#!/usr/bin/python3

import requests

S = requests.Session()

URL = "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/api.php"

TITLE = "Sweden"

PARAMS = {
    "action":"parse",
    "prop": "wikitext",
    "page": TITLE,
    "format":"json"
}

R = S.get(url=URL, params=PARAMS)
DATA = R.json()

print(DATA['parse']['wikitext'])
{'*': '{{about|the country}}\n{{other uses of|Swedish" or the Swedish word "svensk(a)|Swedish (disambiguation)}}\n{{pp-semi|small=yes}}\n{{pp-move-indef}}\n{{short description|constitutional monarchy in Northern Europe}}\n{{Use dmy dates|date=November 2017}}\n{{Coord|63|N|16|E|type:country_region:SE|display=title}}{{Infobox country\n| conventional_long_name = Kingdom of Sweden\n| common_name = Sweden\n| native_name = {{native name|sv|Konungariket Sverige}}\n| image_flag = Flag of Sweden.svg\n| image_coat = Coat of arms of Sweden.svg\n| symbol_type = [[Coat of arms of Sweden|Coat of arms]]\n| symbol_width = 70px\n| national_motto = {{small|[[Royal mottos of Swedish monarchs|(royal)]]}}&nbsp;"{{lang|sv|För Sverige – i tiden}}"{{ref label|aaa|a}}<br />{{small|"For Sweden – With the Times"<ref>{{Cite web |title = Mottoes of The Kings and Queens of Sweden |url = http://www.kungahuset.se/royalcourt/monarchytheroyalcourt/themonarchyinsweden/mottoesofthemonarchs.4.396160511584257f2180004713.html |publisher = [[Royal Court of Sweden]] |website = www.kungahuset.se |accessdate = 22 December 2015 |archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20151223021154/http://www.kungahuset.se/royalcourt/monarchytheroyalcourt/themonarchyinsweden/mottoesofthemonarchs.4.396160511584257f2180004713.html |archive-date = 23 December 2015 |dead-url = no |df = dmy-all }}</ref>}}\n| national_anthem = \'\'{{lang|sv|[[Du gamla, Du fria]]}}\'\'{{ref label|bbb|b}}<br />{{small|\'\'Thou ancient, thou free\'\'}}<div style="padding-top:0.5em;">[[File:United States Navy Band - Sweden.ogg|center]]</div>\n| royal_anthem = \'\'{{lang|sv|[[Kungssången]]}}\'\'<br />{{small|\'\'Song of the King\'\'}}\n| image_map = {{Switcher|[[File:EU-Sweden (orthographic projection).svg|frameless]]|Show globe|[[File:EU-Sweden.svg|upright=1.15|frameless]]|Show map of Europe|default=1}}\n| map_caption = {{map caption |location_color=dark green |region=Europe |region_color=dark grey |subregion=the [[European Union]] |subregion_color=green |legend=EU-Sweden.svg}}\n| capital = [[Stockholm]]\n| coordinates = {{Coord|59|21|N|18|4|E|type:city}}\n| largest_city = capital\n| official_languages = [[Swedish language|Swedish]]{{ref label|ccc|c}} <br />Official minority languages:{{ref label|ccc|c}}<br />[[Finnish language|Finnish]]<br />[[Meänkieli]]<br />[[Sami languages|Sami]]<br />[[Romani language|Romani]]<br />[[Yiddish]]\n| ethnic_groups = No official statistics{{ref label|ddd|d}}\n| demonym = {{hlist |[[Swedish people|Swedish]] |[[Swedes|Swede]]}}\n| government_type = {{nowrap|[[Unitary state|Unitary]] [[Parliamentary system|parliamentary]]<br />[[constitutional monarchy]]}}\n| leader_title1 = [[Monarchy of Sweden|Monarch]]\n| leader_name1 = [[Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden|Carl XVI Gustaf]]\n| leader_title2 = [[Speaker of the Riksdag|Riksdag Speaker]]<!-- The Speaker is the official who formally appoints and discharges the Prime Minister -->\n| leader_name2 = [[Andreas Norlén]]\n| leader_title3 = [[Prime Minister of Sweden|Prime Minister]]\n| leader_name3 = [[Stefan Löfven]] \n| legislature = [[Riksdag]]\n| sovereignty_type = [[History of Sweden|History]]\n| established_event1 = A unified Swedish kingdom established\n| established_date1 = By the early 12th century\n| established_event2 = Part of [[Kalmar Union]]\n| established_date2 = 1397–1523\n| established_event3 = Part of [[Swedish-Norwegian Union]]\n| established_date3 = 4 November 1814 – August 1905<ref name=NEsvno>{{cite web|last1=Norborg|first1=Lars-Arne|title=svensk–norska unionen|url=http://www.ne.se/uppslagsverk/encyklopedi/l%C3%A5ng/svensk-norska-unionen|website=ne.se|publisher=[[Nationalencyklopedin]]|accessdate=6 August 2015|language=Swedish|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160115212312/http://www.ne.se/uppslagsverk/encyklopedi/l%C3%A5ng/svensk-norska-unionen|archive-date=15 January 2016|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n| established_event4 = [[1995 enlargement of the European Union|Joined]] the [[European Union]]\n| established_date4 = 1 January 1995\n| area_km2 = 450,295\n| area_rank = 55th\n| area_sq_mi = 175,896\n| percent_water = 8.7\n| population_census = {{increase}} 10,272,518<ref name=population>[https://www.scb.se/BE0101-en Population] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190502060617/https://www.scb.se/BE0101-en |date=2 May 2019 }}. [[Statistics Sweden]]. Retrieved 6 July 2019.</ref>\n| population_census_year = May 2019\n| population_census_rank = 89th\n| population_density_km2 = 23\n| population_density_sq_mi = 57.8\n| population_density_rank = 198th\n| GDP_PPP = {{nowrap|$567 billion<ref name="imf2">{{cite web |url=https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2018/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=80&pr.y=2&sy=2018&ey=2019&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=144&s=NGDPD%2CPPPGDP%2CNGDPRPPPPC%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPPC&grp=0&a=|title=Sweden |publisher=[[International Monetary Fund]]}}</ref><!--end nowrap:-->}}\n| GDP_PPP_year = 2019\n| GDP_PPP_rank = 36th\n| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $54,474<ref name="imf2" />\n| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 17th\n| GDP_nominal = {{nowrap|$563 billion<ref name="imf2" />}}\n| GDP_nominal_year = 2019\n| GDP_nominal_rank = 23rd\n| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $54,135<ref name="imf2" />\n| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 11th\n| Gini = 28.0 <!--number only-->\n| Gini_year = 2017\n| Gini_change = increase <!--increase/decrease/steady-->\n| Gini_ref = <ref name=eurogini>{{cite web |url=https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&language=en&pcode=tessi190&plugin=1 |title=Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey |publisher=[[Eurostat]] |website=ec.europa.eu |access-date=7 March 2019 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190320064533/https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&language=en&pcode=tessi190&plugin=1 |archive-date=20 March 2019 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n| Gini_rank = \n| HDI = 0.933 <!--number only-->\n| HDI_year = 2017<!-- Please use the year to which the data refers, not the publication year-->\n| HDI_change = increase <!--increase/decrease/steady-->\n| HDI_ref = <ref name="HDI">{{cite web |url=http://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/HDI |title=2018 Human Development Report |year=2017 |accessdate=23 March 2017 |publisher=United Nations Development Programme |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151222105945/http://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/HDI |archive-date=22 December 2015 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n| HDI_rank = 7th\n| currency = [[Swedish krona]]\n| currency_code = SEK\n| time_zone = [[Central European Time|CET]]\n| utc_offset = +1\n| utc_offset_DST = +2\n| time_zone_DST = [[Central European Summer Time|CEST]]\n| date_format = YYYY-MM-DD\n| drives_on = right{{ref label|eee|e}}\n| calling_code = [[Telephone numbers in Sweden|+46]]\n| cctld = [[.se]]{{ref label|fff|f}}\n| footnote_a = {{note|aaa}} "{{lang|sv|För Sverige – I tiden}}" has been adopted by [[Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden|Carl XVI Gustaf]] as his personal motto.\n| footnote_b = {{note|bbb}} \'\'{{lang|sv|[[Du gamla, Du fria]]}}\'\' has never been officially adopted as national anthem, but is so by convention.\n| footnote_c = {{note|ccc}} Since 1 July 2009.<ref name="Swedish" /><ref name="Swedish2" /> Five other languages are [[Minority languages of Sweden|officially recognised as minority languages]]:<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sprakradet.se/servlet/GetDoc?meta_id=2119#item100400 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140206102022/http://www.sprakradet.se/servlet/GetDoc?meta_id=2119 |archivedate=6 February 2014 |title=Är svenskan också officiellt språk i Sverige? |trans-title=Is Swedish also an official language in Sweden? |publisher=[[Swedish Language Council]] |date=1 February 2008 |accessdate=22 June 2008 |language=Swedish}}</ref> [[Finnish language|Finnish]], [[Meänkieli]], [[Romani language|Romani]], [[Sami languages|Sami]], and [[Yiddish language|Yiddish]]. The [[Swedish Sign Language]] also has a special status.\n| footnote_d = {{note|ddd}} {{as of|2012|12|31|alt=On 31 December 2012}}, approximately 27% of the population had a full or partial foreign background.<ref name="SCB1">{{cite web|url=http://www.scb.se/Pages/TableAndChart____26041.aspx |title=Summary of Population Statistics 1960–2012 |publisher=[[Statistics Sweden]] |accessdate=9 June 2013 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130317045943/http://www.scb.se/Pages/TableAndChart____26041.aspx |archivedate=17 March 2013}}</ref><ref name="NoteEthn">Note that [[Swedish-speaking Finns]] or other Swedish-speakers born outside Sweden might identify as \'\'Swedish\'\' despite being born abroad. Moreover, people born in Sweden may not be ethnic Swedes. As the [[Government of Sweden|Swedish government]] does not base any statistics on [[ethnicity]], there are no exact numbers on the [[Ethnicity|ethnic]] background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden. This is not, however, to be confused with migrants\' [[Nationality|national backgrounds]], which are recorded.</ref>\n| footnote_e = {{note|eee}} Since [[Dagen H|3 September 1967]].\n| footnote_f = {{note|fff}} The [[.eu]] domain is also used, as it is shared with other [[European Union]] member states.\n| iso3166code = SE\n}}\n\n\'\'\'Sweden\'\'\' ({{lang-sv|Sverige}} {{IPA-sv|ˈsværjɛ||Sv-Sverige.ogg}}), officially the \'\'\'Kingdom of Sweden\'\'\' (Swedish: {{Audio|Sv-Konungariket Sverige.ogg|\'\'Konungariket Sverige\'\'}}), is a [[Scandinavia]]n [[Nordic country]] in [[Northern Europe]].<ref name="UNGEGN">The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country\'s formal name is the Kingdom of Sweden. [http://unstats.un.org/unsd/geoinfo/geonames/ UNGEGN World Geographical Names, Sweden.]</ref> It borders [[Norway]] to the west and north and [[Finland]] to the east, and is connected to [[Denmark]] in the southwest by [[Øresund Bridge|a bridge-tunnel]] across the [[Øresund|Öresund Strait]]. At {{convert|450295|km2|sqmi}}, Sweden is the largest country in [[Northern Europe]], the third-largest country in the [[European Union]] and the [[List of European countries by area|fifth largest]] country in [[Europe]] by area. The [[capital city]] is [[Stockholm]].<!