import pywikibot
site = pywikibot.Site('en', 'wikipedia')  # The site we want to run our bot on
page = pywikibot.Page(site, u"India")
'{{about|the Republic of India}}\n{{pp-template}}\n{{pp-template|small=yes|right=85px}}\n{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2014}}\n{{Use Indian English|date=June 2016}}\n{{Infobox country\n|conventional_long_name = Republic of India\n|native_name       = \'\'Bhārat Gaṇarājya\'\'<!--Do not add non-Latin scripts, per the consensus reached at [[WP:IN]].-->\n|common_name       = India\n|image_flag        = Flag of India.svg\n|alt_flag          = Horizontal tricolor flag bearing, from top to bottom, deep saffron, white, and green horizontal bands. In the centre of the white band is a navy-blue wheel with 24 spokes.\n|image_coat        = Emblem of India.svg\n|alt_coat          = Three lions facing left, right, and toward viewer, atop a frieze containing a galloping horse, a 24-spoke wheel, and an elephant. Underneath is a motto: "सत्यमेव जयते".\n|symbol_type       = State Emblem\n|national_motto    = {{native phrase|sa|"[[Satyameva Jayate]]"|italics=off}}\n|englishmotto      = "Truth Alone Triumphs"{{lower|0.2em|{{sfn|National Informatics Centre|2005}}}}\n|national_anthem   = \'\'[[Jana Gana Mana]]\'\'<br />{{small|"Thou art the rulers of the minds of all people"}}{{lower|0.2em|{{sfn|Wolpert|2003|p=1}}}}<ref name="">{{cite web|url= |title=National Symbols &#124; National Portal of India | |accessdate=6 July 2013}}</ref><br /><br />[[File:Jana Gana Mana instrumental.ogg|center]]\n|other_symbol_type = National song\n|other_symbol      = \'\'[[Vande Mataram]]\'\'<br />{{small|"I Bow to Thee, Mother"}}{{lower|0.2em|{{efn|"[...] \'\'Jana Gana Mana\'\' is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations in the words as the Government may authorise as occasion arises; and the song \'\'Vande Mataram\'\', which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honoured equally with \'\'Jana Gana Mana\'\' and shall have equal status with it." {{harv|Constituent Assembly of India|1950}}.<!--end efn:-->}}{{sfn|National Informatics Centre|2005}}<!--end lower:-->}}<ref name=""/>\n|image_map         = India (orthographic projection).svg\n|alt_map           = Image of a globe centred on India, with India highlighted.\n|map_caption       = Area controlled by India shown in dark green;<br />claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.\n|map_width         = 250px\n|capital           = [[New Delhi]]\n|latd=28 |latm=36.8 |latNS=N |longd=77 |longm=12.5 |longEW=E\n|largest_city      = [[Mumbai]]<br />{{small|{{coord|18|58|30|N|72|49|33|E|display=inline}}}}\n|largest_urban_agglomeration=[[Delhi NCR]]<ref>{{cite web |title=INDIA STATS : Million plus cities in India as per Census 2011 |url=}}</ref>\n|languages_type    = [[National language]]\n|languages         = None<ref name="Times News Network">{{cite news|last=Khan|first=Saeed|title=There\'s no national language in India: Gujarat High Court|url=|accessdate=5 May 2014|newspaper=The Times of India|date=25 January 2010}}</ref><ref name="Press Trust of India">{{cite web|url=|title= Hindi, not a national language: Court|website=The Hindu|author=Press Trust of India|accessdate=23 December 2014|date=25 January 2010|location=Ahmedabad}}</ref>\n|official_languages = [[Standard Hindi|Hindi]]<br />[[Indian English|English]]<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Hindi, not a national language: Court}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url= |title=Constitutional Provisions - Official Language Related Part-17 Of The Constitution Of India |language=Hindi |website=[[National Informatics Centre]] |accessdate=27 December 2015}}</ref>{{refn|group=nb|[[Standard Hindi|Hindi]] in the [[Devanagari]] script is the [[official language]] of the Union. [[Indian English|English]] is an additional language for government work.{{sfn|Ministry of Home Affairs 1960}}{{sfn|National Informatics Centre|2005}}<ref name="">{{cite web|url= |title=Profile &#124; National Portal of India | |accessdate=23 August 2013}}</ref>}}\n|regional_languages =\n {{collapsible list\n  |title = [[Languages with official status in India#Eighth Schedule to the Constitution|8th Schedule]]\n|[[Assamese language|Assamese]], [[Bengali language|Bengali]], [[Bodo language|Bodo]], [[Dogri language|Dogri]], [[Gujarati language|Gujarati]], [[Standard Hindi|Hindi]], [[Kannada language|Kannada]], [[Kashmiri language|Kashmiri]], [[Konkani language|Konkani]], [[Maithili language|Maithili]], [[Malayalam language|Malayalam]], [[Meitei language|Manipuri]], [[Marathi language|Marathi]], [[Nepali language|Nepali]] |[[Odia language|Odia]], [[Punjabi language|Punjabi]], [[Sanskrit]], [[Santali language|Santali]], [[Sindhi language|Sindhi]], [[Tamil language|Tamil]], [[Telugu language|Telugu]], [[Urdu]]<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Eighth Schedule|accessdate=1 July 2013}}</ref>\n }}\n|religion =  79.8% [[Hinduism]]<br />14.2% [[Islam]]<br />2.3% [[Christianity]]<br />1.7% [[Sikhism]]<br />0.7% [[Buddhism]]<br />0.4% [[Jainism]]<br/>0.9% others<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Census of India : C-1 Population By Religious Community|publisher=}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=2.87 million Indians have no faith, census reveals for first time}}</ref>\n|demonym = [[Indian people|Indian]]\n|government_type = {{nowrap|[[Federation|Federal]] [[Parliamentary system|parliamentary]]<br />[[republic]]{{sfn|National Informatics Centre|2005}}}}\n|leader_title1 = [[President of India|President]]\n|leader_name1  = [[Pranab Mukherjee]]\n|leader_title2 = [[Vice President of India|Vice-President]]\n|leader_name2  = {{nowrap|[[Mohammad Hamid Ansari]]}}\n|leader_title3 = [[Prime Minister of India|Prime Minister]]\n|leader_name3  = [[Narendra Modi]]\n|leader_title4 = [[Chief Justice of India|Chief Justice]]\n|leader_name4  = [[T. S. Thakur]]<ref>{{cite web |title=Justice TS Thakur sworn in as 43rd Chief Justice of India |url=}}</ref>\n|leader_title5 = [[Speaker of the Lok Sabha|Speaker of the Lower House]]\n|leader_name5  = [[Sumitra Mahajan]]\n|legislature   = [[Parliament of India]]\n|upper_house   = \'\'[[Rajya Sabha]]\'\'\n|lower_house   = \'\'[[Lok Sabha]]\'\'\n|sovereignty_type = [[Indian independence movement|Independence]]\n|sovereignty_note = from the [[United Kingdom]]\n|established_event1 = [[Dominion of India|Dominion]]\n|established_date1 = 15 August 1947\n|established_event2 = [[Republic]]\n|established_date2 = 26 January 1950\n|area_rank  = 7th\n|area_magnitude = 1 E12\n|area_km2 = 3,287,263<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Profile|}}</ref>\n|area_sq_mi = 1,269,346\n|area_footnote = {{efn|"The country\'s exact size is subject to debate because some borders are disputed. The Indian government lists the total area as {{convert|3287260|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} and the total land area as {{convert|3060500|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}; the United Nations lists the total area as {{convert|3287263|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} and total land area as {{convert|2973190|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}." {{harv|Library of Congress|2004}}.}}\n|percent_water = 9.6\n|population_census_rank = 2nd\n|population_census = 1,210,854,977<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Population Enumeration Data (Final Population)|publisher=[[Census of India]]|access-date=2016-06-17}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=A - 2 DECADAL VARIATION IN POPULATION SINCE 1901|publisher=[[Census of India]]|format=PDF|access-date=2016-06-17}}</ref> \n|population_estimate_rank = 2nd\n|population_estimate_year = 2016\n|population_estimate = 1,293,057,000<ref>[ "India"] IMF Population estimates.</ref>\n|population_census_year = 2011\n|population_density_km2 = {{Pop density|{{Indian population clock}}|3287263|km2|disp=num|prec=1}}\n|population_density_sq_mi = {{Pop density|{{Indian population clock}}|1269219|sqmi|disp=num|prec=1}}\n|population_density_rank = 31st\n|GDP_PPP = $8.727 trillion<ref name = imf2>{{cite web|title=World Economic Outlook Database, October 2015 - Report for Selected Countries and Subjects|url=|publisher=[[International Monetary Fund]] (IMF)|accessdate=6 October 2015}}</ref>\n|GDP_PPP_rank = 3rd\n|GDP_PPP_year = 2016\n|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $6,664<ref name=imf2/>\n|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 122nd\n|GDP_nominal = $2.384 trillion<ref name=imf2/>\n|GDP_nominal_rank = 7th\n|GDP_nominal_year  =2016\n|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $1,820<ref name=imf2/>\n|GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 141st\n|Gini_year = 2009\n|Gini_change = <!--increase/decrease/steady-->\n|Gini = 33.9 <!--number only-->\n|Gini_ref =<ref name="wb-gini">{{cite web |url= |title=Gini Index |publisher= World Bank |accessdate=2 March 2011}}</ref>\n|Gini_rank  = 79th\n|HDI_year = 2014 <!--Please use the year to which the HDI [[Human Development Index]] data refers, not the publication year-->\n|HDI_change = increase <!--increase/decrease/steady-->\n|HDI = 0.609 <!--number only-->\n|HDI_ref = <ref name="UN">{{cite web |url=|title=Human Development Report 2015 Summary|publisher=The United Nations |accessdate=14 December 2015}}</ref>\n|HDI_rank = {{ordinal|130}}\n|currency = [[Indian rupee]] ([[Indian rupee sign|₹]])\n|currency_code  = INR\n|time_zone = [[Indian Standard Time|IST]]\n|utc_offset = +05:30\n|time_zone_DST =\n|utc_offset_DST =\n|DST_note = \'\'[[Daylight saving time|DST]] is not observed\'\'\n|date_format = {{nowrap|dd-mm-yyyy}}\n|drives_on =[[Right- and left-hand traffic#Left-hand traffic|left]]\n|calling_code  = [[Telephone numbers in India|+91]]\n|cctld = [[.in]]\n {{collapsible list\n  |title = other TLDs\n  |[[.ভাৰত]] |[[.ভারত]] |[[.ભારત]] |[[.भारत]] |[[.ਭਾਰਤ]] |[[.இந்தியா]] |[[.భారత్]] |[[بھارت.]]\n }}\n}}\n\'\'\'India\'\'\',<!--Do not add pronunciation per [[MOS:LEAD]]--> officially the \'\'\'Republic of India\'\'\' (<small>[[International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration|IAST]]</small>: \'\'{{Lang|inc-Latn|Bhārat Gaṇarājya}}\'\')<!--Do not add non-Latin scripts, per the consensus reached at [[WP:IN]].-->,<ref name=Clementin-Ojha>{{cite journal |last=Clémentin-Ojha |first=Catherine |title=‘India, that is Bharat…’: One Country, Two Names |journal=South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal |volume=10 |year=2014 |url=}}</ref><ref>"Dunlop illustrated encyclopedia of facts", p. 91, by Norris McWhirter, Ross McWhirter</ref>{{efn|See also: [[Names of the Republic of India in its official languages|Official names of India]]}} is a country in [[South Asia]]. It is the [[List of countries and outlying territories by total area|seventh-largest]] country by area, the [[List of countries by population|second-most populous]] country (with over [[Demographics of India|1.2 billion people]]), and the most populous [[democracy]] in the world. Bounded by the [[Indian Ocean]] on the south, the [[Arabian Sea]] on the south-west, and the [[Bay of Bengal]] on the south-east, it shares land borders with [[Pakistan]] to the west;{{efn|1 = The [[Government of India]] regards [[Afghanistan]] as a bordering country, as it considers all of [[Kashmir]] to be part of India. However, this is [[Kashmir conflict|disputed]], and the region bordering Afghanistan is administered by Pakistan. Source: {{cite web|title=Ministry of Home Affairs (Department of Border Management)|url=|format=PDF|accessdate=1 September 2008}} }} [[China]], [[Nepal]], and [[Bhutan]] to the north-east; and [[Myanmar|Myanmar (Burma)]] and [[Bangladesh]] to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of [[Sri Lanka]] and the [[Maldives]]; in addition, India\'s [[Andaman and Nicobar Islands]] share a maritime border with [[Thailand]] and [[Indonesia]].\n\nHome to the ancient [[Indus Valley Civilisation]] and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the [[Indian subcontinent]] was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history.{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 16–17}} Four religions—[[Hinduism in India|Hinduism]], [[History of Buddhism in India|Buddhism]], [[Jainism in India|Jainism]], and [[Sikhism in India|Sikhism]]—originated here, whereas [[Zoroastrianism in India|Zoroastrianism]], [[Judaism]], [[Christianity in India|Christianity]], and [[Islam in India|Islam]] arrived in the 1st millennium [[Common Era|CE]] and also shaped the region\'s [[Culture of India|diverse culture]]. Gradually annexed by and brought under the administration of the [[Company rule in India|British East India Company]] from the early 18th century and [[British Raj|administered directly by the United Kingdom]] after the [[Indian Rebellion of 1857]], India became an independent nation in 1947 after a [[Indian independence movement|struggle for independence]] that was marked by [[non-violent resistance]] led by [[Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi|Mahatma Gandhi]].\n\nCurrently, the [[Economy of India|Indian economy]] is the world\'s [[List of countries by GDP (nominal)|seventh-largest by nominal GDP]] and [[List of countries by GDP (PPP)|third-largest by purchasing power parity]] (PPP).<ref name="imf2"/> Following [[Economic liberalisation in India|market-based economic reforms]] in 1991, India became one of the [[List of countries by real GDP growth rate (latest year)|fastest-growing major economies]]; it is considered a [[newly industrialised country]]. However, it continues to face the [[Social issues in India|challenges]] of [[poverty in India|poverty]], [[Corruption in India|corruption]], [[Malnutrition in India|malnutrition]] and [[Healthcare in India|inadequate public healthcare]]. A [[nuclear weapons state]] and a [[Power (international relations)#Power as status|regional power]], it has the [[List of countries by number of troops|third-largest standing army]] in the world and ranks [[List of countries by military expenditures|sixth in military expenditure]] among nations. India is a [[Federalism|federal]] [[republic]] governed under a [[parliamentary system]] and consists of [[States and territories of India|29 states and 7 union territories]]. India is a [[Pluralism (political philosophy)|pluralistic]], [[Languages of India|multilingual]], and a multi-ethnic society. It is also home to a diversity of [[Wildlife of India|wildlife]] in a variety of [[Protected areas of India|protected habitats]].\n\n==Etymology==\n{{Main article|Names of India}}\n\nThe name \'\'India\'\' is derived from \'\'Indus\'\', which originates from the [[Old Persian language|Old Persian]] word \'\'Sindhi\'\'.{{sfn|Serge Gruzinski|2015}} The latter term stems from the [[Sanskrit]] word \'\'Sindhu\'\', which was the historical local appellation for the [[Indus River]].{{sfn|Oxford English Dictionary}} The [[Ancient Greece|ancient Greeks]] referred to the Indians as \'\'Indoi\'\' (Ινδοί), which translates as "The people of the Indus".