ‘victim of Hindutva politics’ say parents". Hindustan Times.\xa0 ↑ "Sedition case against JNUSU president: Lawyers, BJP MLA take law in their fists". The Indian Express. 16 February 2016.\xa0 ↑ "Lawyers attack arrested JNUSU president Kanhaiya Kumar in Patiala House court complex". The Times of India. Retrieved 17 February 2016.\xa0 ↑ Mathur, Avarnita (22 February 2016). "EXCLUSIVE: Kanhaiya wet his pants while we beat him up in police custody, say lawyers behind Patiala House assault". India today. Retrieved 24 February 2016.\xa0 ↑ "JNU sedition case: Video is out; Kanhaiya Kumar assaulted, breaks down, police duck for cover". The Indian Express. 28 February 2016.\xa0 ↑ Mathur, Aneesha (2 March 2016). "JNU row: Kanhaiya Kumar gets 6-month interim bail by Delhi HC - See more at: http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/kanhaiya-kumar-bail-jnu-delhi-high-court/#sthash.awHRRtAu.dpuf". Indian Express. Retrieved 2 March 2016.\xa0 External link in |title= (help) ↑ Delhi HC gives Kanhaiya Kumar bail quoting Bollywood song and calling slogans an \'infection\', Scroll.in, 2 March 2016. ↑ JNUSU leader Kanhaiya Kumar gives blistering speech after release, The Hindu, 3 March 2016. ↑ Full Speech: Kanhaiya Kumar, Out On Bail, Speaks Of \'Azadi\' On JNU Campus, NDTV, 3 March 2016. ↑ \'Azaadi, azaadi\': Kanhaiya Kumar gives fiery speech mocking Modi govt, Sangh Parivar at JNU campus, DNA India, 3 March 2016. ↑ Govt will provide security to Kanhaiya Kumar: Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi in Rajya Sabha, Indian Express, 8 March 2016. ↑ Bounties, death threats: BJP mounts full-scale attack on JNU’s Kanhaiya, The Hindustan Times, 6 March 2016. ↑ Shoot Kanhaiya Kumar, get a reward of Rs 11 lakh: Posters in Delhi, The Hindustan Times, 5 March 2016. ↑ Arrested for Posters Offering 11 Lakhs for Killing Kanhaiya Kumar, NDTV.com, 7 March 2016. ↑ Kanhaiya in a fresh spot over "anti-national" remarks, Business Standard, 9 March 2016.'}},
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