-- see [[Stockholm#Historical population]] for ambiguity about Stockholm\'s population --> Sweden has a total population of 10.3&nbsp;million<ref name="population" /> of which 2.5 million have a foreign background.<ref name=":0">{{Cite web|url=http://www.statistikdatabasen.scb.se/pxweb/en/ssd/START__BE__BE0101__BE0101Q/UtlSvBakgGrov/?rxid=86abd797-7854-4564-9150-c9b06ae3ab07c9b06ae3ab07|title=Number of persons by foreign/Swedish background and year|last=|first=|date=|website=www.statistikdatabasen.scb.se|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180612141135/http://www.statistikdatabasen.scb.se/pxweb/en/ssd/START__BE__BE0101__BE0101Q/UtlSvBakgGrov/?rxid=86abd797-7854-4564-9150-c9b06ae3ab07c9b06ae3ab07|archive-date=12 June 2018|dead-url=no|accessdate=7 April 2019|quote=|df=dmy-all}}</ref> It has a low population density of {{convert|22|PD/km2|PD/sqmi}} and the highest urban concentration is in the central and southern half of the country.\n\nSweden is part of the geographical area of [[Fennoscandia]]. The [[Sweden#Climate|climate]] is in general very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. In spite of the high latitude, Sweden often has warm continental summers, being located in between the [[North Atlantic]], the [[Baltic Sea]] and the vast [[Eurasia]]n [[Russia]]n landmass. The general climate and environment varies significantly from the south and north due to the vast latitudal difference and much of Sweden has reliably cold and snowy winters. [[South Sweden|Southern Sweden]] is predominantly [[agriculture|agricultural]], while [[Norrland terrain|the north]] is heavily forested and includes a portion of the [[Scandinavian Mountains]].\n\n[[Germanic peoples]] have inhabited Sweden since [[prehistoric times]], emerging into history as the [[Geats]] (Swedish Götar) and [[Swedes (Germanic tribe)|Swedes]] (Svear) and constituting the sea peoples known as the [[Norsemen]]. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the [[Black Death]] in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://historiska.se/upptack-historien/artikel/digerdoden/|title=Digerdöden – Historiska Museet|website=historiska.se|access-date=1 September 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170902010901/http://historiska.se/upptack-historien/artikel/digerdoden/|archive-date=2 September 2017|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://fof.se/tidning/2013/1/artikel/varre-forskarna-anat-digerdoden|title=Värre än forskarna anat: Digerdöden|publisher=|date=2012-12-15|access-date=1 September 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170902012004/http://fof.se/tidning/2013/1/artikel/varre-forskarna-anat-digerdoden|archive-date=2 September 2017|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> the [[Hanseatic League]] threatened Scandinavia\'s culture, finances and languages. This led to the forming of the Scandinavian [[Kalmar Union]] in 1397,<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.so-rummet.se/fakta-artiklar/sverige-under-medeltiden-:del-3-av-3-kalmarunionens-tid.|title=Artikelarkiv|website=SO-rummet|access-date=1 September 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171009181105/https://www.so-rummet.se/fakta-artiklar/sverige-under-medeltiden-:del-3-av-3-kalmarunionens-tid.|archive-date=9 October 2017|dead-url=yes|df=dmy-all}}</ref> which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the [[Thirty Years War]] on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and eventually the [[Swedish Empire]] was formed. This became one of the [[great power]]s of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the [[Scandinavian Peninsula]] were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by [[Russian Empire|Russia]] in 1809. The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into a [[Union between Sweden and Norway|personal union]], which [[Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden|peacefully dissolved]] in 1905. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of [[Swedish neutrality|neutrality]] in foreign affairs.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2010/dec/2/among-the-disclosures-in-the-19-documents-released/ |title=WikiLeaks reveal Swedes gave intel on Russia, Iran |newspaper=[[The Washington Times]] |first=Ben |last=Birnbaum |date=2 December 2010 |accessdate=10 June 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130721081420/http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2010/dec/2/among-the-disclosures-in-the-19-documents-released/ |archive-date=21 July 2013 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> Sweden was formally [[Swedish neutrality|neutral]] through both world wars and the [[Cold War]], albeit Sweden has since 2009 openly moved towards cooperation with [[NATO]]. \n\nSweden is a [[constitutional monarchy]] and a [[parliamentary system|parliamentary]] [[democracy]], with [[Legislature|Legislative power]] vested in the 349-member [[unicameral]] \'\'[[Riksdag]]\'\'. It is a [[unitary state]], currently divided into [[counties of Sweden|21 counties]] and [[Municipalities of Sweden|290 municipalities]]. Sweden maintains a [[Nordic model|Nordic social welfare system]] that provides [[universal health care]] and [[tertiary education]] for its citizens. It has the [[List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita|world\'s eleventh-highest per capita income]] and ranks very highly in [[quality of life]], health, [[Education Index|education]], protection of [[Freedom in the World|civil liberties]], economic competitiveness, [[Gini coefficient|equality]], [[Legatum Prosperity Index|prosperity]] and [[Human Development Index|human development]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2013_EN_complete.pdf |title=2013 Human Development Report |publisher=[[United Nations Development Programme]] |accessdate=28 July 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130818132717/http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2013_EN_complete.pdf |archive-date=18 August 2013 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref><ref name="OECD Better Life Index">{{cite web|title=OECD Better Life Index|url=http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/#/11111111111|publisher=[[OECD Publishing]]|accessdate=27 August 2013|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130901021731/http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/#/11111111111|archive-date=1 September 2013|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref><ref name="wefcomp" /> Sweden joined the [[European Union]] on 1 January 1995, but declined [[NATO]] membership, as well as [[Eurozone]] membership following a [[2003 Swedish euro referendum|referendum]]. It is also a member of the [[United Nations]], the [[Nordic Council]], the [[Council of Europe]], the [[World Trade Organization]] and the [[Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development]] (OECD).\n\n== Etymology ==\n{{Main|Name of Sweden}}\n\nThe name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging [[Swedish Empire|great power]]. Before Sweden\'s imperial expansion, [[Early Modern English]] used \'\'Swedeland\'\'. Sweden is derived through [[back-formation]] from Old English \'\'Swēoþēod\'\', which meant "people of the Swedes" ([[Old Norse]] \'\'Svíþjóð\'\', [[Latin]] \'\'Suetidi\'\'). This word is derived from \'\'Sweon/Sweonas\'\' (Old Norse \'\'Sviar\'\', Latin \'\'Suiones\'\'). The Swedish name \'\'Sverige\'\' (a compound of the words \'\'Svea\'\' and \'\'rike\'\', with [[lenition]] of the consonant [k], first recorded in the cognate \'\'Swēorice\'\' in [[Beowulf]])<ref>{{cite book |last=Hellquist |first=Elof |title=Svensk etymologisk ordbok |trans-title=Swedish etymological dictionary |year=1922 |publisher=Gleerup |location=Lund |language=Swedish |page=917 |url=http://runeberg.org/svetym/1005.html |access-date=30 August 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110828081321/http://runeberg.org/svetym/1005.html |archive-date=28 August 2011 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> literally means "realm of the [[Swedes (Germanic tribe)|Swedes]]", excluding the [[Geats]] in [[Götaland]].\n\nVariations of the name \'\'Sweden\'\' are used in most languages, with the exception of [[Danish language|Danish]] and [[Norwegian language|Norwegian]] using \'\'Sverige\'\', [[Faroese language|Faroese]] \'\'Svøríki\'\', [[Icelandic language|Icelandic]] \'\'Svíþjóð\'\', and the more notable exception of some [[Finnic languages]] where \'\'Ruotsi\'\' ([[Finnish language|Finnish]]) and \'\'Rootsi\'\' ([[Estonian language|Estonian]]) are used, names commonly considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of [[Roslagen]], [[Uppland]], who were known as the \'\'[[Rus\' people|Rus\']]\'\', and through them etymologically related to the English name for [[Russia]].\n\nThe etymology of \'\'Swedes\'\', and thus \'\'Sweden\'\', is generally not agreed upon but may derive from [[Proto-Germanic language|Proto-Germanic]] \'\'Swihoniz\'\' meaning "one\'s own",<ref>{{cite book |last=Hellquist |first=Elof |title=Svensk etymologisk ordbok |trans-title=Swedish etymological dictionary |year=1922 |publisher=Gleerup |location=Lund |language=Swedish |page=915}}</ref> referring to one\'s own Germanic tribe.\n\n==History==\n{{Main|History of Sweden}}\n\n===Prehistory===\n{{Main|Prehistoric Sweden}}\n[[File:Vendel I helmet 456057.jpg|thumb|A [[Vendel era|Vendel-era]] helmet, at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities]]\nSweden\'s prehistory begins in the [[Allerød oscillation]],{{according to whom|date=May 2015}} a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late [[Palaeolithic]] [[reindeer]]-hunting camps of the [[Bromme culture]] at the edge of the ice in what is now the country\'s southernmost province, [[Scania]]. This period was characterised by small bands of [[Hunter-gatherer|hunter-gatherer-fishers]] using [[flint]] technology.\n\nSweden is first described in a written source in \'\'[[Germania (book)|Germania]]\'\' by [[Tacitus]] in 98 AD. In [[s:Germania#XLIV|Germania 44 and 45]] he mentions the Swedes (\'\'Suiones\'\') as a powerful tribe (\'\'distinguished not merely for their arms and men, but for their powerful fleets\'\') with ships that had a [[prow]] at each end ([[longship]]s). Which kings (\'\'kuningaz\'\') ruled these Suiones is unknown, but [[Norse mythology]] presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC. As for literacy in Sweden itself, the [[runic alphabet|runic script]] was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts, mainly of male names, demonstrating that the people of south Scandinavia spoke [[Proto-Norse]] at the time, a language ancestral to Swedish and other [[North Germanic languages]].