{{sfn|Kuiper|2010|p = 86}}\n\nThe geographical term \'\'Bharat\'\' ({{IAST|Bhārat}}, {{IPA-hns|ˈbʱaːrət̪|pron|hi-Bharat.ogg}}), which is recognised by the [[Constitution of India]] as an official name for the country,{{sfn|Ministry of Law and Justice 2008}} is used by [[Names of the Republic of India in its official languages|many Indian languages]] in its variations. It is a modernisation of the historical name \'\'Bharatavarsha\'\', which gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century onwards as a native name of India.<ref name="Clementin-Ojha"/>  Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of \'\'[[Bharatas (tribe)|Bharatas]]\'\' in the second millennium B.C.E.<ref name=Scharfe>{{citation |last=Scharfe |first=Hartmut E. |chapter=Bharat |editor=Stanley Wolpert |editor-link=Stanley Wolpert |title=Encyclopedia of India |volume=1 (A-D) |publisher=Thomson Gale |year=2006 |ISBN=0-684-31512-2 |pp=143–144}}</ref> It is also traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor [[Bharata (emperor)|Bharata]].<ref>{{citation |last=Thapar |first=Romila |authorlink=Romila Thapar |title=The Penguin History of Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300 |publisher=Allen Lane; Penguin Press |year=2002 |ISBN=0141937424|pp=38–39|url=}}</ref> \'\'[[Gaṇarājya]]\'\' (literally, people\'s State) is the [[Sanskrit language|Sanskrit]]/[[Hindi language|Hindi]] term for "republic" dating back to the ancient times.<ref>{{citation |last=Chakrabarti |first=Atulananda |title=Nehru: His Democracy and India |url= |year=1961 |publisher=Thacker\'s Press & Directories |p=23}}</ref><ref>{{citation |last=Thapar |first=Romila |authorlink=Romila Thapar |title=The Penguin History of Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300 |publisher=Allen Lane; Penguin Press |year=2002 |ISBN=0141937424|pp=146–150|url=}}</ref><ref>{{citation |last=Sharma |first=Ram Sharan |title=Aspects of Political Ideas and Institutions in Ancient India |url= |year=1991 |publisher=Motilal Banarsidass Publ. |isbn=978-81-208-0827-0 |pages=119–132}}</ref>\n\n\'\'[[Hindustan]]\'\' ({{IPA-hns|ɦɪnd̪ʊˈst̪aːn||Hindustan.ogg}}) is an ancient [[Persian language|Persian]] name for India dating to 3 century B.C.E. It was introduced into India by the [[Mughal Empire|Mughals]] and widely used since then, often being thought of as the "Land of the Hindus."  Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and [[Pakistan]] or India in its entirety.<ref name="Clementin-Ojha"/><ref name=Barrow>{{cite journal |last=Barrow |first=Ian J. |title=From Hindustan to India: Naming change in changing names |journal=South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies |volume=26 |number=1 |year=2003 |pp=37–49 |DOI=10.1080/085640032000063977}}</ref>{{sfn|Encyclopædia Britannica}}\n\n==History==\n{{Main article|History of India|History of the Republic of India}}\n\n===Ancient India===\nThe earliest authenticated [[Anatomically modern humans|human]] remains in [[South Asia]] date to about 30,000 years ago.{{sfn|Petraglia|Allchin||2007|p=6}} Nearly contemporaneous [[Mesolithic]] rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the [[Bhimbetka rock shelters]] in [[Madhya Pradesh]].{{sfn|Singh|2009|pp = 89–93}} Around 7000 BCE, the first known [[Neolithic]] settlements appeared on the subcontinent in [[Mehrgarh]] and other sites in western Pakistan.{{sfn|Possehl|2003|pp = 24–25}} These gradually developed into the [[Indus Valley Civilization|Indus Valley Civilisation]],{{sfn|Kulke|Rothermund|2004|pp = 21–23}} the first urban culture in South Asia;{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 181}} it flourished during 2500–1900&nbsp;BCE in Pakistan and western India.{{sfn|Possehl|2003|p = 2}} Centred around cities such as [[Mohenjo-daro]], [[Harappa]], [[Dholavira]], and [[Kalibangan]], and relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilisation engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade.{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 181}}\n[[File:Map of Vedic India.png|thumb|right|200px|Map of the Indian subcontinent during the [[Vedic period]]]]\n\nDuring the period 2000–500 BCE, in terms of culture, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the [[Chalcolithic]] to the [[Iron Age]].{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 255}} The [[Vedas]], the oldest scriptures of [[Hinduism]],{{sfn|Singh|2009|pp = 186–187}} were composed during this period,{{sfn|Witzel|2003|pp = 68–69}} and historians have analysed these to posit a [[Vedic period|Vedic culture]] in the [[Punjab region]] and the upper [[Indo-Gangetic Plain|Gangetic Plain]].{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 255}} Most historians also consider this period to have encompassed several waves of [[Indo-Aryan migration]] into the subcontinent.{{sfn|Kulke|Rothermund|2004|p = 31}}{{sfn|Singh|2009|pp = 186–187}} The [[caste system]] arose during this period, creating a hierarchy of priests, warriors, free peasants and traders, and lastly the indigenous peoples who were regarded as impure; and small tribal units gradually coalesced into monarchical, state-level polities.{{sfn|Kulke|Rothermund|2004|pp = 41–43}}{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 200}} On the [[Deccan Plateau]], archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation.{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 255}} In southern India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of [[megalith]]ic monuments dating from this period,{{sfn|Singh|2009|pp = 250–251}} as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, and craft traditions.{{sfn|Singh|2009|pp = 250–251}}\n[[File:Indischer Maler des 6. Jahrhunderts 001.jpg|thumb|left|upright|alt=Damaged brown painting of a reclining man and woman.|Paintings at the [[Ajanta Caves]] in [[Aurangabad, Maharashtra]], 6th century]]\n\nIn the late [[Vedic period]], around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the [[Ganges]] Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the \'\'[[mahajanapada]]s\'\'.{{sfn|Singh|2009|pp = 260-265}}{{sfn|Kulke|Rothermund|2004|pp = 53–54}} The emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of its exemplar, [[Mahavira]].{{sfn|Singh|2009|pp = 312–313}} Buddhism, based on the teachings of [[Gautama Buddha]] attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle class; chronicling the life of the Buddha was central to the beginnings of recorded history in India.{{sfn|Kulke|Rothermund|2004|pp = 54–56}}{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 21}}{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 67–68}} In an age of increasing urban wealth, both religions held up [[Nekkhamma|renunciation]] as an ideal,{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 300}} and both established long-lasting monastic traditions. Politically, by the 3rd century BCE, the kingdom of [[Magadha]] had annexed or reduced other states to emerge as the [[Maurya Empire|Mauryan Empire]].{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 319}} The empire was once thought to have controlled most of the subcontinent excepting the far south, but its core regions are now thought to have been separated by large autonomous areas.{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 78–79}}{{sfn|Kulke|Rothermund|2004|p = 70}} The Mauryan kings are known as much for their empire-building and determined management of public life as for [[Ashoka]]\'s renunciation of militarism and far-flung advocacy of the Buddhist \'\'[[Dharma (Buddhism)|dhamma]]\'\'.{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 367}}{{sfn|Kulke|Rothermund|2004|p = 63}}\n\nThe [[Sangam literature]] of the [[Tamil language]] reveals that, between 200 BCE and 200 CE, the southern peninsula was being ruled by the [[Chera Dynasty|Cheras]], the [[Chola dynasty|Cholas]], and the [[Pandyan Dynasty|Pandyas]], dynasties that traded extensively with the [[Roman Empire]] and with [[Western Asia|West]] and [[Southeast Asia|South-East Asia]].{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 89–90}}{{sfn|Singh|2009|pp = 408–415}} In North India, Hinduism asserted patriarchal control within the family, leading to increased subordination of women.{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 92–95}}{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 319}} By the 4th and 5th centuries, the [[Gupta Empire]] had created in the greater Ganges Plain a complex system of administration and taxation that became a model for later Indian kingdoms.{{sfn|Kulke|Rothermund|2004|pp = 89–91}}{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 545}} Under the Guptas, a renewed Hinduism based on devotion rather than the management of ritual began to assert itself.{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 98–99}} The renewal was reflected in a flowering of [[Sculpture in the Indian subcontinent|sculpture]] and [[Architecture of India|architecture]], which found patrons among an urban elite.{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 545}} [[Sanskrit literature#Classical Sanskrit literature|Classical Sanskrit literature]] flowered as well, and [[History of science and technology in the Indian subcontinent|Indian science]], [[Indian astronomy|astronomy]], [[Ayurveda|medicine]], and [[Indian mathematics|mathematics]] made significant advances.{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 545}}\n\n===Medieval India===\n[[File:Big Temple-Temple.jpg|thumb|right|upright|The granite [[gopuram|tower]] of [[Brihadeeswarar Temple]] in [[Thanjavur]] was completed in 1010 CE by [[Raja Raja Chola I]].]]\n\nThe Indian early medieval age, 600 CE to 1200 CE, is defined by regional kingdoms and cultural diversity.{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 132}} When [[Harsha]] of [[Kannauj]], who ruled much of the Indo-Gangetic Plain from 606 to 647 CE, attempted to expand southwards, he was defeated by the [[Chalukya dynasty|Chalukya]] ruler of the Deccan.{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 119–120}} When his successor attempted to expand eastwards, he was defeated by the [[Pala Empire|Pala]] king of [[Bengal]].{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 119–120}} When the Chalukyas attempted to expand southwards, they were defeated by the [[Pallava]]s from farther south, who in turn were opposed by the [[Pandyas]] and the [[Cholas]] from still farther south.{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 119–120}} No ruler of this period was able to create an empire and consistently control lands much beyond his core region.{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 132}} During this time, pastoral peoples whose land had been cleared to make way for the growing agricultural economy were accommodated within caste society, as were new non-traditional ruling classes.{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 121–122}} The caste system consequently began to show regional differences.{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 121–122}}\n\nIn the 6th and 7th centuries, the first [[Bhakti|devotional hymns]] were created in the Tamil language.{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 123}} They were imitated all over India and led to both the resurgence of Hinduism and the development of all [[Languages of India|modern languages of the subcontinent]].{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 123}} Indian royalty, [[Maharaja|big]] and [[Samanta|small]], and the temples they patronised, drew citizens in great numbers to the capital cities, which became economic hubs as well.{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 124}} Temple towns of various sizes began to appear everywhere as India underwent another urbanisation.{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 124}} By the 8th and 9th centuries, the effects were felt in South-East Asia, as South Indian culture and political systems were exported to lands that became part of modern-day [[Myanmar]], [[Thailand]], [[Laos]], [[Cambodia]], [[Vietnam]], [[Philippines]], [[Malaysia]], and [[Java]].{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 127–128}} Indian merchants, scholars, and sometimes armies were involved in this transmission; South-East Asians took the initiative as well, with many sojourning in Indian seminaries and translating Buddhist and Hindu texts into their languages.{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 127–128}}\n\nAfter the 10th century, Muslim Central Asian nomadic clans, using [[courser (horse)|swift-horse]] cavalry and raising vast armies united by ethnicity and religion, repeatedly overran South Asia\'s north-western plains, leading eventually to the establishment of the Islamic [[Delhi Sultanate]] in 1206.{{sfn|Ludden|2002|p = 68}} The sultanate was to control much of North India, and to make many forays into South India. Although at first disruptive for the Indian elites, the sultanate largely left its vast non-Muslim subject population to its own laws and customs.{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 47}}{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 6}} By repeatedly repulsing [[Mongol Empire|Mongol raiders]] in the 13th century, the sultanate saved India from the devastation visited on West and Central Asia, setting the scene for centuries of [[Human migration|migration]] of fleeing soldiers, learned men, mystics, traders, artists, and artisans from that region into the subcontinent, thereby creating a syncretic Indo-Islamic culture in the north.{{sfn|Ludden|2002|p = 67}}{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|pp = 50–51}} The sultanate\'s raiding and weakening of the regional kingdoms of South India paved the way for the indigenous [[Vijayanagara Empire]].{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 53}} Embracing a strong [[Shaivism|Shaivite]] tradition and building upon the military technology of the sultanate, the empire came to control much of peninsular India,{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 12}} and was to influence South Indian society for long afterwards.{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 53}}\n\n===Early modern India===\n[[File:Moghul.1590-95гг.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Writing the will and testament of the Mughal king court in Persian, 1590–1595]]\n\nIn the early 16th century, northern India, being then under mainly Muslim rulers,{{sfn|Robb|2001|p = 80}} fell again to the superior mobility and firepower of a new generation of Central Asian warriors.{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 164}} The resulting [[Mughal Empire]] did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 115}}{{sfn|Robb|2001|pp = 90–91}} and diverse and inclusive ruling elites,{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 17}} leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule.{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 152}} Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic identity, especially under [[Akbar]], the Mughals united their far-flung realms through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to an emperor who had near-divine status.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 17}} The Mughal state\'s economic policies, deriving most revenues from agriculture{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 158}} and mandating that taxes be paid in the well-regulated silver currency,{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 169}} caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets.{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 152}} The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the 17th century was a factor in India\'s economic expansion,{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 152}} resulting in greater patronage of [[Mughal painting|painting]], literary forms, textiles, and [[Mughal architecture|architecture]].{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 186}} Newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the [[Maratha Empire|Marathas]], the [[Rajputs]], and the [[Sikh empire|Sikhs]], gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 23–24}} Expanding commerce during Mughal rule gave rise to new Indian commercial and political elites along the coasts of southern and eastern India.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 23–24}} As the empire disintegrated, many among these elites were able to seek and control their own affairs.{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 256}}\n\nBy the early 18th century, with the lines between commercial and political dominance being increasingly blurred, a number of European trading companies, including the English [[East India Company]], had established coastal outposts.{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 286}}{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 44–49}} The East India Company\'s control of the seas, greater resources, and more advanced military training and technology led it to increasingly flex its military muscle and caused it to become attractive to a portion of the Indian elite; both these factors were crucial in allowing the Company to gain control over the [[Bengal]] region by 1765 and sideline the other European companies.{{sfn|Robb|2001|pp = 98–100}}{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 286}}{{sfn|Ludden|2002|pp = 128–132}}{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 51–55}} Its further access to the riches of Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annex or subdue most of India by the 1820s.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 68–71}} India was then no longer exporting manufactured goods as it long had, but was instead supplying the [[British Empire]] with raw materials, and many historians consider this to be the onset of India\'s colonial period.{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 286}} By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and itself effectively made an arm of British administration, the Company began to more consciously enter non-economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture.{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 289}}\n\n===Modern India===\n[[File:British Indian Empire 1909 Imperial Gazetteer of India.jpg|thumb|The British Indian Empire, from the 1909 edition of \'\'[[The Imperial Gazetteer of India]]\'\'. Areas directly governed by the British are shaded pink; the [[princely state]]s under British [[suzerainty]] are in yellow.]]\n\nHistorians consider India\'s modern age to have begun sometime between 1848 and 1885. The appointment in 1848 of [[James Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess of Dalhousie|Lord Dalhousie]] as Governor General of the East India Company set the stage for changes essential to a modern state. These included the consolidation and demarcation of sovereignty, the surveillance of the population, and the education of citizens ([[English Education Act 1835]]). Technological changes—among them, railways, canals, and the telegraph—were introduced not long after their introduction in Europe.{{sfn|Robb|2001|pp = 151–152}}{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 94–99}}{{sfn|Brown|1994|p = 83}}{{sfn|Peers|2006|p = 50}} However, disaffection with the Company also grew during this time, and set off the [[Indian Rebellion of 1857]]. Fed by diverse resentments and perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, and summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, the rebellion rocked many regions of northern and central India and shook the foundations of Company rule.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 100–103}}{{sfn|Brown|1994|pp = 85–86}} Although the rebellion was suppressed by 1858, it led to the dissolution of the East India Company and to the [[British Raj|direct administration of India]] by the British government. Proclaiming a unitary state and a gradual but limited British-style parliamentary system, the new rulers also protected princes and landed gentry as a feudal safeguard against future unrest.{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 239}}{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 103–108}} In the decades following, public life gradually emerged all over India, leading eventually to the founding of the [[Indian National Congress]] in 1885.{{sfn|Robb|2001|p = 183}}{{sfn|Sarkar|1983|pp = 1–4}}{{sfn|Copland|2001|pp = ix–x}}{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 123}}\n\n[[File:Nehru gandhi.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Jawaharlal Nehru sharing a joke with Mahatma Gandhi, Mumbai, July 6, 1946|[[Jawaharlal Nehru]] (left) became India\'s first prime minister in 1947. [[Mahatma Gandhi]] (right) led the independence movement.]]\n\nThe rush of technology and the commercialisation of agriculture in the second half of the 19th century was marked by economic setbacks—many small farmers became dependent on the whims of far-away markets.{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 260}} There was an increase in the number of large-scale [[Famine in India|famines]],{{sfn|Bose|Jalal|2011|p = 117}} and, despite the risks of infrastructure development borne by Indian taxpayers, little industrial employment was generated for Indians.{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 258}} There were also salutary effects: commercial cropping, especially in the newly canalled Punjab, led to increased food production for internal consumption.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 126}} The railway network provided critical famine relief,{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 97}} notably reduced the cost of moving goods,{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 97}} and helped nascent Indian-owned industry.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 126}} After World War I, in which approximately [[Indian Army during World War I|one million Indians served]],{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 163}} a new period began. It was marked by [[Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms|British reforms]] but also [[Rowlatt act|repressive legislations]], by more strident Indian calls for self-rule, and by the beginnings of a [[nonviolent]] movement of non-co-operation, of which [[Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi]] would become the leader and enduring symbol.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 167}} During the 1930s, slow legislative reform was enacted by the British; the Indian National Congress won victories in the resulting elections.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 195–197}} The next decade was beset with crises: [[India in World War II|Indian participation in World War II]], the Congress\'s final push for non-co-operation, and an upsurge of Muslim nationalism. All were capped by the advent of independence in 1947, but tempered by the [[partition of India]] into two states: India and Pakistan.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 203}}\n\nVital to India\'s self-image as an independent nation was its constitution, completed in 1950, which put in place a secular and democratic republic.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 231}} In the 60 years since, India has had a mixed record of successes and failures.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 265–266}} It has remained a democracy with civil liberties, an active Supreme Court, and a largely independent press.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 265–266}} Economic liberalisation, which was begun in the 1990s, has created a large urban middle class, transformed India into [[List of countries by GDP (real) growth rate|one of the world\'s fastest-growing economies]],{{sfn|United States Department of Agriculture}} and increased its geopolitical clout. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 265–266}} Yet, India is also shaped by seemingly unyielding poverty, both rural and urban;{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 265–266}} by [[Religious violence in India|religious]] and [[Caste-related violence in India|caste-related violence]];{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 266–270}} by [[Naxalite|Maoist-inspired Naxalite insurgencies]];{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 253}} and by [[Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir|separatism in Jammu and Kashmir]] and [[insurgency in Northeast India|in Northeast India]].{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 274}} It has unresolved territorial disputes with [[China–India relations#1960s|China]]{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 247–248}} and with [[Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts|Pakistan]].{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 247–248}} The India–Pakistan nuclear rivalry came to a head in 1998.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 293–295}} India\'s sustained democratic freedoms are unique among the world\'s newer nations; however, in spite of its recent economic successes, freedom from want for its disadvantaged population remains a goal yet to be achieved.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 304}}\n\n==Geography==\n{{Main article|Geography of India}}\n\n[[File:India topo big.jpg|thumb|alt=Map of India. Most of India is yellow (elevation 100–1000 m). Some areas in the south and mid-east are brown (above 1000 m). Major river valleys are green (below 100 m).|A topographic map of India]]\nIndia comprises the bulk of the Indian subcontinent, lying atop the [[Indian Plate|Indian tectonic plate]], and part of the [[Indo-Australian Plate]].{{sfn|Ali|Aitchison|2005}} India\'s defining geological processes began 75 million years ago when the Indian plate, then part of the southern supercontinent [[Gondwana]], began a north-eastward [[Plate tectonics|drift]] caused by [[seafloor spreading]] to its south-west, and later, south and south-east.{{sfn|Ali|Aitchison|2005}}  Simultaneously, the vast [[Tethys Ocean|Tethyn]] [[oceanic crust]], to its northeast, began to [[subduction|subduct]] under the [[Eurasian plate]].{{sfn|Ali|Aitchison|2005}}  These dual processes, driven by convection in the Earth\'s [[Mantle (geology)|mantle]], both created the [[Indian Ocean]] and caused the Indian [[continental crust]] eventually to under-thrust Eurasia and to uplift the [[Himalayas]].{{sfn|Ali|Aitchison|2005}} Immediately south of the emerging Himalayas, plate movement created a vast [[trough (geology)|trough]] that rapidly filled with river-borne sediment{{sfn|Dikshit & Schwartzberg|p = 7}} and now constitutes the [[Indo-Gangetic Plain]].{{sfn|Prakash et al.|2000}} Cut off from the plain by the ancient [[Aravalli Range]] lies the [[Thar Desert]].{{sfn|Dikshit & Schwartzberg|p = 11}}\n\nThe original Indian plate survives as [[South India|peninsular India]], the oldest and geologically most stable part of India. It extends as far north as the [[Satpura Range|Satpura]] and [[Vindhya Range|Vindhya]] ranges in central India. These parallel chains run from the Arabian Sea coast in Gujarat in the west to the coal-rich [[Chota Nagpur Plateau]] in Jharkhand in the east.{{sfn|Dikshit & Schwartzberg|p = 8}} To the south, the remaining peninsular landmass, the [[Deccan Plateau]], is flanked on the west and east by coastal ranges known as the [[Western Ghats|Western]] and [[Eastern Ghats]];{{sfn|Dikshit & Schwartzberg|pp = 9–10}} the plateau contains the country\'s oldest rock formations, some over one billion years old. Constituted in such fashion, India lies to the north of the equator between 6° 44\' and 35° 30\' north latitude{{efn|The northernmost point under Indian control is the disputed [[Siachen Glacier]] in [[Jammu and Kashmir]]; however, the [[Government of India]] regards the entire region of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, including the [[Gilgit-Baltistan]] administered by Pakistan, to be its territory. It therefore assigns the longitude 37° 6\' to its northernmost point.}} and 68° 7\' and 97° 25\' east longitude.{{sfn|Ministry of Information and Broadcasting|2007|p = 1}}\n\n[[File:KedarRange.jpg|thumb|left|alt=A shining white snow-clad range, framed against a turquoise sky. In the middle ground, a ridge descends from the right to form a saddle in the centre of the photograph, partly in shadow. In the near foreground, a loop of a road is seen.|The Kedar Range of the Greater Himalayas rises behind [[Kedarnath Temple]] (Indian state of [[Uttarakhand]]), which is one of the twelve [[Jyotirlinga|\'\'jyotirlinga\'\' shrines]].]]\n\nIndia\'s coastline measures {{Convert|7517|km|mi|-2}} in length; of this distance, {{Convert|5423|km|mi|-2}} belong to peninsular India and {{Convert|2094|km|mi|-2}} to the Andaman, Nicobar, and Lakshadweep island chains.{{sfn|Kumar|Pathak|Pednekar|Raju|2006}} According to the Indian naval hydrographic charts, the mainland coastline consists of the following: 43% sandy beaches; 11% rocky shores, including cliffs; and 46% [[mudflat]]s or marshy shores.{{sfn|Kumar|Pathak|Pednekar|Raju|2006}}\n\nMajor Himalayan-origin rivers that substantially flow through India include the [[Ganges]] and the [[Brahmaputra River|Brahmaputra]], both of which drain into the [[Bay of Bengal]].{{sfn|Dikshit & Schwartzberg|p = 15}} Important tributaries of the Ganges include the [[Yamuna]] and the [[Kosi River|Kosi]]; the latter\'s extremely low gradient often leads to severe floods and course changes.{{sfn|Duff|1993|p = 353}} Major peninsular rivers, whose steeper gradients prevent their waters from flooding, include the [[Godavari River|Godavari]], the [[Mahanadi River|Mahanadi]], the [[Kaveri River|Kaveri]], and the [[Krishna River|Krishna]], which also drain into the Bay of Bengal;{{sfn|Dikshit & Schwartzberg|p = 16}} and the [[Narmada River|Narmada]] and the [[Tapti River|Tapti]], which drain into the [[Arabian Sea]].{{sfn|Dikshit & Schwartzberg|p = 17}} Coastal features include the marshy [[Rann of Kutch]] of western India and the alluvial [[Sundarbans]] delta of eastern India; the latter is shared with Bangladesh.{{sfn|Dikshit & Schwartzberg|p = 12}} India has two [[archipelago]]s: the [[Lakshadweep]], [[Atoll|coral atolls]] off India\'s south-western coast; and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a volcanic chain in the [[Andaman Sea]].