{{Primary source inline|date=May 2015}}\n\nIn the 6th century, [[Jordanes]] names two tribes living in [[Scandza]], both of which are now considered to be synonymous with the Swedes: the \'\'Suetidi\'\' and \'\'Suehans\'\'. \'\'Suetidi\'\' is considered to be the Latin form of \'\'Svíþjóð\'\', the Old Norse name for the Swedes. Jordanes describes the \'\'Suetidi\'\' and \'\'[[Danes (Germanic tribe)|Dani]]\'\' as being of the same stock and the tallest of people. He later mentions other Scandinavian tribes as being of a same stature.{{Primary source inline|date=May 2015}} The \'\'Suehans\'\' were known to the Roman world as suppliers of black fox skins and, according to Jordanes, had very fine horses, similar to those of the \'\'[[Thuringians|Thyringi]]\'\' of \'\'Germania\'\' (\'\'alia vero gens ibi moratur Suehans, quae velud Thyringi equis utuntur eximiis\'\'). The Icelandic historian [[Snorri Sturluson]] also wrote that the Swedish king [[Adils]] (Eadgils) had the finest horses of his day.\n\n===The Vikings===\n{{See also|Early Swedish history|Foundation of Modern Sweden|Varangians}}\n[[File:Vikings-Voyages.png|thumb|left|Swedish [[Viking]] expeditions (marked in blue)]]\n\nThe Swedish [[Viking Age]] lasted roughly from the 8th century to the 11th century. It is believed that Swedish Vikings and [[Gutar]] mainly travelled east and south, going to Finland, the [[Baltic countries]], Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, the [[Black Sea]] and even as far as [[Baghdad]]. Their routes passed [[The Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks|through the Dnieper]] south to [[Constantinople]], on which they carried out numerous raids. The [[Byzantine Emperor]] [[Theophilos (emperor)|Theophilos]] noticed their great skills in war, and invited them to serve as his personal bodyguard, known as the [[Varangian Guard]]. The Swedish Vikings, called [[Rus (people)|Rus]] are believed to be the founding fathers of [[Kievan Rus\']]. The Arab traveller [[Ibn Fadlan]] described these Vikings as follows:\n\n{{quote|I have seen the Rus as they came on their merchant journeys and encamped by the [[Volga|Itil]]. I have never seen more perfect physical specimens, tall as date palms, blond and ruddy; they wear neither tunics nor caftans, but the men wear a garment which covers one side of the body and leaves a hand free. Each man has an axe, a sword, and a knife, and keeps each by him at all times. The swords are broad and grooved, of Frankish sort.<ref>Quoted from: Gwyn Jones. \'\'A History of the Vikings\'\'. Oxford University Press, 2001. {{ISBN|0-19-280134-1}}. Page 164.</ref>}}\n[[File:Bildsten med skepp 800-1099 Tjängvide, Gotland.jpg|thumb|The [[Tjängvide image stone]] dating from 800–1099, example of Viking art]]\nThe actions of these [[Vikings|Swedish Vikings]] are commemorated on many [[runestone]]s in Sweden, such as the [[Greece runestones]] and the [[Varangian runestones]]. There was also considerable participation in expeditions westwards, which are commemorated on stones such as the [[England runestones]]. The last major Swedish Viking expedition appears to have been the ill-fated expedition of [[Ingvar the Far-Travelled]] to [[Serkland]], the region south-east of the [[Caspian Sea]]. Its members are commemorated on the [[Ingvar runestones]], none of which mentions any survivor. What happened to the crew is unknown, but it is believed that they died of sickness.\n\n=== The Kingdom of Sweden ===\n\nIt is not known when and how the kingdom of Sweden was born, but the [[list of Swedish monarchs]] is drawn from the first kings known to have ruled both [[Svealand]] (Sweden) and Götaland (Gothia) as one province, beginning with [[Eric the Victorious]]. Sweden and Gothia were two separate nations long before that and since antiquity. It is not known how long they existed: the epic poem \'\'Beowulf\'\' describes semi-legendary [[Swedish-Geatish wars]] in the 6th century. \'\'Götaland\'\' in this sense mainly includes the provinces of [[Östergötland]] (East Gothia) and [[Västergötland]] (West Gothia). The island of [[Gotland]] was disputed by other than Swedes, at this time (Danish, Hanseatic, and Gotland-domestic). [[Småland]] was at that time of little interest to anyone due to the deep pine forests, and only the city of [[Kalmar]] with its castle was of importance. The south-west parts of the Scandinavian peninsula consisted of three Danish provinces ([[Scania]], [[Blekinge]] and [[Halland]]). North of Halland, Denmark had a direct border to Norway and its province [[Bohuslän]]. But there were Swedish settlements along the southern coastline of [[Norrland]].\n\n[[File:Suecia 1-064 ; Gambla Ubsala högar.png|thumb|left|[[Gamla Uppsala]] (Old Uppsala), a site of religious and political importance in the early days of Sweden]]\n\nDuring the early stages of the Scandinavian Viking Age, [[Ystad]] in the [[Denmark|Danish]] province Scania and [[Paviken]] on Gotland were flourishing centres of trade, but they were not parts of the early Swedish Kingdom. Remains of what is believed to have been a large market dating from 600 to 700 AD have been found in Ystad.<ref name="Sawyer" /> In Paviken, an important centre of trade in the Baltic region during the 9th and 10th century, remains have been found of a large Viking Age harbour with shipbuilding yards and handicraft industries. Between 800 and 1000, trade brought an abundance of silver to Gotland, and according to some scholars, the Gotlanders of this era hoarded more silver than the rest of the population of Scandinavia combined.<ref name="Sawyer">{{cite book |last1=Sawyer |first1=Birgit |first2=Peter |last2=Sawyer |year=1993 |title=Medieval Scandinavia: from Conversion to Reformation, Circa 800–1500 |publisher=University of Minnesota Press |isbn=978-0-8166-1739-5 |pages=150–153}}</ref>\n\n[[Ansgar|St Ansgar]] is usually credited with introducing Christianity in 829, but the new religion did not begin to fully replace [[paganism]] until the 12th century. During the 11th century, Christianity became the prevalent religion, and from 1050 Sweden is counted as a Christian nation. The period between 1100 and 1400 was characterised by internal power struggles and competition among the Nordic kingdoms. In the years 1150–1293 according to the legend of [[Eric IX of Sweden|Eric IX]] and the \'\'[[Eric Chronicles]]\'\' Swedish kings made a [[First Swedish Crusade|first]], [[Second Swedish Crusade|second]] and [[Third Swedish Crusade|third crusade]] to pagan Finland against [[Finns proper|Finns]], [[Tavastians]] and [[Karelians]] and started conflicts with the [[Kievan Rus\'|Rus\']] who no longer had any connection with Sweden.<ref>{{cite book |last=Bagge |first=Sverre |chapter=The Scandinavian Kingdoms |title=The New Cambridge Medieval History |editor-first=Rosamond |editor-last=McKitterick |publisher=Cambridge University Press |year=2005 |isbn=978-0-521-36289-4 |page=724 |quote=Swedish expansion in Finland led to conflicts with Rus\', which were temporarily brought to an end by a peace treaty in 1323, dividing the Karelian peninsula and the northern areas between the two countries.}}</ref> The [[Swedish colonisation of Finland|Swedish colonisation]] of the coastal areas of Finland started also during the 12th and 13th century.<ref>{{Cite book|title=När kom svenskarna till Finland?|editor-first=Ann-Marie|editor-last=Ivars|editor-first2=Lena|editor-last2= Hulden|publisher=Studier utg. av Svenska Litteratursällskapet i Finland 646|year=2002|isbn=|location=Helsinki|pages=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|title=Om svenskarnes inflyttningar till Finland|last=Meinander|first=Carl Fredrik|publisher=Historisk Tidskrift för Finland 3/1983|year=1983|isbn=|location=|pages=|via=}}</ref> In the 14th century, the Swedish colonisation of coastal areas of Finland began to be more organised and in the end of the century several of the coastal areas of Finland were inhabited mostly by Swedes.<ref>{{Cite book|title=Sveriges Österland: Från forntiden till Gustav Vasa. Finlands svenska historia 1. Skrifter utgivna av Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland 702:1.|last=Tarkiainen|first=Kari|publisher=Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland; Stockholm: Atlantis|year=2008|isbn=|location=Helsinki|pages=|via=}}</ref>\n\n[[File:Skogbonaden.jpg|thumb|[[Skog tapestry]], made most probably during the late 13th century.]]\n\nExcept for the provinces of Scania, Blekinge and Halland in the south-west of the Scandinavian peninsula, which were parts of the Kingdom of Denmark during this time, [[feudalism]] never developed in Sweden as it did in the rest of Europe.<ref>{{cite book |first=Franklin D. |last=Scott |title=Sweden: The Nation\'s History |publisher=University of Minnesota Press |location=Minneapolis |year=1977 |page=58}}</ref> The peasantry therefore remained largely a class of free farmers throughout most of Swedish history. [[Slavery]] (also called [[thrall]]dom) was not common in Sweden,<ref>{{cite book |url=http://runeberg.org/nfcj/0106.html |title=Nordisk familjebok: konversationslexikon och realencyklopedi. Bd 30 |editor-last=Westrin |editor-first=Theodor |edition=New, rev. and richly ill. |year=1920 |publisher=Nordisk familjeboks förl. |location=Stockholm |pages=159–160 |accessdate=17 September 2014 |language=Swedish |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170620062821/http://runeberg.org/nfcj/0106.html |archive-date=20 June 2017 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> and what slavery there was tended to be driven out of existence thanks to the spread of Christianity as well as to the difficulty to obtain slaves from the lands east of the Baltic Sea, and by the development of cities before the 16th century.<ref>Scott, p. 55.</ref> Indeed, both slavery and [[serfdom]] were abolished altogether by a decree of [[Magnus IV of Sweden|King Magnus IV]] in 1335. Former slaves tended to be absorbed into the peasantry, and some became labourers in the towns. Still, Sweden remained a poor and economically backward country in which barter was the primary means of exchange. For instance, the farmers of the province of [[Dalsland]] would transport their butter to the mining districts of Sweden and exchange it there for iron, which they would then take to the coast and trade for fish, which they consumed, while the iron would be shipped abroad.<ref>Scott, pp. 55–56.</ref>\n\nIn the middle of the 14th century, Sweden was struck by the [[Black Death]].<ref>Scott, pp. 56–57.</ref> The population of Sweden and most of Europe was seriously decimated. The population (at same territory) did not reach the numbers of the year 1348 again until the beginning of the 19th century. One third of the population died in the triennium of 1349–1351. During this period, the Swedish cities began to acquire greater rights and were strongly influenced by German merchants of the [[Hanseatic League]], active especially at [[Visby]]. In 1319, Sweden and Norway were united under King Magnus Eriksson, and in 1397 Queen [[Margaret I of Denmark]] effected the personal union of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark through the [[Kalmar Union]]. However, Margaret\'s successors, whose rule was also centred in Denmark, were unable to control the Swedish nobility.