{{sfn|Dikshit & Schwartzberg|p = 13}}\n\nThe [[Climate of India|Indian climate]] is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert, both of which drive the economically and culturally pivotal summer and winter [[monsoon]]s.{{sfn|Chang|1967|pp = 391–394}} The Himalayas prevent cold Central Asian [[katabatic wind]]s from blowing in, keeping the bulk of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes.{{sfn|Posey|1994|p = 118}}{{sfn|Wolpert|2003|p = 4}} The Thar Desert plays a crucial role in attracting the moisture-laden south-west summer monsoon winds that, between June and October, provide the majority of India\'s rainfall.{{sfn|Chang|1967|pp = 391–394}} Four major climatic groupings predominate in India: [[Climate of India#Tropical wet|tropical wet]], [[Climate of India#Tropical dry|tropical dry]], [[Climate of India#Subtropical humid|subtropical humid]], and [[Climate of India#Mountain|montane]].{{sfn|Heitzman|Worden|1996|p = 97}}\n\n==Biodiversity==\n{{Main article|Wildlife of India}}\n[[File:Brahminy kite.jpg|thumb|The [[brahminy kite]] (\'\'Haliastur indus\'\') is identified with [[Garuda]], the [[vahana|mythical mount]] of [[Vishnu]]. It hunts for fish and other prey near the coasts and around inland wetlands.]]\nIndia lies within the [[Indomalaya ecozone]] and contains three [[biodiversity hotspot]]s.{{sfn|Conservation International|2007}} One of 17 [[megadiverse countries]], it hosts 8.6% of all mammalian, 13.7% of all avian, 7.9% of all reptilian, 6% of all amphibian, 12.2% of all piscine, and 6.0% of all flowering plant species.{{sfn|Zoological Survey of India|2012|p = 1}}{{sfn|Puri}} About 21.2% of the country\'s landmass is covered by forests (tree canopy density >10%), of which 12.2% comprises moderately or very dense forests (tree canopy density >40%).{{sfn|Forest Survey of India|2013|pp=11-14}} [[Endemism]] is high among plants, 33%, and among [[List of ecoregions in India|ecoregions]] such as the [[shola]] [[South Western Ghats montane rain forests|forests]].{{sfn|Basak|1983|p = 24}} Habitat ranges from the [[tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests|tropical rainforest]] of the [[Andaman Islands]], [[Western Ghats]], and [[Northeast India|North-East India]] to the [[temperate coniferous forest|coniferous forest]] of the Himalaya. Between these extremes lie the moist deciduous [[Shorea robusta|sal]] forest of eastern India; the dry deciduous [[teak]] forest of central and southern India; and the [[Acacia nilotica|babul]]-dominated [[deserts and xeric shrublands|thorn forest]] of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain.{{sfn|Tritsch|2001}} The medicinal [[neem]], widely used in rural Indian herbal remedies, is a key Indian tree. The luxuriant [[sacred fig|pipal]] fig tree, shown on the seals of [[Mohenjo-daro]], shaded Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment.\n\nMany Indian species descend from [[taxon|taxa]] originating in Gondwana, from which the [[Indian plate]] separated more than 105 million years [[Before Present|before present]].{{sfn|Crame|Owen|2002|p = 142}} [[Indian Plate|Peninsular India]]\'s subsequent [[plate tectonics|movement]] towards and collision with the [[Laurasia]]n landmass set off a mass exchange of species. [[Deccan Traps|Epochal volcanism]] and climatic changes 20 million years ago forced a mass extinction.{{sfn|Karanth|2006}} Mammals then entered India from Asia through two [[Zoogeography|zoogeographical]] passes flanking the rising Himalaya.{{sfn|Tritsch|2001}} Thus, while 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of amphibians are endemic, only 12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are.{{sfn|Puri}} Among them are the [[Nilgiri langur|Nilgiri leaf monkey]] and [[Bufo beddomii|Beddome\'s toad]] of the Western Ghats. India contains 172 [[World Conservation Union|IUCN]]-designated [[List of endangered animals in India|threatened animal species]], or 2.9% of endangered forms.{{sfn|Mace|1994|p = 4}} These include the [[Asiatic lion]], the [[Bengal tiger]], the [[snow leopard]] and the [[White-rumped vulture|Indian white-rumped vulture]], which, by ingesting the carrion of [[diclofenac]]-laced cattle, nearly became extinct.\n\nThe pervasive and ecologically devastating human encroachment of recent decades has critically endangered Indian wildlife. In response the system of [[National parks of India|national parks]] and [[protected areas of India|protected areas]], first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India enacted the [[Wildlife Protection Act of 1972|Wildlife Protection Act]]{{sfn|Ministry of Environments and Forests 1972}} and [[Project Tiger]] to safeguard crucial wilderness; the Forest Conservation Act was enacted in 1980 and amendments added in 1988.{{sfn|Department of Environment and Forests|1988}} India hosts [[Wildlife sanctuaries of India|more than five hundred wildlife sanctuaries]] and [[Biosphere reserves of India|thirteen biosphere reserves]],{{sfn|Ministry of Environment and Forests}} four of which are part of the [[World Network of Biosphere Reserves]]; [[List of Ramsar Sites in India|twenty-five wetlands]] are registered under the [[Ramsar Convention]].{{sfn|Secretariat of the Convention on Wetlands}}\n\n==Politics==\n{{Main article|Politics of India}}\n\n[[File:Barack Obama at Parliament of India in New Delhi addressing Joint session of both houses 2010.jpg|thumb|A parliamentary joint session being held in the [[Parliament of India#Building|Sansad Bhavan]].]]\nIndia is the world\'s most populous democracy.{{sfn|United Nations Population Division}} A [[parliamentary republic]] with a [[multi-party system]],{{sfn|Burnell|Calvert|1999|p = 125}} it has six [[Election Commission of India|recognised]] [[List of recognised political parties in India#National|national parties]], including the [[Indian National Congress]] and the [[Bharatiya Janata Party]] (BJP), and more than 40 [[List of recognised political parties in India#State|regional parties]].{{sfn|Election Commission of India}} The Congress is considered centre-left in Indian [[political culture]],<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Saez|first1=Lawrence|last2=Sinha|first2=Aseema|title=Political cycles, political institutions and public expenditure in India, 1980–2000|journal=British Journal of Political Science|volume=40|issue=01|year=2010|pages=91–113|doi=10.1017/s0007123409990226}}</ref> and the BJP [[Right-wing politics|right-wing]].{{sfn|Malik|Singh|1992|pp=318-336}}{{sfn|BBC|2012}}{{sfn|Banerjee|2005|p=3118}} For most of the period between 1950—when India first became a republic—and the late 1980s, the Congress held a majority in the parliament. Since then, however, it has increasingly shared the political stage with the BJP,{{sfn|Sarkar|2007|p = 84}} as well as with powerful regional parties which have often forced the creation of multi-party [[coalition government|coalitions]] at the centre.{{sfn|Chander|2004|p = 117}}\n\nIn the Republic of India\'s first three general elections, in 1951, 1957, and 1962, the [[Jawaharlal Nehru]]-led Congress won easy victories. On Nehru\'s death in 1964, [[Lal Bahadur Shastri]] briefly became prime minister; he was succeeded, after his own unexpected death in 1966, by [[Indira Gandhi]], who went on to lead the Congress to election victories in 1967 and 1971. Following public discontent with the [[The Emergency (India)|state of emergency]] she declared in 1975, the Congress was voted out of power in 1977; the then-new [[Janata Party]], which had opposed the emergency, was voted in. Its government lasted just over three years. Voted back into power in 1980, the Congress saw a change in leadership in 1984, when Indira Gandhi was assassinated; she was succeeded by her son [[Rajiv Gandhi]], who won an easy victory in the general elections later that year. The Congress was voted out again in 1989 when a [[National Front (India)|National Front]] coalition, led by the newly formed [[Janata Dal]] in alliance with the [[Left Front (India)|Left Front]], won the elections; that government too proved relatively short-lived, lasting just under two years.{{sfn|Bhambhri|1992|pp = 118, 143}} Elections were held again in 1991; no party won an absolute majority. But the Congress, as the largest single party, was able to form a [[minority government]] led by [[P. V. Narasimha Rao]].{{sfn|The Hindu 2008}}\n\n[[File:Rashtrapati Bhavan Wide New Delhi India.jpg|thumb|The [[Rashtrapati Bhavan]] is the official residence of the president of India.]]\nA two-year period of political turmoil followed the general election of 1996. Several short-lived alliances shared power at the centre. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996; it was followed by two comparatively long-lasting [[United Front (India)|United Front]] coalitions, which depended on external support. In 1998, the BJP was able to form a successful coalition, the [[National Democratic Alliance (India)|National Democratic Alliance]] (NDA). Led by [[Atal Bihari Vajpayee]], the NDA became the first non-Congress, [[coalition government]] to complete a five-year term.{{sfn|Dunleavy|Diwakar|Dunleavy|2007}} In the [[Indian general election, 2004|2004 Indian general elections]], again no party won an absolute majority, but the Congress emerged as the largest single party, forming another successful coalition: the [[United Progressive Alliance]] (UPA). It had the support of left-leaning parties and MPs who opposed the BJP. The UPA returned to power in the [[Indian general election, 2009|2009 general election]] with increased numbers, and it no longer required external support from [[Socialism in India|India\'s communist parties]].{{sfn|Kulke|Rothermund|2004|p = 384}} That year, [[Manmohan Singh]] became the first prime minister since [[Jawaharlal Nehru]] in [[Indian general election, 1957|1957]] and [[Indian general election, 1962|1962]] to be re-elected to a consecutive five-year term.{{sfn|Business Standard|2009}} In the [[2014 Indian general election|2014 general election]], the BJP became the first political party since 1984 to win a majority and govern without the support of other parties.<ref>{{cite news|title=BJP first party since 1984 to win parliamentary majority on its own|url=|accessdate=20 May 2014|newspaper=DNA|date=16 May 2014|agency=IANS}}</ref> The [[Prime Minister]] of India is [[Narendra Modi]], who was formerly [[Chief Minister]] of [[Gujarat]].\n\n===Government===\n{{Main article|Government of India|Constitution of India}}\n\nIndia is a [[federation]] with a [[parliamentary system]] governed under the [[Constitution of India]], which serves as the country\'s supreme legal document. It is a republic and [[representative democracy]], in which "[[majority rule]] is tempered by [[minority rights]] protected by [[Law of India|law]]". [[Federalism#India|Federalism in India]] defines the power distribution between the federal government and the [[States and territories of India|states]]. The government abides by constitutional [[separation of powers|checks and balances]]. The Constitution of India, which came into effect on 26 January 1950,{{sfn|Pylee|2003|a|p = 4}} states in its [[preamble to the Constitution of India|preamble]] that India is a [[sovereignty|sovereign]], [[Socialism in India|socialist]], [[secularism|secular]], [[liberal democracy|democratic]] [[republic]].{{sfn|Dutt|1998|p = 421}} India\'s form of government, traditionally described as "quasi-federal" with a strong centre and weak states,{{sfn|Wheare|1980|p = 28}} has grown increasingly federal since the late 1990s as a result of political, economic, and social changes.{{sfn|Echeverri-Gent|2002|pp = 19–20}}{{sfn|Sinha|2004|p = 25}}\n{{Infobox region symbols\n| region_type = National\n| title    = [[National symbols of India|National symbols]]{{sfn|National Informatics Centre|2005}}\n| flag     = [[Tiranga]] (Tricolour)\n| emblem   = [[Emblem of India|Sarnath Lion Capital]]\n| anthem   = \'\'[[Jana Gana Mana]]\'\'\n| song     = \'\'[[Vande Mataram]]\'\'\n| currency = \'\'{{INR}}\'\' ([[Indian rupee]])\n| calendar = [[Indian national calendar|Saka]]\n| animal   =[[Tiger]] (land)<br />[[South Asian river dolphin|River dolphin]] (aquatic)\n| bird     =[[Indian peafowl]]\n| flower   =[[Nelumbo nucifera|Lotus]]\n| fruit    =[[Mango]]\n| tree     =[[Banyan]]\n| river    = [[Ganga]]\n| game     = Not declared<ref>{{cite web|title=In RTI reply, Centre says India has no national game|url=|accessdate=4 August 2012}}</ref>\n}}\nThe federal government comprises three branches:\n* [[Executive (government)|Executive]]: The [[President of India]] is the head of state{{sfn|Sharma|2007|p = 31}} and is elected indirectly by a national [[electoral college]]{{sfn|Sharma|2007|p = 138}} for a five-year term.{{sfn|Gledhill|1970|p = 112}} The [[Prime Minister of India]] is the [[head of government]] and exercises most [[executive (government)|executive power]].{{sfn|Sharma|1950}} Appointed by the president,{{sfn|Sharma|2007|p = 162}} the prime minister is by convention supported by the [[political party|party]] or political alliance holding the majority of seats in the lower house of parliament.{{sfn|Sharma|1950}} The executive branch of the Indian government consists of the president, the vice-president, and the [[Council of Ministers of Republic of India|Council of Ministers]]—the [[Cabinet (government)|cabinet]] being its executive committee—headed by the prime minister. Any minister holding a portfolio must be a member of one of the houses of parliament.{{sfn|Sharma|2007|p = 31}} In the Indian parliamentary system, the executive is subordinate to the legislature; the prime minister and his council are directly responsible to the lower house of the parliament.{{sfn|Mathew|2003|p = 524}}\n* [[Legislature|Legislative]]: The legislature of India is the [[bicameralism|bicameral]] [[Parliament of India|parliament]]. It operates under a [[Westminster system|Westminster-style]] parliamentary system and comprises the upper house called the [[Rajya Sabha]] ("Council of States") and the lower called the [[Lok Sabha]] ("House of the People").{{sfn|Gledhill|1970|p = 127}} The Rajya Sabha is a permanent body that has 245 members who serve in staggered six-year terms.{{sfn|Sharma|2007|p = 161}} Most are elected indirectly by the [[States and territories of India|state and territorial]] legislatures in numbers proportional to their state\'s share of the national population.{{sfn|Sharma|2007|p = 162}} All but two of the Lok Sabha\'s 545 members are directly elected by popular vote; they represent individual [[constituency|constituencies]] via five-year terms.{{sfn|Sharma|2007|p = 143}} The remaining two members are nominated by the president from among the [[Anglo-Indian]] community, in case the president decides that they are not adequately represented.{{sfn|Sharma|2007|p = 360}}\n* [[Judiciary|Judicial]]: India has a unitary three-tier [[independent judiciary]]{{sfn|Neuborne|2003|p = 478}} that comprises the [[Supreme Court of India|Supreme Court]], headed by the [[Chief Justice of India]], 24 [[High Courts of India|High Courts]], and a large number of trial courts.