\n\n[[File:Gustav Vasa.jpg|thumb|left|185px|[[Gustav I of Sweden|Gustav I]] [[Swedish War of Liberation|liberated]] Sweden from tyranny imposed by [[Christian II of Denmark]] and ended the [[Kalmar Union]]. Under his reign the [[House of Vasa]] ruled Sweden and successively Poland for over 100 years.]]\n\nMany times the Swedish crown was inherited by children kings over the course of the kingdom\'s existence; consequently real power was held for long periods by regents (notably those of the [[Sture]] family) chosen by the Swedish parliament. King [[Christian II of Denmark]], who asserted his claim to Sweden by force of arms, ordered a massacre of Swedish nobles in Stockholm in 1520. This came to be known as the "[[Stockholm blood bath]]" and stirred the Swedish nobility to new resistance and, on 6 June (now Sweden\'s national holiday) in 1523, they made [[Gustav I of Sweden|Gustav Vasa]] their king.<ref>Scott, p. 121.</ref> This is sometimes considered as the [[foundation of modern Sweden]]. Shortly afterwards the new king rejected Catholicism and led Sweden into the [[Protestant Reformation]].\n\nThe Hanseatic League had been officially formed at [[Lübeck]] on the Baltic coast of [[Holy Roman Empire|Northern Germany]] in 1356. The League sought civil and commercial privileges from the princes and royalty of the countries and cities along the coasts of the Baltic Sea.<ref>{{cite book |first1=Robert S. |last1=Hoyt |first2=Stanley |last2=Chodorow |title=Europe in the Middle Ages |publisher=Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich, Inc. |location=New York |year=1976 |page=628}}</ref> In exchange, they offered a certain amount of protection to the joining cities. Having their own navy, the Hansa were able to sweep the Baltic Sea free of pirates.<ref>{{cite book |first=John B. |last=Wolfe |title=The Emergence of European Civilization |publisher=Harper & Row Pub. |location=New York |year=1962 |pages=50–51}}</ref> The privileges obtained by the Hansa included assurances that only Hansa citizens would be allowed to trade from the ports where they were located. They sought agreement to be free of all customs and taxes. With these concessions, Lübeck merchants flocked to Stockholm, where they soon came to dominate the city\'s economic life and made the port city of Stockholm into the leading commercial and industrial city of Sweden.<ref name="Scott, p. 52">Scott, p. 52.</ref> Under the Hanseatic trade, two-thirds of Stockholm\'s imports consisted of [[textiles]], while the remaining third was [[salt]]. The main exports from Sweden were [[iron]] and [[copper]].<ref name="Scott, p. 52"/>\n\nHowever, the Swedes began to resent the monopoly trading position of the Hansa (mostly consisting of German citizens), and to resent the income they felt they lost to the Hansa. Consequently, when Gustav Vasa or [[Gustav I of Sweden|Gustav I]] broke the monopoly power of the Hanseatic League he was regarded as a hero by the Swedish people.<ref>Scott, p. 132.</ref> History now views Gustav I as the father of the modern Swedish nation. The foundations laid by Gustav would take time to develop. Furthermore, when Sweden did develop, freed itself from the Hanseatic League, and entered its golden era, the fact that the peasantry had traditionally been free meant that more of the economic benefits flowed back to them rather than going to a feudal landowning class.<ref>Scott, pp. 156–157.</ref>\n\nThe end of the 16th century was marked by a final phase of rivalry between the remaining Catholics and the new Protestant communities. In 1592, Gustav Vasa\'s Catholic grandson and [[king of Poland]], [[Sigismund III Vasa|Sigismund]], ascended the Swedish throne.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://books.google.com.au/books?id=gfB5DwAAQBAJ&pg=PA35&dq=sigismund+vasa+1592&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjHkKjbwM3iAhWUXCsKHWQ6B2gQ6AEIMDAB#v=onepage&q=sigismund+vasa+1592&f=false|title=British and Irish Emigrants and Exiles in Europe, 1603–1688|first=David|last=Worthington|date=15 January 2010|publisher=BRILL|accessdate=3 June 2019|via=Google Books}}</ref> He pursued to strengthen [[Holy See|Rome]]\'s influence by initiating [[Counter-Reformation]] and created a dual monarchy, which temporarily became known as the [[Polish-Swedish Union]]. His despotic rule, strongly characterized by intolerance towards the Protestants, sparked a [[War against Sigismund|civil war]] that plunged Sweden into poverty.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://books.google.com.au/books?id=ba08AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA172&dq=war+against+sigismund&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiw_fe6wM3iAhVTcCsKHRz4AEQQ6AEIXjAJ#v=onepage&q=war+against+sigismund&f=false|title=the cambridge modern history|date=3 June 2019|publisher=CUP Archive|accessdate=3 June 2019|via=Google Books}}</ref> In opposition, Sigismund\'s uncle and successor, [[Charles IX of Sweden|Charles Vasa]], summoned the [[Uppsala Synod]] in 1593 which officially confirmed the modern [[Church of Sweden]] as [[Lutheranism|Lutheran]]. Following his [[deposition (politics)|deposition]] in 1599, Sigismund attempted to reclaim the throne at every expense and hostilities between [[Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth|Poland]] and Sweden continued for the next one hundred years.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://books.google.com.au/books?id=b912JnKpYTkC&pg=PA327&dq=poland+and+sweden&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwip1YmVwc3iAhVEWH0KHQaYAlEQ6AEISTAG#v=onepage&q=poland+and+sweden&f=false|title=God\'s Playground A History of Poland: Volume 1: The Origins to 1795|first=Norman|last=Davies|date=24 February 2005|publisher=OUP Oxford|accessdate=3 June 2019|via=Google Books}}</ref>\n\n===Swedish Empire===\n[[File:Suecia 1-054 ; Sodra Bancohuset.jpg|thumb|left|Stockholm in mid-17th century]]\n{{See also|History of Sweden (1611–48)|Swedish Empire|Swedish overseas colonies|Age of Liberty|Gustavian era|Sweden–Finland|Union between Sweden and Norway}}\n\nDuring the 17th century, Sweden emerged as a European [[great power]]. Before the emergence of the Swedish Empire, Sweden was a poor and scarcely populated country on the fringe of European civilisation, with no significant power or reputation. Sweden rose to prominence on a continental scale during the tenure of king [[Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden|Gustavus Adolphus]], seizing territories from Russia and [[Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth|Poland–Lithuania]] in multiple conflicts, including the [[Thirty Years\' War]].\n\nDuring the Thirty Years\' War, Sweden conquered approximately half of the Holy Roman states. Gustav Adolphus planned to become the new [[Holy Roman Emperor]], ruling over a united Scandinavia and the Holy Roman states, but he died at the [[Battle of Lützen (1632)|Battle of Lützen]] in 1632. After the [[Battle of Nördlingen (1634)|Battle of Nördlingen]], Sweden\'s only significant military defeat of the war, pro-Swedish sentiment among the German states faded. These German provinces excluded themselves from Swedish power one by one, leaving Sweden with only a few northern German territories: [[Swedish Pomerania]], [[Bremen-Verden]] and [[Wismar]].\n\n[[File:Swedish Empire (1560-1815) en2.png|thumb|The [[Swedish Empire]] between 1611 and 1815, absolute peak 1658–60]]\n\nIn the middle of the 17th century Sweden was the third-largest country in Europe by land area, surpassed by only Russia and Spain. Sweden reached its largest territorial extent under the rule of [[Charles X of Sweden|Charles X]] after the [[treaty of Roskilde]] in 1658.<ref name="HayesPSH">"A Political and Social History of Modern Europe V.1./Hayes..." Hayes, Carlton J. H. (1882–1964), \'\'Title: A Political and Social History of Modern Europe V.1.\'\', 2002-12-08, Project Gutenberg, webpage: [http://infomotions.com/etexts/gutenberg/dirs/etext04/7hsr110.htm Infomot-7hsr110]. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071117105207/http://infomotions.com/etexts/gutenberg/dirs/etext04/7hsr110.htm |date=17 November 2007}}</ref><ref>However, Sweden\'s largest territorial extent lasted from 1319 to 1343 with [[Magnus IV of Sweden|Magnus Eriksson]] ruling all of the [[Lands of Sweden|traditional lands of Sweden]] and Norway.</ref> The foundation of Sweden\'s success during this period is credited to Gustav I\'s major changes to the Swedish economy in the 16th century, and his introduction of [[Protestantism]].<ref name="GusEB">"Gustav I Vasa – Britannica Concise" (biography), \'\'Britannica Concise\'\', 2007, webpage: [https://archive.today/20121206031538/http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9366349/Gustav-I-Vasa EBConcise-Gustav-I-Vasa].</ref> In the 17th century, Sweden was engaged in many wars, for example with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, with both sides competing for territories of today\'s [[Baltic states]], with the disastrous [[Battle of Kircholm]] being one of the highlights.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.kismeta.com/diGrasse/images/kircholm_27_sept.htm |title=Battle of Kircholm 1605 |publisher=Kismeta.com |accessdate=25 August 2010 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090614093403/http://www.kismeta.com/diGrasse/images/kircholm_27_sept.htm |archive-date=14 June 2009 |dead-url=yes |df=dmy-all }}</ref> One-third of the Finnish population died in the devastating [[famine]] that struck the country in 1696.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://countrystudies.us/finland/9.htm|title=Finland and the Swedish Empire|publisher=[[Library of Congress Country Studies]]|accessdate=17 September 2014|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161226013534/http://countrystudies.us/finland/9.htm|archive-date=26 December 2016|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Famine also hit Sweden, killing roughly 10% of Sweden\'s population.<ref>{{cite book |first1=Elizabeth |last1=Ewan |first2=Janay |last2=Nugent |year=2008 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=6oOCfHxQDtwC&pg=PA153 |title=Finding the family in medieval and early modern Scotland |publisher=Ashgate Publishing |page=153 |isbn=978-0-7546-6049-1 |access-date=1 July 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150905194502/https://books.google.com/books?id=6oOCfHxQDtwC&pg=PA153 |archive-date=5 September 2015 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n\nThe Swedes conducted a series of invasions into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, known as the [[Deluge (history)|Deluge]]. After more than half a century of almost constant warfare, the Swedish economy had deteriorated. It became the lifetime task of Charles\' son, [[Charles XI of Sweden|Charles XI]], to rebuild the economy and refit the army. His legacy to his son, the coming ruler of Sweden, [[Charles XII of Sweden|Charles XII]], was one of the finest arsenals in the world, a large standing army and a great fleet. Sweden\'s largest threat at this time, Russia, had a larger army but was far behind in both equipment and training.