{{sfn|Neuborne|2003|p = 478}} The Supreme Court has [[original jurisdiction]] over cases involving [[Fundamental Rights in India|fundamental rights]] and over disputes between states and the centre; it has [[appellate jurisdiction]] over the High Courts.{{sfn|Sharma|2007|pp = 238, 255}} It has the power both to declare the law and to strike down union or state laws which contravene the constitution,{{sfn|Sripati|1998|pp = 423–424}} as well as to invalidate any government action it deems unconstitutional.{{sfn|Pylee|2003|b|p = 314}}\n\n===Subdivisions===\n{{Main article|Administrative divisions of India}}\n{{See also|Political integration of India}}\n\n{{Indian states and territories image map}}\n{| class="wikitable sortable floatright" style="font-size:85%; text-align:right; margin:0 0 1.5em 1.5em;"\n|+ \'\'\'States\'\'\' (1-29) & \'\'\'Union territories\'\'\' (A-G)\n|-\n|style="text-align:left;" |1. [[Andhra Pradesh]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |10. [[Jammu and Kashmir]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |19. [[Nagaland]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |28. [[Uttarakhand]]\n|-\n|style="text-align:left;" |2. [[Arunachal Pradesh]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |11. [[Jharkhand]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |20. [[Odisha]]<!--Do not change this per [[WP:COMMONNAME]].-->\n|style="text-align:left;" |29. [[West Bengal]]\n|-\n|style="text-align:left;" |3. [[Assam]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |12. [[Karnataka]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |21. [[Punjab, India|Punjab]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |A. [[Andaman and Nicobar Islands]]\n|-\n|style="text-align:left;" |4. [[Bihar]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |13. [[Kerala]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |22. [[Rajasthan]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |B. [[Chandigarh]]\n|-\n|style="text-align:left;" |5. [[Chhattisgarh]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |14. [[Madhya Pradesh]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |23. [[Sikkim]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |C. [[Dadra and Nagar Haveli]]\n|-\n|style="text-align:left;" |6. [[Goa]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |15. [[Maharashtra]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |24. [[Tamil Nadu]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |D. [[Daman and Diu]]\n|-\n|style="text-align:left;" |7. [[Gujarat]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |16. [[Manipur]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |25. [[Telangana]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |E. [[Lakshadweep]]\n|-\n|style="text-align:left;" |8. [[Haryana]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |17. [[Meghalaya]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |26. [[Tripura]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |F. [[Delhi|National Capital Territory of Delhi]]\n|-\n|style="text-align:left;" |9. [[Himachal Pradesh]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |18. [[Mizoram]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |27. [[Uttar Pradesh]]\n|style="text-align:left;" |G. [[Puducherry]]\n|}\n{{clear}}\n\nIndia is a federation composed of 29 states and 7 [[Union Territory|union territories]].{{sfn|Library of Congress|2004}} All states, as well as the union territories of [[Puducherry]] and the [[National Capital Territory of Delhi]], have elected legislatures and governments, both patterned on the [[Westminster system|Westminster]] model. The remaining five union territories are directly ruled by the centre through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the [[States Reorganisation Act]], states were reorganised on a linguistic basis.{{sfn|Sharma|2007|p = 49}} Since then, their structure has remained largely unchanged. Each state or union territory is further divided into administrative [[Districts of India|districts]]. The districts in turn are further divided into [[tehsil]]s and ultimately into villages.\n\n==Foreign relations and military==\n{{Main article|Foreign relations of India|Indian Armed Forces}}\n[[File:Putin shakes hand with Modi at the 6th BRICS summit.jpeg|thumb|alt=Two standing men are pictured shaking hands. The first is dressed in Indian clothing; the second is in a Western business suit; both standing behind a Russian flag.|[[Narendra Modi]] meets [[Vladimir Putin]] at the [[6th BRICS summit]]. India and Russia share extensive economic, defence, and technological [[India–Russia relations|ties]].]]\n\nSince its independence in 1947, India has maintained cordial relations with most nations. In the 1950s, it strongly supported decolonisation in [[Africa]] and [[Asia]] and [[India and the Non-Aligned Movement|played a lead role]] in the [[Non-Aligned Movement]].{{sfn|Rothermund|2000|pp = 48, 227}} In the late 1980s, the Indian military twice intervened abroad at the invitation of neighbouring countries: a [[Indian Peace Keeping Force|peace-keeping operation]] in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990; and an armed intervention to prevent a [[1988 Maldives coup d\'état|1988 coup d\'état attempt]] in Maldives. India has [[Indo-Pakistani relations|tense relations]] with neighbouring Pakistan; the two nations [[Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts|have gone to war four times]]: in [[Indo-Pakistani War of 1947|1947]], [[Indo-Pakistani War of 1965|1965]], [[Indo-Pakistani War of 1971|1971]], and [[Kargil War|1999]]. Three of these wars were fought over the [[Kashmir conflict|disputed territory of Kashmir]], while the fourth, the 1971 war, followed from India\'s support for the [[Bangladesh Liberation War|independence of Bangladesh]].{{sfn|Gilbert|2002|pp = 486–487}} After waging the 1962 [[Sino-Indian War]] and the 1965 war with Pakistan, India pursued close military and economic [[India-Soviet Union relations|ties with the Soviet Union]]; by the late 1960s, the Soviet Union was its largest arms supplier.{{sfn|Sharma|1999|p = 56}}\n\nAside from ongoing strategic [[India–Russia relations|relations with Russia]], India has wide-ranging [[India–Israel relations|defence relations with Israel]] and [[France–India relations|France]]. In recent years, it has played key roles in the [[South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation]] and the [[World Trade Organisation]]. The nation has provided 100,000 [[Indian Armed Forces|military]] and [[Law enforcement in India|police]] personnel to serve in 35 UN peacekeeping operations across four continents. It participates in the [[East Asia Summit]], the [[G8+5]], and other multilateral forums.{{sfn|Alford|2008}} India has close economic ties with [[South America]],<ref name=AmericasQuarterly>{{cite web|last=Heine|first=Jorge|title=The Other BRIC in Latin America: India|url=|work=Americas Quarterly|accessdate=29 December 2013|author2=R. Viswanathan|year=2011}}</ref> Asia, and Africa; it pursues a [[Look East policy|"Look East" policy]] that seeks to strengthen partnerships with the [[Association of Southeast Asian Nations|ASEAN]] nations, [[India–Japan relations|Japan]], and [[India–South Korea relations|South Korea]] that revolve around many issues, but especially those involving economic investment and regional security.{{sfn|Ghosh|2009|pp = 282–289}}{{sfn|Sisodia|Naidu|2005|pp = 1–8}}\n\n[[File:INS Vikramaditya during trials.jpg|thumb|left|[[INS Vikramaditya|INS \'\'Vikramaditya\'\']], the  [[Indian Navy|Indian Navy\'s]] biggest warship.]]\n\nChina\'s [[596 (nuclear test)|nuclear test of 1964]], as well as its repeated threats to intervene in support of Pakistan in the 1965 war, convinced India to develop nuclear weapons.{{sfn|Perkovich|2001|pp = 60–86, 106–125}} India conducted its [[Smiling Buddha|first nuclear weapons test]] in 1974 and carried out [[Pokhran-II|further underground testing]] in 1998. Despite criticism and military sanctions, India has signed neither the [[Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty]] nor the [[Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty]], considering both to be flawed and discriminatory.{{sfn|Kumar|2010}} India maintains a "[[no first use]]" nuclear policy and is developing a [[nuclear triad]] capability as a part of its "[[Minimum Credible Deterrence|minimum credible deterrence]]" doctrine.{{sfn|Nair|2007}}{{sfn|Pandit|2009}} It is developing a [[Indian Ballistic Missile Defense Program|ballistic missile defence shield]] and, in collaboration with Russia, a [[Sukhoi/HAL FGFA|fifth-generation fighter jet]].{{sfn|The Hindu 2011}} Other indigenous military projects involve the design and implementation of [[Vikrant class aircraft carrier|\'\'Vikrant\'\'-class aircraft carriers]] and [[Arihant class submarine|\'\'Arihant\'\'-class nuclear submarines]].{{sfn|The Hindu 2011}}\n\nSince the end of the [[Cold War]], India has increased its economic, strategic, and military co-operation with the [[India–United States relations|United States]] and the [[India–European Union relations|European Union]].{{sfn|Europa 2008}} In 2008, a [[U.S.–India Civil Nuclear Agreement|civilian nuclear agreement]] was signed between India and the United States. Although India possessed nuclear weapons at the time and was not party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, it received waivers from the [[International Atomic Energy Agency]] and the [[Nuclear Suppliers Group]], ending earlier restrictions on India\'s nuclear technology and commerce. As a consequence, India became the sixth \'\'de facto\'\' nuclear weapons state.{{sfn|The Times of India 2008}} India subsequently signed co-operation agreements involving [[Nuclear power in India|civilian nuclear energy]] with Russia,{{sfn|British Broadcasting Corporation 2009}} France,{{sfn|Rediff 2008 a}} the [[India–United Kingdom relations|United Kingdom]],{{sfn|Reuters|2010}} and [[Canada–India relations|Canada]].{{sfn|Curry|2010}}\n\nThe [[President of India]] is the supreme commander of the nation\'s armed forces; with 1.325 million active troops, they compose the [[List of countries by number of troops|world\'s third-largest military]].{{sfn|Ripsman|Paul|2010|p = 130}} It comprises the [[Indian Army]], the [[Indian Navy]], and the [[Indian Air Force]]; auxiliary organisations include the [[Strategic Forces Command]] and three [[Paramilitary forces of India|paramilitary groups]]: the [[Assam Rifles]], the [[Special Frontier Force]], and the [[Indian Coast Guard]].{{sfn|Central Intelligence Agency}} The official Indian [[List of countries by military expenditures|defence budget]] for 2011 was US$36.03 billion, or 1.83% of GDP.{{sfn|Behera|2011}} For the fiscal year spanning 2012–2013, US$40.44 billion was budgeted.{{sfn|Behera|2012}} According to a 2008 [[Stockholm International Peace Research Institute|SIPRI]] report, India\'s annual military expenditure in terms of purchasing power stood at US$72.7 billion.{{sfn|Stockholm International Peace Research Institute 2008|p = 178}} In 2011, the annual defence budget increased by 11.6%,{{sfn|Miglani|2011}} although this does not include funds that reach the military through other branches of government.{{sfn|Shukla|2011}} {{As of|2012}}, India is the world\'s largest arms importer; between 2007 and 2011, it accounted for 10% of funds spent on international arms purchases.{{sfn|Stockholm International Peace Research Initiative 2012}} Much of the military expenditure was focused on defence against Pakistan and countering growing Chinese influence in the [[Indian Ocean]].{{sfn|Miglani|2011}}\n\n==Economy==\n{{Main article|Economy of India}}\n{{See also|Economic History of India|Economic development in India}}\n{{random item|range=9\n|1=[[File:ILRI, Stevie Mann - Villager and calf share milk from cow in Rajasthan, India.jpg|thumb|A farmer in [[Rajasthan]] milks his cow.  Milk is India\'s [[Agriculture in India|largest crop by economic value]]. Worldwide, {{As of|2011|lc=y}}, India had the largest herds of buffalo and cattle, and was the largest producer of milk.]]\n|2=[[File:Naathu Naduthal.jpg|thumb|Agricultural workers involved in Rice planting. Rice production in India reached 102.75 million tons in 2011-12.]]\n|3=[[File:Ploughing with cattle in West Bengal.jpg|thumb|Indian agriculture dates from the period 7,000–6,000 BCE,{{sfn|Srivastava|2008|p=xxx}} employs most of the national workforce, and is second in farm output worldwide. Above, a farmer works an ox-drawn plow in Kadmati, West Bengal.]]\n|4=[[File:Fishermen on Chinese Fishing Nets Cochin India.jpg|thumb|Fishermen on the [[Chinese fishing nets]] of [[Cochin]]. [[Fishing in India|Fisheries in India]] is a major industry in its coastal states, employing over 14 million people.  The annual catch doubled between 1990 and 2010.]]\n|5=[[File:Cashew @ Paravur.jpg|thumb|Cashew packets displayed in a Supermarket at [[Paravur, Kollam|Paravur]] near [[Kollam]]. [[Kollam]] is known as the \'\'Cashew Capital of the World\'\'. An average of 130,000 tonnes of processed cashews are exported from [[Kollam]] to various countries in the world]]\n|6=[[File:Washing Iron Ore in Orissa India.jpg|thumb|A washing plant for mined [[iron ore]] in [[Orissa]].  India\'s iron ore reserves of 25 billion tonnes comprise 6% of global reserves.  India is the world\'s 4th largest producer and 3rd largest exporter.]]\n|7=[[File:India GDP.PNG|thumb|India\'s GDP has increased more than ten-fold after the [[Economic liberalisation in India|economic reforms in 1991.]] ]]\n|8=[[File:Salt field worker.jpg|thumb|A daily wage worker in a salt field. The average minimum wage of daily labourers is around Rs.100 per day]]\n|9=[[File:Mumbai Skyline1.jpg|thumb|Mumbai is the commercial and entertainment capital of India. It is also one of the world\'s top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 5% of India\'s GDP.]]\n}}\nAccording to the [[International Monetary Fund]] (IMF), the Indian economy in 2015 was nominally worth  US$2.183 trillion; it is the 7th-largest economy by market exchange rates, and is, at US$8.027 trillion, the third-largest by [[purchasing power parity]], or PPP.<ref name=imf2/> With its average annual GDP growth rate of 5.8% over the past two decades, and reaching 6.1% during 2011–12,{{sfn|International Monetary Fund 2011|p = 2}} India is one of the [[List of countries by real GDP growth rate|world\'s fastest-growing economies]].{{sfn|Nayak|Goldar|Agrawal|2010|p = xxv}} However, the country ranks 140th in the world in [[List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita|nominal GDP per capita]] and 129th in [[List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita|GDP per capita at PPP]].{{sfn|International Monetary Fund}} Until 1991, all Indian governments followed [[protectionism|protectionist]] policies that were influenced by socialist economics. Widespread [[Licence Raj|state intervention and regulation]] largely walled the economy off from the outside world. An acute [[1991 India economic crisis|balance of payments crisis in 1991]] forced the nation to [[Economic liberalisation in India|liberalise its economy]];{{sfn|Wolpert|2003|p = xiv}} since then it has slowly moved towards a free-market system{{sfn|Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2007}}{{sfn|Gargan|1992}} by emphasising both foreign trade and direct investment inflows.{{sfn|Alamgir|2008|pp = 23, 97}} India\'s recent economic model is largely capitalist.{{sfn|Gargan|1992}} India has been a member of [[WTO]] since 1 January 1995.{{sfn|WTO 1995}}\n\nThe 486.6-million worker [[Labour in India|Indian labour force]] is the [[List of countries by labour force|world\'s second-largest]], {{As of|2011|lc=y}}.{{sfn|Central Intelligence Agency}} The service sector makes up 55.6% of GDP, the industrial sector 26.3% and the agricultural sector 18.1%. India\'s foreign exchange remittances were US$70 billion in year 2014, the largest in the world, contributed to its economy by 25 million Indians working in foreign countries.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Pakistan’s remittances|author=Sakib Sherani||accessdate=17 December 2015}}</ref> Major agricultural products include rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, and potatoes.{{sfn|Library of Congress|2004}} Major industries include textiles, telecommunications, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, food processing, steel, transport equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, and software.{{sfn|Library of Congress|2004}} In 2006, the share of external trade in India\'s GDP stood at 24%, up from 6% in 1985.{{sfn|Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2007}} In 2008, India\'s share of world trade was 1.68%;{{sfn|The Times of India 2009}} In 2011, India was the world\'s [[List of countries by imports|tenth-largest importer]] and the [[List of countries by exports|nineteenth-largest exporter]].{{sfn|World Trade Organisation 2010}} Major exports include petroleum products, textile goods, jewellery, software, engineering goods, chemicals, and leather manufactures.{{sfn|Library of Congress|2004}} Major imports include crude oil, machinery, gems, fertiliser, and chemicals.{{sfn|Library of Congress|2004}} Between 2001 and 2011, the contribution of petrochemical and engineering goods to total exports grew from 14% to 42%.{{sfn|Economist 2011}} India was the second largest textile exporter after China in the world in calendar year 2013.<ref>{{cite web|title=India world\'s second largest textiles exporter|url=|work=TechCrunch|publisher=economictimes|accessdate=2 June 2014|author=UN Comtrade|date=4 February 2015}}</ref>\n\nAveraging an economic growth rate of 7.5% for several years prior to 2007,{{sfn|Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2007}} India has more than doubled its hourly wage rates during the first decade of the 21st century.{{sfn|Bonner|2010}} Some 431 million Indians have left poverty since 1985; India\'s middle classes are projected to number around 580 million by 2030.{{sfn|Farrell|Beinhocker|2007}} Though ranking 51st in [[Global Competitiveness Report|global competitiveness]], India ranks 17th in financial market sophistication, 24th in the banking sector, 44th in business sophistication, and 39th in innovation, ahead of several advanced economies, {{As of|2010|lc=y}}.{{sfn|Schwab|2010}} With 7 of the world\'s top 15 information technology outsourcing companies based in India, the country is viewed as the second-most favourable outsourcing destination after the United States, {{As of|2009|lc=y}}.{{sfn|Sheth|2009}} India\'s consumer market, the world\'s [[List of largest consumer markets|eleventh-largest]], is expected to become fifth-largest by 2030.{{sfn|Farrell|Beinhocker|2007}}\n\nDriven by growth, India\'s nominal [[GDP per capita]] has steadily increased from US$329 in 1991, when economic liberalisation began, to US$1,265 in 2010, and is estimated to increase to US$2,110 by 2016; however, it has remained lower than those of other Asian developing countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, and is expected to remain so in the near future. However, it is higher than Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and others.{{sfn|International Monetary Fund 2011}}\n\nAccording to a 2011 [[PricewaterhouseCoopers]] report, India\'s GDP at purchasing power parity could overtake that of the United States by 2045.{{sfn|PricewaterhouseCoopers|2011}} During the next four decades, Indian GDP is expected to grow at an annualised average of 8%, making it potentially the world\'s fastest-growing major economy until 2050.{{sfn|PricewaterhouseCoopers|2011}} The report highlights key growth factors: a young and rapidly growing working-age population; growth in the manufacturing sector because of rising education and engineering skill levels; and sustained growth of the consumer market driven by a rapidly growing middle class.{{sfn|PricewaterhouseCoopers|2011}} The World Bank cautions that, for India to achieve its economic potential, it must continue to focus on public sector reform, [[Transport in India|transport infrastructure]], agricultural and rural development, removal of labour regulations, [[Education in India|education]], [[Energy policy of India|energy security]], and [[Healthcare in India|public health]] and nutrition.{{sfn|World Bank 2010}}\n\nIn 2016, the [[Economist Intelligence Unit]] (EIU) released Top 10 cheapest cities in the world which 4 of it were from India: [[Bangalore]] (2nd), [[Mumbai]] (3rd), [[Chennai]] (6th) and [[New Delhi]] (8th) based on the cost of 160 products and services.<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=Here are the 10 most expensive and cheapest cities in the world |date=March 11, 2016}}</ref>\n\n===Sectors===\nIndia\'s [[Communications in India|telecommunication industry]], the world\'s fastest-growing, added 227 million subscribers during the period 2010–11,{{sfn|Telecom Regulatory Authority 2011}} and after the first quarter of 2013, India surpassed Japan to become the third largest smartphone market in the world after China and the US<ref>{{cite web|title=India Passes Japan To Become Third Largest Global Smartphone Market, After China & U.S.|url=|work=TechCrunch|publisher=AOL Inc|accessdate=27 June 2013|author=Natasha Lomas|date=26 June 2013}}</ref>\n\n{{random item|range=8\n|1=[[File:Bombay Stock Exchange 3.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Street-level view looking up at a modern 30-story building.|The [[Bombay Stock Exchange]] is Asia\'s oldest and India\'s largest bourse by [[market capitalisation]].]]\n|2=[[File:Tidel Park.jpg|thumb|left|[[Tidel Park]], the then largest IT park in Asia when it was opened in 2000.]]\n|3=[[File:Delhi Metro and CNG Buses in Azadpur Neighborhood.jpg|thumb|left|The [[Delhi Metro]] rapid transit system and the low-floor [[Compressed Natural Gas|CNG]] buses. [[Infrastructure]] in India in the next five years is estimated to bring in $1 trillion in investment, half of it by India\'s [[private sector]].]]\n|4=[[File:A photo on power loom.JPG|thumb|left|Power Loom used inside a house in a village near [[Salem, Tamil Nadu|Salem]], [[Tamil Nadu]]. [[Power loom]] accounts for more than 60% of [[Textile industry in India|textile production in India]].]]\n|5=[[File:Bangalore cellphone tower November 2011 -30.jpg|thumb|left|India has the [[List of countries by number of mobile phones in use|world\'s second-largest]] mobile phone user base of 996.66 million users as of September 2015. Shown here is a roof top mobile phone tower in [[Bangalore]]]]\n|6=[[File:Colourful vegetables.jpg|thumb|left|A vegetable retailer in Tamil Nadu. More than 95% of [[Retailing in India|retail industry]] in India is unorganised.]]\n|7=[[File:Small Hydroelectric Dam on Ganges Canal at Nagla Kabir UP.jpg|thumb|left|A small hydro-electric dam on the [[Ganges Canal]] at Nagla Kabir, UP.  The [[electricity sector in India]] has an installed capacity of 205.34 [[Gigawatt]] (GW), the world\'s fifth largest.  Coal-fired plants account for 56% of India\'s electricity capacity, renewal [[hydropower]] for 19%.]]\n|8=[[File:Cargo Ship leaving Diamong Harbour West Bengal.jpg|thumb|left|A [[feeder ship]] in Diamond Harbour, [[West Bengal]].   [[International trade]] accounted for 14% of India\'s GDP in 1988, 24% in 1998, and 53% in 2008. ]]\n}}\nIts [[Automotive industry in India|automotive industry]], the world\'s second fastest growing, increased domestic sales by 26% during 2009–10,{{sfn|Business Line 2010}} and exports by 36% during 2008–09.{{sfn|Express India 2009}} India\'s capacity to generate electrical power is 250 gigawatts, of which 8% is [[Renewable energy in India|renewable]]. At the end of 2011, the [[Information technology in India|Indian IT industry]] employed 2.8 million professionals, generated revenues close to US$100 billion equalling 7.5% of Indian GDP and contributed 26% of India\'s merchandise exports.{{sfn|Nasscom 2011–2012}}\n\nThe [[pharmaceutical industry in India]] is among the significant emerging markets for global pharma industry. The Indian pharmaceutical market is expected to reach $48.5 billion by 2020. India\'s R & D spending constitutes 60% of the [[biopharmaceutical]] industry.<ref>{{cite news|author=Vishal Dutta, ET Bureau 10 Jul 2012, 03.14PM IST |url= |title=Indian biotech industry at critical juncture, global biotech stabilises: Report |publisher=Economic Times|date=10 July 2012 |accessdate=31 October 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url= |title=Indian pharmaceutical industry—growth story to continue|publisher=Express Pharma|date=15 January 2012 |accessdate=31 October 2012|archiveurl=|archivedate=13 January 2013}}</ref> India is among the top 12 biotech destinations of the world.<ref>Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Sector in India: sector briefing by the UK Trade and Investment 2011,</ref>{{sfn|Yep|2011}} The Indian biotech industry grew by 15.1% in 2012–13, increasing its revenues from 204.4 Billion INR (Indian Rupees) to 235.24 Billion INR (3.94 B US$ - exchange rate June 2013: 1 US$ approx. 60 INR).<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Differding Consulting Publi 6 | |date=2014-02-11 |accessdate=2014-04-04}}</ref> Although hardly 2% of Indians pay [[income tax]]es.<ref>{{cite web|title=How Many People In India Pay Income Tax? Hardly Anyone|url=|date=6 June 2013}}</ref>\n\n===Poverty===\n{{Main article|Poverty in India}}\n\nDespite impressive economic growth during recent decades, India continues to face socio-economic challenges. India contains the [[poverty in India|largest concentration]] of people living below the World Bank\'s international poverty line of US$1.25 per day,{{sfn|World Bank 2006}} the proportion having decreased from 60% in 1981 to 42% in 2005, and 25% in 2011.{{sfn|World Bank a}} 30.7% of India\'s children under the age of five are underweight.<ref>{{cite web|title=India\'s rank improves to 55th position on global hunger index|url=|date=October 13, 2014|work=India times}}</ref> According to a [[Food and Agriculture Organization]] report in 2015, 15% of Indian population is undernourished.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=India is home to 194 million hungry people: UN|author=Internet Desk|work=The Hindu}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=India home to world\'s largest number of hungry people: report|}}</ref> The [[Mid-Day Meal Scheme]] attempts to lower these rates.{{sfn|Drèze|Goyal|2008|p = 46}} Since 1991, [[List of Indian states by GDP|economic inequality]] between India\'s states has consistently grown: the per-capita [[Net domestic product|net state domestic product]] of the richest states in 2007 was 3.2 times that of the poorest.{{sfn|Pal|Ghosh|2007}} [[Corruption in India]] is perceived to have increased significantly,{{sfn|Transparency International 2010}} with one report estimating the illegal capital flows since independence to be US$462 billion.{{sfn|British Broadcasting Corporation 2010 c}}\n\nIndia has the highest number of people living in conditions of [[Slavery in India|slavery]], 18 million, most of whom are in [[Debt bondage in India|bonded labour]].<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Modern slavery estimated to trap 45 million people worldwide||date=31 May 2016|accessdate=1 June 2016}}</ref> India has the largest number of [[Child labour in India|child labourers]] under the age of 14 in the world with an estimated 12.6 million children engaged in hazardous occupations.<ref>{{cite book|url=|title=Child Labour in South Asia|author1=Gamini Herath |author2=Kishor Sharma |year=2007|publisher=Ashgate publishing company|location=Burlington|page=100|isbn=9780754670049|accessdate=2015-11-09}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Special:Fighting Child Labour|publisher=[[unicef]]|date=August 22, 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=India- The big picture|publisher=[[UNICEF]]|date =26 February 2003}}</ref>\n\n==Demographics==\n{{Main article|Demographics of India}}\n{{See also|Languages of India|Religion in India}}\n[[File:Indian Railways Network Connectivity Map with cities and population density.png|thumb|alt=Map of India. High population density areas (above 1000 persons per square kilometre) centre on Kolkata along with other parts of the Ganges River Basin, Mumbai, Bangalore, the south-west coast, and the Lakshadweep Islands. Low density areas (below 100) include the western desert, eastern Kashmir, and the eastern frontier.|A population density and [[Indian Railways]] connectivity map. The already densely settled [[Indo-Gangetic Plain]] is the main driver of Indian population growth.]]\n{{random item|range=9\n|1=[[File:Kullu Himachal Pradesh India Woman.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Villager in Kullu, Himachal Pradesh]]\n|2=[[File:Cropped Tripuri.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Children prepare for a traditional dance in Tripura.]]\n|3=[[File:Girls in Kargil.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Women in [[Kargil town|Kargil]], Jammu and Kashmir]]\n|4=[[File:Handicrafts seller.JPG|thumb|left|upright|A handicraft seller in [[Hyderabad, India|Hyderabad]], Telangana ]]\n|5=[[File:Inde bondo8658a.jpg|thumb|left|upright|A [[Bonda people|Bondo]] woman walks to a weekly market in Chattisgarh.]]\n|6=[[File:India School.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Women attend a literacy programme in [[Thiruputkuzhi]], Tamil Nadu.]]\n|7=[[File:Lady in Bundi, Rajasthan.JPG|thumb|left|upright|A woman in [[Bundi]], Rajasthan]]\n|8=[[File:Sadhu Vârânasî .jpg|thumb|left|upright|An ascetic in [[Varanasi]], Uttar Pradesh]]\n|9=[[File:Coal Miner 1980.JPG|thumb|left|upright|A coal miner in Bachra, Jharkhand]]\n}}\n\nWith 1,210,193,422 residents reported in the 2011 provisional census report,{{sfn|Provisional Population Totals, Census|2011|p=160}} India is the world\'s second-most populous country. Its population grew by 17.64% during 2001–2011,{{sfn|Provisional Population Totals, Census|2011|p=165}} compared to 21.54% growth in the previous decade (1991–2001).{{sfn|Provisional Population Totals, Census|2011|p=165}} The human sex ratio, according to the 2011 census, is 940 females per 1,000 males.