\n\nAfter the [[Battle of Narva (1700)|Battle of Narva]] in 1700, one of the first battles of the [[Great Northern War]], the Russian army was so severely devastated that Sweden had an open chance to invade Russia. However, Charles did not pursue the Russian army, instead turning against Poland–Lithuania and defeating the Polish king, [[Augustus II]], and his Saxon allies at the [[Battle of Klissow]] in 1702. This gave Russia time to rebuild and modernise its army.\n\n[[File:Marten\'s Poltava.jpg|thumb|left|The [[Battle of Poltava]] in 1709. In the years following Poltava, Russia and her allies occupied all the [[Dominions of Sweden|Swedish dominions]] on the Baltic coast and even Finland.]]\n\nAfter the success of invading Poland, Charles decided to make an attempt at invading Russia, but this ended in a decisive Russian victory at the [[Battle of Poltava]] in 1709. After a long march exposed to [[Cossack]] raids, the Russian Tsar [[Peter the Great]]\'s [[scorched-earth]] techniques and [[Great Frost of 1709|the extremely cold winter of 1709]], the Swedes stood weakened with a shattered morale and were enormously outnumbered against the Russian army at Poltava. The defeat meant the beginning of the end for the Swedish Empire. In addition, [[The plague during the Great Northern War|the plague raging in East Central Europe]] devastated the Swedish dominions and reached Central Sweden in 1710.\n\nCharles XII attempted to invade Norway in 1716, but he was shot dead at [[Fredriksten]] fortress in 1718. The Swedes were not militarily defeated at Fredriksten, but the whole structure and organisation of the campaign fell apart with the king\'s death, and the army withdrew.\n\nForced to cede large areas of land in the [[Treaty of Nystad]] in 1721, Sweden also lost its place as an empire and as the dominant state on the Baltic Sea. With Sweden\'s lost influence, Russia emerged as an empire and became one of Europe\'s dominant nations. As the war finally ended in 1721, Sweden had lost an estimated 200,000 men, 150,000 of those from the area of present-day Sweden and 50,000 from the [[History of Finland#17th century – the Swedish Empire|Finnish]] part of Sweden.<ref>\'\'[https://archive.today/20120530021358/http://www.algonet.se/~hogman/slsoldat.htm Losses statistics at Militaria].\'\' (Swedish)</ref>\n\nIn the 18th century, Sweden did not have enough resources to maintain its territories outside Scandinavia, and most of them were lost, culminating with the loss in 1809 of eastern Sweden to Russia, which became the highly autonomous [[Grand Duchy of Finland|Grand Principality of Finland]] in [[Russian Empire|Imperial Russia]].\n\nIn interest of re-establishing Swedish dominance in the Baltic Sea, Sweden allied itself against its traditional ally and benefactor, France, in the [[Napoleonic Wars]]. Sweden\'s role in the [[Battle of Leipzig]] gave it the authority to force Denmark–Norway, an ally of France, to cede Norway to the King of Sweden on 14 January 1814 in exchange for northern German provinces, at the [[Treaty of Kiel]]. The Norwegian attempts to keep their status as a sovereign state were rejected by the Swedish king, [[Charles XIII]]. He launched a military campaign against Norway on 27 July 1814, ending in the [[Convention of Moss]], which forced Norway into a [[Union between Sweden and Norway|personal union]] with Sweden under the Swedish crown, which lasted until 1905. The 1814 campaign was the last time Sweden was at war.\n\n===Modern history===\n{{See also|Modernization of Sweden|Swedish emigration to the United States}}\n[[File:Starvation image from Fäderneslandet 1867.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Illustration of starvation in northern Sweden, [[Finnish famine of 1866–1868|Famine of 1866–1868]]]]\nThe [[Swedish East India Company]], \'\'Ostindiska Kompaniet\'\', began in 1731. The obvious choice of home port was [[Gothenburg]] at Sweden\'s west coast, the mouth of [[Göta älv|Göta älv river]] is very wide and has the county\'s largest and best harbour for high-seas journeys. The trade continued into the 19th century, and caused the little town to become Sweden\'s second city.<ref>Tore Frängsmyr, "Ostindiska Kompaniet", Publisher- "Bokförlaget Bra Böcker", [[Höganäs]], 1976. (No ISBN to be found), backside overview and</ref>\nThere was a significant population increase during the 18th and 19th centuries, which the writer [[Esaias Tegnér]] in 1833 attributed to "the peace, the [[smallpox vaccine]], and the potatoes".<ref>{{cite book|year=1998|title=Encyclopedia of Canada\'s Peoples|publisher=University of Minnesota Press|isbn=978-0-8020-2938-6|page=1220|editor-last=Magocsi |editor-first=Paul Robert}}</ref> Between 1750 and 1850, the population in Sweden doubled. According to some scholars, mass emigration to America became the only way to prevent famine and rebellion; over 1% of the population emigrated annually during the 1880s.<ref name="Einhorn">{{cite book |last1=Einhorn |first1=Eric |first2=John |last2=Logue |year=1989 |title=Modern Welfare States: Politics and Policies in Social Democratic Scandinavia  |publisher=Praeger Publishers |page=9 |isbn=978-0275931889 |quote=Though Denmark, where industrialization had begun in the 1850s, was reasonably prosperous by the end of the nineteenth century, both Sweden and Norway were terribly poor. Only the safety valve of mass emigration to America prevented famine and rebellion. At the peak of emigration in the 1880s, over 1% of the total population of both countries emigrated annually.}}</ref> Nevertheless, Sweden remained poor, retaining a nearly entirely agricultural economy even as Denmark and Western European countries began to industrialise.<ref name=Einhorn /><ref>{{cite book |last=Koblik |first=Steven |year=1975 |title=Sweden\'s Development From Poverty to Affluence, 1750–1970 |publisher=University of Minnesota Press |pages=8–9 |isbn=978-0816607662 |quote=In economic and social terms the eighteenth century was more a transitional than a revolutionary period. Sweden was, in light of contemporary Western European standards, a relatively poor but stable country. ...It has been estimated that 75–80% of the population was involved in agricultural pursuits during the late eighteenth century. One hundred years later, the corresponding figure was still 72%.}}</ref>\n[[File:Farewell to home, Göteborg, 1905.jpg|thumb|Swedish emigrants boarding ship in [[Gothenburg]] in 1905]]\nMany looked towards America for a better life during this time. It is thought that between 1850 and 1910 more than one million Swedes moved to the United States.<ref>Einhorn, Eric and John Logue (1989), p. 8.</ref> In the early 20th century, more Swedes lived in Chicago than in [[Gothenburg]] (Sweden\'s second largest city).<ref>Ulf Beijbom, [http://www.americanwest.com/swedemigr/pages/emigra.htm "European emigration", The House of Emigrants, Växjö, Sweden] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080803004438/http://www.americanwest.com/swedemigr/pages/emigra.htm |date=3 August 2008}}</ref> Most Swedish [[immigrants]] moved to the [[Midwestern United States]], with a large population in [[Minnesota]], with a few others moving to other parts of the United States and Canada.\n\nDespite the slow rate of industrialisation into the 19th century, many important changes were taking place in the agrarian economy due to constant innovations and a rapid population growth.<ref name="Koblik9-10">Koblik, pp. 9–10.</ref> These innovations included government-sponsored programmes of [[enclosure]], aggressive exploitation of agricultural lands, and the introduction of new crops such as the potato.<ref name="Koblik9-10" /> Because the Swedish peasantry had never been enserfed as elsewhere in Europe,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-29865/Sweden#403810.hook |title=Sweden: Social and economic conditions (2007) |publisher=Britannica.com |access-date=19 February 2007 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080530024645/http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-29865/Sweden#403810.hook |archive-date=30 May 2008 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> the Swedish farming culture began to take on a critical role in Swedish politics, which has continued through modern times with modern Agrarian party (now called the Centre Party).<ref>Koblik, p. 11: "The agrarian revolution in Sweden is of fundamental importance for Sweden\'s modern development. Throughout Swedish history the countryside has taken an unusually important role in comparison with other European states."</ref> Between 1870 and 1914, Sweden began developing the industrialised economy that exists today.<ref>Koblik, p. 90. "It is usually suggested that between 1870 and 1914 Sweden emerged from its primarily agrarian economic system into a modern industrial economy."</ref>\n\nStrong grassroots movements sprung up in Sweden during the latter half of the 19th century (trade unions, [[temperance movement|temperance]] groups, and independent religious groups), creating a strong foundation of democratic principles. In 1889 The Swedish Social Democratic Party was founded. These movements precipitated Sweden\'s migration into a modern parliamentary democracy, achieved by the time of World War I. As the [[Industrial Revolution]] progressed during the 20th century, people gradually moved into cities to work in factories and became involved in socialist unions. A communist revolution was avoided in 1917, following the re-introduction of [[parliamentarism]], and the country was [[Democracy|democratised]].\n\n===World War I and World War II===\n{{Main|Sweden during World War I|Sweden during World War II}}\n\nSweden was officially neutral during [[World War I]], although, under German pressure, they did take steps which were detrimental to the [[Allies of World War I|Allied powers]] including mining the [[Øresund]] channel, thus closing it to Allied shipping, and allowing the Germans to use Swedish facilities and the Swedish cipher to transmit secret messages to their overseas embassies.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Siney|first=Marion C.|title=Swedish neutrality and economic warfare in World War I|journal=Conspectus of History|year=1975|volume=1|issue=2|url=http://libx.bsu.