{{sfn|Provisional Population Totals, Census|2011|p=160}} The median age was 24.9 in the 2001 census.{{sfn|Central Intelligence Agency}} The first post-colonial census, conducted in 1951, counted 361.1 million people.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Census Population|work=Census of India|publisher=Ministry of Finance India|format=PDF}}</ref> Medical advances made in the last 50 years as well as increased agricultural productivity brought about by the "[[Green Revolution in India|Green Revolution]]" have caused India\'s population to grow rapidly.{{sfn|Rorabacher|2010|pp = 35–39}} India continues to face several public health-related challenges.{{sfn|World Health Organisation 2006}}{{sfn|Boston Analytics|2009}}\n\nLife expectancy in India is at 68 years with life expectancy for women being 69.6 years and for men being 67.3.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Life expectancy in India|work=newspaper|publisher=Times of India|format=PDF}}</ref> There are around 50 physicians per 100,000 Indians.{{sfn|Dev|Rao|2009|p = 329}} The number of Indians living in urban areas has grown by 31.2% between 1991 and 2001.{{sfn|Garg|2005}} Yet, in 2001, over 70% lived in rural areas.{{sfn|Dyson|Visaria|2005|pp = 115–129}}{{sfn|Ratna|2007|pp = 271–272}} The level of urbanisation increased from 27.81% in 2001 Census to 31.16% in 2011 Census. The slowing down of the overall growth rate of population was due to the sharp decline in the growth rate in rural areas since 1991.{{sfn|Chandramouli|2011}} According to the 2011 census, there are 53 [[List of most populous cities in India|million-plus cities in India]]; among them [[Mumbai]], [[Delhi]], [[Bangalore]], [[Hyderabad, India|Hyderabad]], [[Chennai]], [[Ahmedabad]], and [[Kolkata]], in decreasing order by population.<ref name="censusindia 2011">{{cite web|title=censusindia 2011: Major Agglomerations|url=|accessdate=25 April 2014}}</ref> The literacy rate in 2011 was 74.04%: 65.46% among females and 82.14% among males.{{sfn|Provisional Population Totals, Census|2011|p=163}} The rural urban literacy gap which was 21.2 percentage points in 2001, dropped to 16.1 percentage points in 2011. The improvement in literacy rate in rural area is two times that in urban areas.{{sfn|Chandramouli|2011}} Kerala is the most literate state with 93.91% literacy; while Bihar the least with 63.82%.{{sfn|Provisional Population Totals, Census|2011|p=163}}\n\nIndia is home to [[Language of India|two major language families]]: [[Indo-Aryan languages|Indo-Aryan]] (spoken by about 74% of the population) and [[Dravidian languages|Dravidian]] (24%). Other languages spoken in India come from the [[Austroasiatic languages|Austroasiatic]] and [[Sino-Tibetan languages|Sino-Tibetan]] language families. India has no national language.{{sfn|Dharwadker|2010|pp = 168–194, 186}} Hindi, with the largest number of speakers, is the official language of the government.{{sfn|Ottenheimer|2008|p = 303}}{{sfn|Mallikarjun|2004}} English is used extensively in business and administration and has the status of a "subsidiary official language";{{sfn|Ministry of Home Affairs 1960}} it is important in [[Education in India|education]], especially as a medium of higher education. Each state and union territory has one or more official languages, and the constitution recognises in particular 22 "scheduled languages". The Constitution of India recognises 212 [[Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes|scheduled]] [[Adivasi|tribal]] groups which together constitute about 7.5% of the country\'s population.{{sfn|Bonner|1990|p = 81}} The 2011 census reported<ref>{{cite web| url=| title= Census: Hindu share dips below 80%, Muslim share grows but slower|author1=Abantika Ghosh |author2=Vijaita Singh | work=Indian Express| date= 24 January 2015 | publisher= Indian Express| accessdate= 2015-01-27}}</ref> that [[Hinduism in India|Hinduism]] (79.8% of the population) is the largest [[religion in India]], followed by [[Islam in India|Islam]] (14.23%). Other religions or none (5.97% of the population) include [[Christianity in India|Christianity]] (2.30%), [[Sikhism in India|Sikhism]] (1.72%), [[History of Buddhism in India|Buddhism]] (0.70%), [[Statistics of Jainism|Jainism]], [[History of the Jews in India|Judaism]], [[Zoroastrianism in India|Zoroastrianism]], and the [[Bahá\'í Faith in India|Bahá\'í Faith]].<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=C -1 Population by religious community - 2011 |publisher=Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner |accessdate=2015-08-25 }}</ref> India has the world\'s largest Hindu, Sikh, Jain, Zoroastrian, and Bahá\'í populations, and has the [[List of countries by Muslim population#List|third-largest]] Muslim population and the largest Muslim population for a non-Muslim majority country.<ref>[ Global Muslim population estimated at 1.57 billion]. The Hindu (8 October 2009)</ref><ref>[ India Chapter Summary 2012]</ref>\n\n==Culture==\n{{Main article|Culture of India}}\n{{random item|range=7\n|1=[[File:A Warli painting by Jivya Soma Mashe, Thane district.jpg|thumb|A [[Warli]] tribal painting by [[Jivya Soma Mashe]] from [[Thane district|Thane]], Maharashtra]]\n|2=[[File:Gandhara Buddha (tnm).jpeg|thumb|A sculpture fashioned in the [[Greco-Buddhist art|Gandharan tradition]] depicting Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism, at the Tokyo National Museum]]\n|3=[[File:Goswami Tulsidas Awadhi Hindi Poet.jpg|thumb|The [[Awadhi language|Awadhi]] Hindi poet [[Tulsidas]] composed the \'\'[[Ramcharitmanas]]\'\', which is one of the best-known vernacular versions of the \'\'[[Ramayana]]\'\'.]]\n|4=[[File:Hampi Royal Area, Vijayanagara Empire, Karnataka.jpg|thumb|[[Hampi]], seat of the Vijayanagara Empire]]\n|5=[[File:Mahabodhi Temple Bodh Gaya Bihar India.jpg|thumb|The [[Mahabodhi Temple]] in [[Bodh Gaya]], Bihar commemorates the enlightenment of Gautama Buddha.]]\n|6=[[File:Shiva as the Lord of Dance LACMA edit.jpg|thumb|A Chola bronze depicting [[Nataraja]], who is seen as a cosmic "Lord of the Dance" and representative of [[Shiva]]]]\n|7=[[File:Toda Hut.JPG|thumb|A [[Toda people|Toda]] tribal hut exemplifies [[Indian vernacular architecture]].]]\n}}\nIndian cultural history spans more than 4,500 years.{{sfn|Kuiper|2010|p = 15}} During the [[Vedic period]] (c. 1700 – 500 BCE), the foundations of [[Hindu philosophy]], [[Hindu mythology|mythology]], [[Hindu theology|theology]] and [[Hindu texts|literature]] were laid, and many beliefs and practices which still exist today, such as \'\'[[Dharma|dhárma]]\'\', \'\'[[Karma|kárma]]\'\', \'\'[[yoga|yóga]]\'\', and \'\'[[moksha|mokṣa]]\'\', were established.{{sfn|Kuiper|2010|p = 86}} India is notable for its [[Indian religions|religious diversity]], with [[Hinduism]], [[Buddhism]], [[Sikhism]], [[Islam]], [[Christianity]], and [[Jainism]] among the nation\'s major religions.{{sfn|Heehs|2002|pp = 2–5}} The predominant religion, Hinduism, has been shaped by various historical schools of thought, including those of the \'\'[[Upanishads]]\'\',{{sfn|Deutsch|1969|pp = 3, 78}} the \'\'[[Yoga Sutras of Patanjali|Yoga Sutras]]\'\', the [[Bhakti|\'\'Bhakti\'\' movement]],{{sfn|Heehs|2002|pp = 2–5}} and by [[Buddhist philosophy]].{{sfn|Nakamura|1999}}\n\n===Art and architecture===\n{{main article|Architecture of India}}\nMuch of [[Architecture of India|Indian architecture]], including the [[Taj Mahal]], other works of [[Mughal architecture]], and [[Dravidian architecture|South Indian architecture]], blends ancient local traditions with imported styles.{{sfn|Kuiper|2010|pp = 296–329}} [[Indian vernacular architecture|Vernacular architecture]] is also highly regional in it flavours. \'\'[[Vastu shastra]]\'\', literally "science of construction" or "architecture" and ascribed to [[Mamuni Mayan]],{{sfn|Silverman|2007|p = 20}} explores how the laws of nature affect human dwellings;{{sfn|Kumar|2000|p = 5}} it employs precise geometry and directional alignments to reflect perceived cosmic constructs.{{sfn|Roberts|2004|p = 73}} As applied in [[Hindu temple architecture]], it is influenced by the \'\'[[Shilpa Shastras]]\'\', a series of foundational texts whose basic mythological form is the \'\'Vastu-Purusha mandala\'\', a square that embodied the "[[Absolute (philosophy)|absolute]]".{{sfn|Lang|Moleski|2010|pp = 151–152}} The Taj Mahal, built in [[Agra]] between 1631 and 1648 by orders of Emperor [[Shah Jahan]] in memory of his wife, has been described in the [[UNESCO World Heritage List]] as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world\'s heritage".{{sfn|United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation}} [[Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture]], developed by the British in the late 19th century, drew on [[Indo-Islamic architecture]].{{sfn|Chopra|2011|p = 46}}\n\n===Literature===\n{{main article|Indian literature}}\nThe earliest literary writings in India, composed between 1700 BCE and 1200 CE, were in the Sanskrit language.{{sfn|Hoiberg|Ramchandani|2000}}{{sfn|Sarma|2009}} Prominent works of this [[Sanskrit literature]] include [[Indian epic poetry|epics]] such as the \'\'[[Mahabharata|Mahābhārata]]\'\' and the \'\'[[Ramayana]]\'\', the dramas of [[Kālidāsa]] such as the \'\'Abhijñānaśākuntalam\'\' (\'\'[[The Recognition of Śakuntalā]]\'\'), and poetry such as the \'\'[[Sanskrit Classical poetry|Mahākāvya]]\'\'.{{sfn|Johnson|2008}}{{sfn|MacDonell|2004|pp = 1–40}}{{sfn|Kālidāsa|Johnson|2001}} [[Kamasutra]], the famous book about [[sexual intercourse]] also originated in India. Developed between 600 BCE and 300 CE in South India, the [[Sangam literature|\'\'Sangam\'\' literature]], consisting of 2,381 poems, is regarded as a predecessor of [[Tamil literature]].{{sfn|Zvelebil|1997|p = 12}}{{sfn|Hart|1975}}{{sfn|Encyclopædia Britannica|2008}}{{sfn|Ramanujan|1985|pp = ix–x}} From the 14th to the 18th centuries, India\'s literary traditions went through a period of drastic change because of the emergence of [[Bhakti movement|devotional poets]] such as [[Kabir|Kabīr]], [[Tulsidas|Tulsīdās]], and [[Guru Nanak|Guru Nānak]]. This period was characterised by a varied and wide spectrum of thought and expression; as a consequence, medieval Indian literary works differed significantly from classical traditions.{{sfn|Das|2005}} In the 19th century, Indian writers took a new interest in social questions and psychological descriptions. In the 20th century, Indian literature was influenced by the [[Works of Rabindranath Tagore|works]] of Bengali poet and novelist [[Rabindranath Tagore]].{{sfn|Datta|2006}}\n\n===Performing arts===\n{{random item|range=6\n|1=[[File:Rukmini Devi.jpg|thumb|left|[[Rukmini Devi Arundale]], one of the foremost revivalists of \'\'[[Bharata Natyam|bharatnatyam]]\'\' dance in the 20th century, performs at a concert.]]\n|2=[[File:Flickr - dalbera - Deepika Reddy (musée Guimet).jpg|thumb|left|A Kuchipudi dance performance is accompanied by Carnatic vocalisations.]]\n|3=[[File:Flickr - dalbera - Sudheshna Bhattacharya (musée Guimet, Paris) (1).jpg|thumb|left|[[Sarod]] performance at the Musée Guimet, Paris]]\n|4=[[File:Friday Evening Qawali at Dargah Salim Chisti, Fatehpur Sikri, UP, India.theora.ogv|thumb|left|Friday evening \'\'[[qawwali]]\'\' at Dargah [[Salim Chishti]] in [[Fatehpur Sikri]], near [[Agra]], Uttar Pradesh]]\n|5=[[File:Inde muria 0511.jpg|thumb|left|[[Muria people|Muria]] tribal dancers in Bastar, Chhattisgarh]]\n|6=[[File:Indian village musicians.jpg|thumb|left|Folk musicians in Hyderabad]]\n}}\n{{main article|Music of India|Dance in India}}\n[[Music of India|Indian music]] ranges over various traditions and regional styles. [[Indian classical music|Classical music]] encompasses two genres and their various folk offshoots: the northern [[Hindustani classical music|Hindustani]] and southern [[Carnatic music|Carnatic]] schools.{{sfn|Massey|Massey|1998}} Regionalised popular forms include [[filmi]] and [[Indian folk music|folk music]]; the syncretic tradition of the \'\'[[baul]]s\'\' is a well-known form of the latter. [[Dance in India|Indian dance]] also features diverse folk and classical forms. Among the better-known [[List of Indian folk dances|folk dances]] are the \'\'[[Bhangra (dance)|bhangra]]\'\' of Punjab, the \'\'[[bihu dance|bihu]]\'\' of Assam, the \'\'[[Chhau dance|chhau]]\'\' of Odisha,  West Bengal and Jharkhand, \'\'[[Garba (dance)|garba]]\'\' and \'\'[[Dandiya Raas|dandiya]]\'\' of Gujarat, \'\'[[ghoomar]]\'\' of Rajasthan, and the \'\'[[lavani]]\'\' of Maharashtra. Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded [[Classical Indian dance|classical dance status]] by India\'s [[Sangeet Natak Akademi|National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama]]. These are: \'\'[[Bharata Natyam|bharatanatyam]]\'\' of the state of Tamil Nadu, \'\'[[kathak]]\'\' of Uttar Pradesh, \'\'[[kathakali]]\'\' and \'\'[[mohiniyattam]]\'\' of Kerala,\'\' [[kuchipudi]]\'\' of Andhra Pradesh, \'\'[[Manipuri dance|manipuri]]\'\' of Manipur, \'\'[[odissi]]\'\' of Odisha<!--Do not change this per [[WP:COMMONNAME]].-->, and the \'\'[[sattriya]]\'\' of Assam.{{sfn|Encyclopædia Britannica b}} [[Theatre in India]] melds music, dance, and improvised or written dialogue.{{sfn|Lal|2004|pp = 23, 30, 235}} Often based on Hindu mythology, but also borrowing from medieval romances or social and political events, Indian theatre includes the \'\'[[bhavai]]\'\' of Gujarat, the \'\'[[Jatra (Bengal)|jatra]]\'\' of West Bengal, the \'\'[[nautanki]]\'\' and \'\'[[ramlila]]\'\' of North India, \'\'[[tamasha]]\'\' of Maharashtra, \'\'[[burrakatha]]\'\' of Andhra Pradesh, \'\'[[terukkuttu]]\'\' of Tamil Nadu, and the \'\'[[yakshagana]]\'\' of Karnataka.{{sfn|Karanth|2002|p = 26}}\n\n===Motion pictures, television===\n{{main article|Cinema of India|Television in India}}\nThe [[Cinema of India|Indian film industry]] produces the world\'s most-watched cinema.{{sfn|Dissanayake|Gokulsing|2004}} Established regional cinematic traditions exist in the [[Cinema of Assam|Assamese]], [[Cinema of West Bengal|Bengali]], [[Bhojpuri cinema|Bhojpuri]], [[Bollywood|Hindi]], [[Cinema of Karnataka|Kannada]], [[Malayalam cinema|Malayalam]], [[Cinema of Punjab|Punjabi]], [[Gujarati cinema|Gujarati]], [[Marathi cinema|Marathi]], [[Cinema of Odisha|Odia]], [[Tamil cinema|Tamil]], and [[Telugu cinema|Telugu]] languages.{{sfn|Rajadhyaksha|Willemen|1999|page = 652}} South Indian cinema attracts more than 75% of national film revenue.{{sfn|The Economic Times}}\n\nTelevision broadcasting began in India in 1959 as a state-run medium of communication, and had slow expansion for more than two decades.<ref>Sunetra Sen Narayan, \'\'Globalization and Television: A Study of the Indian Experience, 1990-2010\'\' (Oxford University Press, 2015); 307 pages</ref>{{sfn|Kaminsky|Long|2011|pp = 684–692}} The [[Doordarshan|state monopoly]] on television broadcast ended in the 1990s and, since then, satellite channels have increasingly shaped popular culture of Indian society.