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/ConspectusH&CISOPTR=410&REC=1}}</ref> Sweden also allowed volunteers to fight for the [[White Guard (Finland)|White Guards]] alongside the Germans against the [[Red Guards (Finland)|Red Guards]] and Russians in the [[Finnish Civil War]], and briefly occupied the [[Åland Islands]] in co-operation with Germany.\n\n[[File:Swedish soldier during ww2.JPG|thumb|left|A Swedish soldier during World War II. Sweden remained neutral during the conflict.]]\n\nAs in the First World War, Sweden remained officially neutral during [[World War II]], although its neutrality during World War II has been disputed.<ref name="Koblik303-313">Koblik, pp. 303–313.</ref><ref>Nordstrom, p. 315: "Sweden\'s government attempted to maintain at least a semblance of neutrality while it bent to the demands of the prevailing side in the struggle. Although effective in preserving the country\'s sovereignty, this approach generated criticism at home from many who believed the threat to Sweden was less serious than the government claimed, problems with the warring powers, ill feelings among its neighbours, and frequent criticism in the postwar period."</ref> Sweden was under German influence for much of the war, as ties to the rest of the world were cut off through blockades.<ref name="Koblik303-313" /><!---Koblik, pg. 307. "Through the blockade of foreign trade that culminated in the establishment of the [[Skagerrak]] blockade in connection with the German invasion of Denmark and Norway in April 1940, Swedish imports were reduced by approximately one-half and exports by about one-third in comparison with the average volume of 1936–1938."---> The Swedish government felt that it was in no position to openly contest Germany,<ref name="NB313-319" /><!---Nordstrom, pg. 315 "Charting a path that might ensure the survival of the state was the government\'s primary goal."---><!---Nordstrom, p. 319 "For a time virtually all of Sweden\'s production of industrial goods and raw materials ([[Swedish iron mining during World War II|especially iron ore]]) went to Germany in exchange for necessary fuels, food stuffs, and manufactured goods."---> and therefore made some concessions.<ref>{{cite book|last=Zubicky|first=Sioma|year=1997|title=Med förintelsen i bagaget|language=Swedish|publisher=Bonnier Carlsen|location=Stockholm|isbn=978-91-638-3436-3|page=122}}</ref> Sweden also supplied steel and machined parts to Germany throughout the war. The Swedish government unofficially supported Finland in the [[Winter War]] and the [[Continuation War]] by allowing volunteers and [[materiel]] to be shipped to Finland. However, Sweden supported Norwegian resistance against Germany, and in 1943 helped [[Rescue of the Danish Jews|rescue Danish Jews]] from deportation to [[Nazi concentration camps]].\n\nDuring the last year of the war, Sweden began to play a role in humanitarian efforts, and many refugees, among them several thousand Jews from Nazi-occupied Europe, were rescued thanks to the [[White Buses|Swedish rescue missions to internment camps]] and partly because Sweden served as a haven for refugees, primarily from the [[Nordic countries]] and the Baltic states.<ref name="NB313-319" /><!---Nordstrom, p. 317: "In the last year of the war, Sweden became a factor in humanitarian efforts and attempts to end the war. It also became a haven for refugees from \'\'Norden\'\' and the Baltic states, and Swedes were involved in rescuing Scandinavian victims of internment camps." --- Nordstrom, p. 318: "By late 1943 Sweden was a haven for some 11,000 refugees from Denmark, including over 7,000 Danish Jews, and about 30,000 Norwegians."---> The Swedish diplomat [[Raoul Wallenberg]] and his colleagues ensured the safety of tens of thousands of Hungarian Jews.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/wallenberg.html |title=Raoul Wallenberg |publisher=Jewishvirtuallibrary.org |access-date=28 August 2014 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141205181950/http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/wallenberg.html |archive-date=5 December 2014 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> Nevertheless, both Swedes and others have argued that Sweden could have done more to oppose the Nazis\' war efforts, even if it meant increasing the risk of occupation.<ref name="NB313-319">Nordstrom, pp. 313–319.</ref>\n\n===Post-war era===\n[[File:Olivecrona erlander 380.jpg|thumb|Prime Minister [[Tage Erlander]] (left) was Prime Minister under the ruling [[Swedish Social Democratic Party]] from 1946 to 1969.]]\nSweden was officially a neutral country and remained outside [[NATO]] and [[Warsaw Pact]] membership during the [[Cold War]], but privately Sweden\'s leadership had strong ties with the United States and other western governments. Following the war, Sweden took advantage of an intact industrial base, social stability and its natural resources to expand its industry to supply the rebuilding of Europe.<ref name="NB335-339">Nordstrom, pp. 335–339.</ref><!---Recovery from the material damage and economic shocks of the war was more rapid than many expected."---> Sweden received aid under the [[Marshall Plan]] and participated in the OECD. During most of the post-war era, the country was governed by the [[Swedish Social Democratic Party]] largely in co-operation with [[Swedish Trade Union Confederation|trade unions]] and industry. The government actively pursued an internationally competitive manufacturing sector of primarily large corporations.<ref name="svensteinmo" />\n\nSweden was one of the founding states of the [[European Free Trade Area]] (EFTA). During the 1960s the EFTA countries were often referred to as the \'\'\'Outer Seven\'\'\', as opposed to the [[Inner Six]] of the then-[[European Economic Community]] (EEC).<ref>{{cite news |title=Finland: Now, the Seven and a Half |newspaper=[[Time (magazine)|Time]] |date=7 April 1961 |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,874317,00.htm |accessdate=18 July 2009 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111104144427/http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,874317,00.htm |archive-date=4 November 2011 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n\nSweden, like many industrialised countries, entered a period of economic decline and upheaval following the oil embargoes of 1973–74 and 1978–79.<ref>Nordstrom, p. 344: "During the last 25 years of the century a host of problems plagued the economies of Norden and the West. Although many were present before, the 1973 and 1980 global oil crises acted as catalysts in bringing them to the fore."</ref> In the 1980s several key Swedish industries were significantly restructured. Shipbuilding was discontinued, wood pulp was integrated into modernised paper production, the steel industry was concentrated and specialised, and mechanical engineering was robotised.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Krantz |first1=Olle |first2=Lennart |last2=Schön |year=2007 |title=Swedish Historical National Accounts, 1800–2000 |location=Lund |publisher=Almqvist and Wiksell International}}{{Page needed|date=February 2016}}</ref>\n\nBetween 1970 and 1990, the overall tax burden rose by over 10%, and the growth was low compared with other countries in Western Europe. Eventually the government began to spend over half of the country\'s gross domestic product. Swedish GDP per capita ranking declined during this time.<ref name="svensteinmo">\'\'Globalization and Taxation: Challenges to the Swedish Welfare State\'\'. By Sven Steinmo.</ref>\n\n===Recent history===\n{{See also|History of Sweden (1991–present)}}\n[[File:Tratado de Lisboa 13 12 2007 (081).jpg|thumb|right|Sweden joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the [[Lisbon Treaty]] in 2007.]]\n\nA bursting real estate bubble caused by inadequate controls on lending combined with an international recession and a policy switch from anti-unemployment policies to anti-inflationary policies resulted in a fiscal crisis in the early 1990s.<ref>Englund, P. 1990. "Financial deregulation in Sweden." European Economic Review 34 (2–3): 385–393. Korpi TBD. Meidner, R. 1997. "The Swedish model in an era of mass unemployment." Economic and Industrial Democracy 18 (1): 87–97. Olsen, Gregg M. 1999. "Half empty or half full? The Swedish welfare state in transition." Canadian Review of Sociology & Anthropology, 36 (2): 241–268.</ref> Sweden\'s GDP declined by around 5%. In 1992, a run on the currency caused the central bank to briefly increase interest rates to 500%.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-1025624.html |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110215084954/http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-1025624.html |dead-url=yes |archive-date=15 February 2011 |title=Sweden\'s \'Crazy\' 500% Interest Rate; Fails to Faze Most Citizens, Businesses; Hike Seen as Short-Term Move to Protect Krona From Devaluation |publisher=Highbeam.com |date=18 September 1992 |accessdate=3 August 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=NxFh9qk0wBYC&pg=PA44 |title=The Great Financial Crisis in Finland and Sweden |publisher=Edward Elgar Publishing |isbn=978-1-84844-305-1 |last1=Jonung |first1=Lars |last2=Kiander |first2=Jaakko |last3=Vartia |first3=Pentti |year=2009 |access-date=1 July 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150905193823/https://books.google.com/books?id=NxFh9qk0wBYC&pg=PA44 |archive-date=5 September 2015 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n\nThe response of the government was to cut spending and institute a multitude of reforms to improve Sweden\'s competitiveness, among them reducing the [[welfare state]] and [[Privatization|privatising]] public services and goods. Much of the political establishment promoted EU membership, and [[1994 Swedish European Union membership referendum|a referendum]] passed with 52.3% in favour of joining the EU on 13 November 1994. Sweden joined the [[European Union]] on 1 January 1995. In a 2003 referendum the Swedish electorate [[2003 Swedish euro referendum|voted against]] the country joining the [[European Monetary Union|Euro]] currency. In [[2006 Swedish general election|2006]] Sweden got its first majority government for decades as the centre-right [[The Alliance (Sweden)|Alliance]] defeated the incumbent Social Democrat government. Following the rapid growth of support for the anti-immigration [[Sweden Democrats]], and their entrance to the Riksdag in [[2010 Swedish general election|2010]], the Alliance became a minority cabinet.\n\nSweden remains non-aligned militarily, although it participates in some joint military exercises with NATO and some other countries, in addition to extensive co-operation with other European countries in the area of defence technology and defence industry. Among others, Swedish companies export weapons that were used by the American military in Iraq.