{{sfn|Mehta|2008|pp = 1–10}} Today, television is the most penetrative media in India; industry estimates indicate that {{As of|2012|lc=y}} there are over 554 million TV consumers, 462 million with satellite and/or cable connections, compared to other forms of mass media such as press (350 million), radio (156 million) or internet (37 million).{{sfn|Media Research Users Council 2012}}\n\n===Society===\n{{main article|Indian society}}\n{{random item|range=9\n|1=[[File:GroupFromNorthEastIndiaAtTaj.jpg|thumb|Tourists from [[North-East India]], wrapped in sarongs and shawls, visit the Taj Mahal.]]\n|2=[[File:Hindu marriage ceremony offering.jpg|thumb|A [[Rajput]] Hindu marriage ceremony]]\n|3=[[File:Hindu Temple Rituals.jpg|thumb|Four activities of a Hindu priest, clockwise from top left: (1) preparing the deity for public worship; (2) making [[sandlewood]] paste for ritual blessing; (3) successively dripping the altar with milk, honey, dry fruit, yoghurt, and bananas to make ambrosia; (4) distributing the \'\'[[prasad]]\'\', food viewed as blessed by the deity, to the worshipers.]]\n|4=[[File:India Christian wedding Madurai Tamil Nadu.jpg|thumb|A Christian wedding in [[Madurai]], Tamil Nadu. Christianity is believed to have been introduced to India by the late 2nd century by [[Christianity in India#Early Christianity in India|Syriac-speaking Christians]].]]\n|5=[[File:Indian Kitchens Outdoor and Indoor, Rajasthan and Karnataka.jpg|thumb|Top: \'\'[[Roti]]\'\' bread and \'\'[[sabzi]]\'\' vegetable stew are cooked outdoors in the Thar Desert using traditional Rajasthani methods. Bottom: The kitchen of a Hindu temple.]]\n|6=[[File:Muslims praying in mosque in Srinagar, Kashmir.jpg|thumb|Muslims offer \'\'[[Salah|namaz]]\'\' at a mosque in [[Srinagar]], Jammu and Kashmir.]]\n|7=[[File:Northern and Western Indian Home Cooked Lunch and Southern Indian Thali Dinner.jpg|thumb|Top: A North Indian home-cooked \'\'[[tiffin]]\'\' lunch as delivered to an office by a \'\'[[dabbawala]]\'\'. Bottom: A South Indian \'\'[[thali]]\'\'-style dinner as served in a restaurant.]]\n|8=[[File:Sikh pilgrim at the Golden Temple (Harmandir Sahib) in Amritsar, India.jpg|thumb|A Sikh pilgrim at the [[Harmandir Sahib]], or Golden Temple, in [[Amritsar]], Punjab]]\n}}\n\nTraditional Indian society is sometimes defined by social hierarchy. The [[Caste system in India|Indian caste system]] embodies much of the social stratification and many of the social restrictions found in the Indian subcontinent. Social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often termed as \'\'[[jāti]]s\'\', or "castes".{{sfn|Schwartzberg|2011}} India declared untouchability to be illegal<ref>"Spiritual Terrorism: Spiritual Abuse from the Womb to the Tomb", p. 391, by Boyd C. Purcell</ref> in 1947 and has since enacted other anti-discriminatory laws and social welfare initiatives. At the workplace in urban India and in international or leading Indian companies, the caste related identification has pretty much lost its importance.{{sfn|Messner|2009|p = 51-53}}{{sfn|Messner|2012|p = 27-28}}\n\nFamily values are important in the Indian tradition, and multi-generational patriarchal joint families have been the norm in India, though nuclear families are becoming common in urban areas.{{sfn|Makar|2007}} An overwhelming majority of Indians, with their consent, have [[Arranged marriage in the Indian subcontinent|their marriages arranged]] by their parents or other family members.{{sfn|Medora|2003}} Marriage is thought to be for life,{{sfn|Medora|2003}} and the divorce rate is extremely low.{{sfn|Jones|Ramdas|2005|p = 111}} {{As of|2001}}, just 1.6 percent of [[Women in India|Indian women]] were divorced but this figure was rising due to their education and economic independence.{{sfn|Jones|Ramdas|2005|p = 111}} [[Child marriage]]s are common, especially in rural areas; many women wed before reaching 18, which is their legal marriageable age.{{sfn|Cullen-Dupont|2009|p = 96}} [[Female infanticide in India|Female infanticide]] and [[female foeticide in India|female foeticide in the country]] have caused a discrepancy in the sex ratio, {{As of|2005|lc=y}} it was estimated that there were 50 million more males than females in the nation.{{sfn|Bunting|2011}}{{sfn|Agnivesh|2005}} However the recent report from 2011 shown improvement among the gender ratio.<ref>[ Census of India-Gender Composition] 2011</ref> The payment of [[Dowry system in India|dowry]], although [[Dowry law in India|illegal]], remains widespread across class lines.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Woman killed over dowry \'every hour\' in India | |accessdate=10 February 2014|date=2 September 2013}}</ref> [[Dowry deaths|Deaths resulting from dowry]], mostly from [[bride burning]], are on the rise.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Rising number of dowry deaths in India:NCRB| |accessdate=10 February 2014|date=7 August 2013}}</ref>\n\nMany [[Public holidays in India|Indian festivals]] are religious in origin. The best known include [[Diwali]], [[Ganesh Chaturthi]], [[Thai Pongal]], [[Holi]], [[Durga Puja]], [[Eid ul-Fitr]], [[Bakr-Id]], [[Christmas worldwide#India|Christmas]], and [[Vaisakhi]].<ref>{{Citation|url=|title=Indian Festivals|accessdate=14 May 2016}}</ref><ref>{{Citation\n|url=\n|title = Popular India Festivals\n|accessdate= 23 December 2007}}</ref> India has [[National days in India|three national holidays]] which are observed in all states and union territories – [[Republic Day (India)|Republic Day]], [[Independence Day (India)|Independence Day]] and [[Gandhi Jayanti]]. Other sets of holidays, varying between nine and twelve, are officially observed in individual states.\n\n===Clothing===\n{{Main article|Clothing in India}}\n[[History of cotton|Cotton]] was domesticated in India by 4000 BCE. Traditional [[Clothing in India|Indian dress]] varies in colour and style across regions and depends on various factors, including climate and faith. Popular styles of dress include draped garments such as the \'\'[[sari]]\'\' for women and the \'\'[[dhoti]]\'\' or \'\'[[lungi]]\'\' for men. Stitched clothes, such as the \'\'[[shalwar kameez]]\'\' for women and \'\'[[kurta]]\'\'–\'\'[[Pajamas|pyjama]]\'\' combinations or European-style trousers and shirts for men, are also popular.{{sfn|Tarlo|1996|pp = xii, xii, 11, 15, 28, 46}} Use of delicate jewellery, modelled on real flowers worn in ancient India, is part of a tradition dating back some 5,000 years; gemstones are also worn in India as talismans.{{sfn|Eraly|2008|p = 160}}\n\n===Sports===\n{{Main article|Sport in India}}\n{{random item|range=9\n|1=[[File:Filles jouant à la marelle, Jaura, Inde.jpg|thumb|Girls play hopscotch in [[Juara]], Madhya Pradesh.]]\n|2=[[File:Indian-Hockey-Team-Berlin-1936.jpg|thumb|Indian hockey team, captained by [[Dhyan Chand]] (standing second from left), after winning the finals at the [[1936 Summer Olympics]]—their third of six consecutive Olympic golds.]]\n|3=[[File:Joueursindienspushkar.jpg|thumb|A street-corner game of \'\'pachisi\'\' in [[Pushkar]], Rajasthan]]\n|4=[[File:Kabaddi in Bagepalli Karnataka.jpg|thumb|A game of \'\'kabaddi\'\' in [[Bagepalli]], Karnataka]]\n|5=[[File:Soccer football informal in Manipur India cropped.jpg|thumb|Boys play football in Manipur.]]\n|6=[[File:Street Cricket Batter India.jpg|thumb|left|Cricket is the most popular game among India\'s masses. Shown here is an instance of [[street cricket]].]]\n|7=[[File:Vaalum-parichayum.jpeg|thumb|\'\'[[Kalarippayattu]]\'\', a martial art native to Kerala]]\n|8=[[File:Viswanathan Anand 08 14 2005.jpg|thumb|200px|left|Indian chess grandmaster and former world champion [[Vishwanathan Anand]] competes at a chess tournament in 2005. Chess is commonly believed to have originated in India in the 5th century CE.]]\n|9=[[File:Master Blaster at work.jpg|thumb|250px|right|During a twenty four-year career, [[Sachin Tendulkar]] has set many batting records, including most runs in both tests and ODIs and most number of centuries in both tests and ODIs, making him one of the most successful cricketers ever.]]\n}}\nIn India, several traditional indigenous sports remain fairly popular, such as \'\'[[kabaddi]]\'\', \'\'[[kho kho]]\'\', \'\'[[pehlwani]]\'\' and \'\'[[gilli-danda]]\'\'. Some of the earliest forms of Asian [[Indian martial arts|martial arts]], such as \'\'[[kalarippayattu]]\'\', \'\'[[musti yuddha]]\'\', \'\'[[silambam]]\'\', and \'\'[[marma adi]]\'\', originated in India. [[Chess]], commonly held to have [[History of chess#India|originated in India]] as \'\'[[chaturanga|chaturaṅga]]\'\', is regaining widespread popularity with the rise in the number of Indian [[Grandmaster (chess)|grandmasters]].{{sfn|Wolpert|2003|p = 2}}{{sfn|Rediff 2008 b}} \'\'[[Pachisi]]\'\', from which [[parcheesi]] derives, was played on a giant marble court by [[Akbar]].{{sfn|Binmore|2007|p = 98}}\n\nThe improved results garnered by the [[India Davis Cup team|Indian Davis Cup team]] and other [[:Category:Indian tennis players|Indian tennis players]] in the early 2010s have made tennis increasingly popular in the country.{{sfn|The Wall Street Journal 2009}} India has a [[:Category:Indian sport shooters|comparatively strong presence]] in shooting sports, and has won several medals at the [[Olympic Games|Olympics]], the [[ISSF World Shooting Championships|World Shooting Championships]], and the Commonwealth Games.{{sfn|British Broadcasting Corporation 2010 b}}{{sfn|The Times of India 2010}} Other sports in which Indians have succeeded internationally include badminton{{sfn|British Broadcasting Corporation 2010 a}} ([[Saina Nehwal]] is the top ranked female [[badminton]] player in the world), boxing,{{sfn|Mint 2010}} and wrestling.{{sfn|Xavier|2010}} [[Football in India|Football]] is popular in [[West Bengal]], [[Goa]], [[Tamil Nadu]], [[Kerala]], and the [[Seven Sister States|north-eastern states]].{{sfn|Majumdar|Bandyopadhyay|2006|pp = 1–5}} India is scheduled to host the [[2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup]].<ref>{{Cite news|url=|title=Most of U-17 World Cup stadia need major renovation: FIFA team|date=2016-02-20|work=The Times of India|access-date=2016-06-18}}</ref>\n\n[[Field hockey in India]] is administered by [[Hockey India]]. The [[India men\'s national field hockey team|Indian national hockey team]] won the 1975 [[Hockey World Cup]] and have, {{As of|2012|lc=y}}, taken eight gold, one silver, and two bronze Olympic medals, making it the sport\'s most successful team in the Olympics.\n\nIndia has also played a major role in popularising [[cricket]]. Thus, cricket is, by far, the most popular sport in India. The [[India national cricket team|Indian national cricket team]] won the [[1983 Cricket World Cup|1983]] and [[2011 Cricket World Cup]] events, the [[2007 ICC World Twenty20]], shared the [[2002 ICC Champions Trophy]] with Sri Lanka, and won [[2013 ICC Champions Trophy]]. [[Cricket in India]] is administered by the [[Board of Control for Cricket in India]] (BCCI); the [[Ranji Trophy]], the [[Duleep Trophy]], the [[Deodhar Trophy]], the [[Irani Trophy]], and the [[NKP Salve Challenger Trophy]] are domestic competitions. The BCCI is also responsible for conducting an annual [[Twenty20]] competition known as the [[Indian Premier League]].\n\nIndia has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events: the [[1951 Asian Games|1951]] and [[1982 Asian Games]]; the [[1987 Cricket World Cup|1987]], [[1996 Cricket World Cup|1996]], and [[2011 Cricket World Cup]] tournaments; the [[2003 Afro-Asian Games]]; the [[2006 ICC Champions Trophy]]; the [[2010 Men\'s Hockey World Cup|2010 Hockey World Cup]]; and the [[2010 Commonwealth Games]]. Major international sporting events held annually in India include the [[Chennai Open]], the [[Mumbai Marathon]], the [[Delhi Half Marathon]], and the [[Indian Masters]]. The first [[Indian Grand Prix]] featured in late 2011 but has been discontinued from the F1 season calendar since 2014.{{sfn|Dehejia|2011}}\n\nIndia has traditionally been the dominant country at the [[South Asian Games]]. An example of this dominance is the [[Basketball at the South Asian Games|basketball competition]] where [[India national basketball team|Team India]] won three out of four tournaments to date.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Basketball team named for 11th South Asian Games | |date=2 January 2010 |accessdate=8 March 2013}}</ref> The [[Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna]] and the [[Arjuna Award]] are the highest forms of government recognition for athletic achievement; the [[Dronacharya Award]] is awarded for excellence in coaching.\n\n==See also==\n\n{{Portal bar|India|Asia}}\n\n==Notes==\n{{notes|33em}}\n{{reflist|group=nb}}\n\n==References==\n{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}\n\n==Bibliography==\n\'\'\'Overview\'\'\'\n{{refbegin|33em}}\n* {{citation|title=India|work=[[The World Factbook]]|publisher=[[Central Intelligence Agency]]|url=|accessdate=4 October 2011|ref={{sfnRef|Central Intelligence Agency}}}}\n* {{citation|date=December 2004|title=Country Profile: India|edition=5th|work=[[Library of Congress Country Studies]]|publisher=[[Library of Congress]] [[Federal Research Division]]|url=|accessdate=30 September 2011|format=PDF|ref={{sfnRef|Library of Congress|2004}}}}\n* {{citation|last1=Heitzman|first1=J.|last2=Worden|first2=R. 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V.|date=1 August 1997|title=Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature|publisher=[[Brill Publishers]]|isbn=978-90-04-09365-2|url=}}\n{{refend}}\n\n==External links==\n* [ National Portal] of the Government of India\n* {{CIA World Factbook link|in|India}}\n* {{Dmoz|Regional/Asia/India}}\n* [ India profile] from the [[BBC News]]\n* [ India] \'\'[[Encyclopædia Britannica]]\'\' entry\n* [ India] at the [[University of Colorado at Boulder|UCB]] Government Information Library{{NSEW|[[China]] [[Nepal]] [[Bhutan]]|[[Sri Lanka]]|[[Bangladesh]] [[Myanmar]]||[[Pakistan]]||[[Maldives]]|||}}\n\n{{India topics|state=collapsed}}\n{{States and Union Territories of India}}\n{{navboxes|title=International membership|list=\n{{The Commonwealth}}\n{{South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation}}\n{{G8 nations}}\n{{G20}}\n{{BRICS}}\n{{East Asia Summit (EAS)}}\n}}\n{{Subject bar|b=y|commons=y|n=y|q=y|s=y|v=y |voy= y |voy-search= India}}\n{{Featured article}}\n\n{{Coord|21|N|78|E|region:IN_type:country_source:dewiki|display=title}}\n\n{{Authority control}}\n\n[[Category:India| ]]\n[[Category:Commonwealth republics]]\n[[Category:Federal republics]]\n[[Category:Republics]]\n[[Category:Former British colonies]]\n[[Category:G15 nations]]\n[[Category:G20 nations]]\n[[Category:Liberal democracies]]\n[[Category:Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations]]\n[[Category:Member states of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation]]\n[[Category:Member states of the United Nations]]\n[[Category:South Asian countries]]\n[[Category:States and territories established in 1947]]\n[[Category:Hindustani-speaking countries and territories]]\n[[Category:English-speaking countries and territories]]\n[[Category:BRICS nations]]\n[[Category:Articles containing video clips]]\n[[Category:Countries in Asia]]\n[[Category:E7 nations]]'