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.thelocal.se/article.php?ID=3013&date=20060207 |title=New Swedish weapon in Iraq |newspaper=[[The Local]] |date=7 February 2006 |accessdate=10 June 2013 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130429052619/http://www.thelocal.se/article.php?ID=3013&date=20060207 |archivedate=29 April 2013}}</ref> Sweden also has a long history of participating in international military operations, including [[Afghanistan]], where Swedish troops are under NATO command, and in EU sponsored peacekeeping operations in [[Kosovo]], [[Bosnia and Herzegovina]], and [[Cyprus]]. Sweden also participated in [[2011 military intervention in Libya|enforcing]] a [[United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973|UN mandated no-fly zone]] over Libya during the [[Arab Spring]]. Sweden held the chair of the European Union from 1 July to 31 December 2009.\n \t\n[[File:Swedish PM Stefan Löfven meeting Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei 01.jpg|alt=Stefan\'s face|thumb|Current prime minister, [[Stefan Löfven]], in meeting with [[Ali Khamenei]], Supreme Leader of [[Iran]]]]\nIn recent decades Sweden has become a more culturally diverse nation due to significant immigration; in 2013 it was estimated that 15 per cent of the population was foreign-born, and an additional 5 per cent of the population were born to two immigrant parents. The influx of immigrants has brought new social challenges. Violent incidents have [[Rosengård#Violence in the Community|periodically occurred]]<ref>{{cite news |title=Rioting breaks out in Malmö suburb |url=http://www.thelocal.se/16458/20081219/ |newspaper=[[The Local]] |accessdate=30 June 2013 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130726145940/http://www.thelocal.se/16458/20081219/ |archivedate=26 July 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title=Fires and rioting after Malmö suburb unrest |url=http://www.thelocal.se/26354/20100429/ |newspaper=[[The Local]] |accessdate=30 June 2013 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130205114737/http://www.thelocal.se/26354/20100429/ |archivedate=5 February 2013}}</ref> including the [[May 2013 Stockholm riots|2013 Stockholm riots]] which broke out following the police shooting of an elderly Portuguese immigrant.<ref>{{cite news|title=Sweden Riots Put Faces to Statistics as Stockholm Burns|url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-05-26/sweden-riots-put-faces-to-statistics-as-stockholm-burns.html|publisher=[[Bloomberg News]]|accessdate=30 June 2013|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130708032558/http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-05-26/sweden-riots-put-faces-to-statistics-as-stockholm-burns.html|archive-date=8 July 2013|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> In response to these violent events, the [[Far-right politics|anti-immigration]] opposition party, the [[Swedish Democrats]], promoted their anti-immigration policies, while the [[Left-wing politics|left-wing]] opposition blamed growing inequality caused by the [[Centre-right politics|centre-right]] government\'s socioeconomic policies.<ref name="nytimes">{{cite news |last=Higgins |first=Andrew |date=26 May 2013 |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/27/world/europe/swedens-riots-put-its-identity-in-question.html?pagewanted=all |title=In Sweden, Riots Put an Identity in Question |newspaper=[[The New York Times]] |access-date=1 June 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130531100256/http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/27/world/europe/swedens-riots-put-its-identity-in-question.html?pagewanted=all |archive-date=31 May 2013 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n\nIn 2014, [[Stefan Löfven]] (Social Democrats) won the General Election and became the new Swedish Prime Minister. The Sweden Democrats held the balance of power and voted the government\'s budget down in the Riksdag, but due to agreements between the government and the Alliance, the government was able to hang onto power.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-30610500|title=Sweden parties reach budget deal to avoid snap election|publisher=[[BBC News]]|date=27 December 2014|accessdate=9 January 2016|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160106013135/http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-30610500|archive-date=6 January 2016|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Sweden was heavily affected by the [[2015 European migrant crisis]], eventually forcing the government to tighten regulations of entry to the country, as Sweden received thousands of asylum seekers and migrants predominantly from [[Africa]] and the [[Middle East]] per week in autumn, overwhelming existing structures.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/05/world/europe/sweden-denmark-border-check-migrants.html?_r=0|title=Sweden and Denmark add border controls to stem flows of migrants|newspaper=[[The New York Times]]|first=Dan|last=Bilefsky|date=5 January 2016|accessdate=9 January 2016|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160107062853/http://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/05/world/europe/sweden-denmark-border-check-migrants.html?_r=0|archive-date=7 January 2016|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Some of the asylum restrictions were relaxed again later.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.thelocal.se/20190619/sweden-rolls-back-strict-rules-on-family-reunification|title=Immigration: Sweden rolls back strict rules on family reunification|date=19 June 2019|accessdate=7 August 2019}}</ref>\n\n==Geography==\n{{Main|Geography of Sweden}}\n[[File:Vy mot Stora Sjöfallet från Saltoluokta.jpg|thumb|left|View of the [[Stora Sjöfallet National Park]]]]\nSituated in Northern Europe, Sweden lies west of the [[Baltic Sea]] and [[Gulf of Bothnia]], providing a long coastline, and forms the eastern part of the [[Scandinavian Peninsula]]. To the west is the [[Scandinavian mountain chain]] (Skanderna), a range that separates Sweden from [[Norway]]. Finland is located to its north-east. It has maritime borders with Denmark, Germany, [[Poland]], Russia, [[Lithuania]], [[Latvia]] and [[Estonia]], and it is also linked to Denmark (south-west) by the [[Öresund Bridge]]. Its border with Norway ([[List of countries and territories by land borders|1,619 km]] long) is the longest uninterrupted border within Europe.\n\nSweden lies between latitudes [[55th parallel north|55°]] and [[70th parallel north|70° N]], and mostly between longitudes [[11th meridian east|11°]] and [[25th meridian east|25° E]] (part of [[Stora Drammen]] island is just west of 11°).\n[[File:Odarslövsvägen–flygbild 06 september 2014.jpg|thumb|[[Scania]] in southern Sweden]]\n[[File:Sandön - KMB - 16001000454384.jpg|thumb|[[Sandhamn]] island, [[Stockholm archipelago]]]]\n\nAt {{convert|449964|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}, Sweden is the 55th-largest country in the world,<ref>{{cite web|title=Country Comparison: Area|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2147rank.html?countryName=Sweden&countryCode=sw&regionCode=eu&rank=55#sw|work=Central Intelligence Agency|publisher=Cia.gov|accessdate=19 August 2010|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100602150716/https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2147rank.html?countryName=Sweden&countryCode=sw&regionCode=eu&rank=55#sw|archive-date=2 June 2010|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> the 4th-[[Area and population of European countries|largest country entirely in Europe]], and the largest in Northern Europe. The lowest elevation in Sweden is in the bay of Lake Hammarsjön, near [[Kristianstad]], at {{convert|-2.41|m|ft|2|abbr=on}} below sea level. The highest point is [[Kebnekaise]] at {{convert|2111|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} [[Above mean sea level|above sea level]].\n\nSweden has 25 [[Provinces of Sweden|provinces]] or \'\'landskap\'\', based on culture, geography and history. While these provinces serve no political or administrative purpose, they play an important role in people\'s [[self-concept|self-identity]]. The provinces are usually grouped together in three large \'\'[[lands of Sweden|lands]]\'\', parts, the northern Norrland, the central Svealand and southern Götaland. The sparsely populated Norrland encompasses almost 60% of the country. Sweden also has the [[Vindelfjällens Nature Reserve|Vindelfjällen Nature Reserve]], one of the largest protected areas in Europe, totaling 562,772 ha (approx. 5,628&nbsp;km{{sup|2}}).\n\nAbout 15% of Sweden lies north of the [[Arctic Circle]]. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, with increasing forest coverage northward. Around 65% of Sweden\'s total land area is covered with forests. The highest population density is in the [[Øresund Region|Öresund Region]] in southern Sweden, along the western coast up to central Bohuslän, and in the valley of lake [[Mälaren]] and Stockholm. Gotland and [[Öland]] are Sweden\'s largest [[islands of Sweden|islands]]; [[Vänern]] and [[Vättern]] are its largest lakes. Vänern is the third largest in Europe, after [[Lake Ladoga]] and [[Lake Onega]] in Russia. Combined with the third and fourth largest lakes Mälaren and [[Hjälmaren]], these lakes take up a significant part of the southern Sweden\'s area. Sweden\'s extensive waterway availability throughout the south was exploited with the building of the [[Göta Canal]] in the 19th century, shortening the potential distance between the Baltic Sea south of [[Norrköping]] and [[Gothenburg]] by using the lake and river network to facilitate the canal.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.gotakanal.se/en/|title=Göta kanal official website|publisher=[[Göta Canal]]|accessdate=9 January 2016|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160112033839/http://www.gotakanal.se/en/|archive-date=12 January 2016|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n\n===Climate===\nMost of Sweden has a [[temperate climate]], despite its northern [[latitude]], with largely four distinct seasons and mild temperatures throughout the year. The winter in the far south is usually weak and is manifested only through some shorter periods with snow and sub-zero temperatures, autumn may well turn into spring there, without a distinct period of winter. The country can be divided into three types of climate: the southernmost part has an [[oceanic climate]], the central part has a [[humid continental climate]] and the northernmost part has a [[subarctic climate]].\nHowever, Sweden is much warmer and drier than other places at a similar latitude, and even somewhat farther south, mainly because of the combination of the [[Gulf Stream]]<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/climate/impact/gulf_stream.shtml |publisher=[[BBC]] |title=BBC Climate and the Gulf Stream |accessdate=29 October 2008 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080928040727/http://www.bbc.co.uk/climate/impact/gulf_stream.shtml |archive-date=28 September 2008 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |url=http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/res/div/ocp/gs/ |title=The Gulf Stream Myth |journal=Monthly Weather Review |volume=28 |issue=9 |pages=393–394 |accessdate=29 October 2008 |bibcode=1900MWRv...28..393W |last1=Watts |first1=Harvey Maitland |year=1900 |doi=10.1175/1520-0493(1900)28[393:TGSM]2.0.CO;2 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110225021029/http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/res/div/ocp/gs/ |archive-date=25 February 2011 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> and the general west wind drift, caused by the direction of planet Earth\'s rotation. Continental west-coasts (to which all of Scandinavia belongs, as the westernmost part of the [[Eurasia|Eurasian continent]]), are notably warmer than continental east-coasts; this can also be seen by comparing e.g. the Canadian cities of [[Vancouver]] and [[Halifax, Nova Scotia]] with each other, the winter in west coast Vancouver is much milder; also, for example, central and southern Sweden has much milder winters than many parts of Russia, Canada, and the northern United States.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/SUSTDEV/EIdirect/climate/EIsp0002.htm |publisher=[[Food and Agriculture Organization]] |title=Global Climate Maps |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20061117173015/http://www.fao.org/waicent/faoinfo/sustdev/EIdirect/climate/EIsp0002.htm |archivedate=17 November 2006}}</ref> Because of Sweden\'s high latitude, the length of daylight varies greatly. North of the Arctic Circle, the [[Midnight sun|sun never sets]] for part of each summer, and [[Polar night|it never rises]] for part of each winter. In the capital, [[Stockholm]], daylight lasts for more than 18 hours in late June but only around 6 hours in late December. Sweden receives between 1,100 and 1,900 hours of sunshine annually.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.smhi.se/klimatdata/meteorologi/stralning/1.3052 |title=Normal solskenstid för ett år |language=sv |publisher=[[Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute]] |accessdate=27 January 2010 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100826085626/http://www.smhi.se/klimatdata/meteorologi/stralning/1.3052 |archive-date=26 August 2010 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> During July there is not much difference in temperature between the north and south of the country. With the exception of in the mountains, the whole country has a July-average temperature within the range of {{convert|15|C|F|abbr=on}} to {{convert|17.5|C|F|abbr=on}} (a difference of 2.5 degrees Celsius), while the January-average temperatures vary from freezing point down to below {{convert|−15|C|F|abbr=on}} along the border with Finland (a difference of 15 degrees Celsius)<ref>as can be seen in the table below\nwhich relies on [[SMHI]] official data for the latest fixed 30-year period, 1961 to 1990</ref>\n\n{{wide image|Kebnekaise Panorama.jpg|800px|The [[Scandinavian Mountains]]}}\n[[File:Koppen-Geiger Map SWE present.svg|thumb|upright=0.8|[[Köppen climate classification]] types of Sweden]]\nThe highest temperature ever recorded in Sweden was {{convert|38|°C|°F|abbr=on}} in [[Målilla]] in 1947, while the coldest temperature ever recorded was {{convert|-52.6|°C|1|abbr=on}} in Vuoggatjålme in 1966. Temperatures expected in Sweden are heavily influenced by the large Fennoscandian landmass, as well as continental Europe and western Russia, which allows hot or cool inland air to be easily transported to Sweden. That, in turn, renders most of Sweden\'s southern areas having warmer summers than almost everywhere in the nearby [[British Isles]], even matching temperatures found along the continental Atlantic coast as far south as in northern [[Spain]]. In winter, however, the same high-pressure systems sometimes put the entire country far below freezing temperatures. There is some maritime moderation from the Atlantic which renders the Swedish continental climate less severe than that of nearby Russia. Even though temperature patterns differ between north and south, the summer climate is surprisingly similar all through the entire country in spite of the large latitudinal differences. This is due to the south\'s being surrounded by a greater mass of water, with the wider Baltic Sea and the Atlantic air passing over lowland areas from the south-west.\n\nApart from the ice-free Atlantic bringing marine air into Sweden tempering winters, the mildness is further explained by prevailing low-pressure systems postponing winter, with the long nights often staying above freezing in the south of the country due to the abundant cloud cover. By the time winter finally breaks through, daylight hours rise quickly, ensuring that daytime temperatures soar quickly in spring. With the greater number of clear nights, frosts remain commonplace quite far south as late as April. The cold winters occur when low-pressure systems are weaker. An example is that the coldest ever month (January 1987) in Stockholm was also the sunniest January month on record.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://data.smhi.se/met/climate/time_series/month/vov_pdf/SMHI_vov_precipitation_sunshine_jan15.pdf?71642|title=Precipitation, Sunshine & Radiation for January 2015 (all-time records section)|language=sv|publisher=[[Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute]]|accessdate=31 October 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160115212312/http://data.smhi.se/met/climate/time_series/month/vov_pdf/SMHI_vov_precipitation_sunshine_jan15.pdf?71642|archive-date=15 January 2016|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://data.smhi.se/met/climate/time_series/month/vov_pdf/SMHI_vov_temperature_wind_jan15.pdf?18701|title=Temperature & Wind – January 2015 (all-time records section)|language=sv|publisher=[[Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute]]|accessdate=31 October 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160115212312/http://data.smhi.se/met/climate/time_series/month/vov_pdf/SMHI_vov_temperature_wind_jan15.pdf?18701|archive-date=15 January 2016|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n\nThe relative strength of low and high-pressure systems of marine and continental air also define the highly variable summers. When hot continental air hits the country, the long days and short nights frequently bring temperatures up to {{convert|30|C|F}} or above even in coastal areas. Nights normally remain cool, especially in inland areas. Coastal areas can see so-called \'\'tropical nights\'\' above {{convert|20|C|F}} occur due to the moderating sea influence during warmer summers.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.smhi.se/kunskapsbanken/meteorologi/tropiska-natter-1.1085|title=Tropiska nätter|trans-title=Tropical nights|publisher=[[Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute]]|language=sv|accessdate=9 January 2016|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304065821/http://www.smhi.se/kunskapsbanken/meteorologi/tropiska-natter-1.1085|archive-date=4 March 2016|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Summers can be cool, especially in the north of the country. Transitional seasons are normally quite extensive and the four-season climate applies to most of Sweden\'s territory, except in Scania where some years do not record a [[meteorological winter]] (see table below) or in the high Lapland mountains where polar microclimates exist.\n\nOn average, most of Sweden receives between {{convert|500|and|800|mm|0|abbr=on}} of precipitation each year, making it considerably drier than the [[Precipitation (meteorology)|global average]]. The south-western part of the country receives more precipitation, between {{convert|1000|and|1200|mm|0|abbr=on}}, and some mountain areas in the north are estimated to receive up to {{convert|2000|mm|0|abbr=on}}. Despite northerly locations, southern and central Sweden may have almost no snow in some winters. Most of Sweden is located in the [[rain shadow]] of the Scandinavian Mountains through Norway and north-west Sweden. The blocking of cool and wet air in summer, as well as the greater landmass, leads to warm and dry summers far north in the country, with quite warm summers at the Bothnia Bay coast at 65 degrees latitude, which is unheard of elsewhere in the world at such northerly coastlines.\n\n\'\'\'Swedish Meteorological Institute, SMHI\'s monthly average temperatures of some of their weather stations – for the latest scientific full prefixed thirty-year period 1961–1990\'\'\'\nNext will be presented in year 2020. The weather stations are sorted from south towards north by their numbers.\n{| class="wikitable"\n! stn.nr. !! station !! Jan !! Feb !! Mar !! Apr !! May !! Jun !! Jul !! Aug !! Sep !! Oct !! Nov !! Dec !! \'\'Annual\'\'\n|-\n| 5337 || Malmö || 0.1 || 0.0 || 2.2 || 6.4 || 11.6 || 15.8 || 17.1 || 16.8 || 13.6 || 9.8 || 5.3 || 1.9 || \'\'8.4\'\'\n|-\n| 6203 || Helsingborg || 0.6 || −0.1 || 2.0 || 6.0 || 11.2 || 15.3 || 16.7 || 16.6 || 13.6 || 9.9 || 5.2 || 1.8 || \'\'8.3\'\'\n|-\n| 6451 || Växjö || −2.8 || −2.8 || 0.0 || 4.7 || 10.2 || 14.3 || 15.3 || 14.9 || 11.2 || 7.0 || 2.3 || −1.2 || \'\'6.1\'\'\n|-\n| 7839 || Visby || −0.5 || −1.2 || 0.7 || 4.1 || 9.5 || 14.0 || 16.4 || 16.0 || 12.5 || 8.6 || 4.3 || 1.2 || \'\'7.1\'\'\n|-\n| 7447 || Jönköping || −2.6 || −2.7 || 0.3 || 4.7 || 10.0 || 14.5 || 15.9 || 15.0 || 11.3 || 7.5 || 2.8 || −0.7 || \'\'6.3\'\'\n|-\n| 7263 || Göteborg || −0.9 || −0.9 || 2.0 || 6.0 || 11.6 || 15.5 || 16.6 || 16.2 || 12.8 || 9.1 || 4.4 || 1.0 || \'\'7.8\'\'\n|-\n| 8323 || Skövde || −2.8 || −2.9 || 0.0 || 4.6 || 10.6 || 15.0 || 16.2 || 15.2 || 11.1 || 7.1 || 2.2 || −1.1 || \'\'6.3\'\'\n|-\n| 8634 || Norrköping || −3.0 || −3.2 || 0.0 || 4.5 || 10.4 || 15.1 || 16.6 || 15.5 || 11.3 || 7.2 || 2.2 || −1.4 || \'\'6.3\'\'\n|-\n| 9516 || Örebro || −4.0 || −4.0 || −0.5 || 4.3 || 10.7 || 15.3 || 16.5 || 15.3 || 10.9 || 6.6 || 1.3 || −2.4 || \'\'5.8\'\'\n|-\n| 9720 ||Stockholm Bromma|| −3.5 || −3.7 || −0.5 || 4.3 || 10.4 || 15.2 || 16.8 || 15.8 || 11.4 || 7.0 || 2.0 || −1.8 || \'\'6.1\'\'\n|-\n| 9739 ||Stockholm Arlanda|| −4.3 || −4.6 || −1.0 || 3.9 || 9.9 || 14.8 || 16.5 || 15.2 || 10.7 || 6.4 || 1.2 || −2.6 || \'\'5.5\'\'\n|-\n| 10458 || Mora || −7.4 || −7.2 || −2.4 || 2.5 || 9.1 || 14.1 || 15.4 || 13.5 || 9.3 || 4.9 || −1.6 || −6.1 || \'\'3.7\'\'\n|-\n| 10740 || Gävle || −4.8 || −4.5 || −1.0 || 3.4 || 9.3 || 14.6 || 16.3 || 14.9 || 10.6 || 6.0 || 0.6 || −3.3 || \'\'5.2\'\'\n|-\n| 12724 || Sundsvall || −7.5 || −6.3 || −2.3 || 2.5 || 8.2 || 13.8 || 15.2 || 13.8 || 9.4 || 4.8 || −1.5 || −5.7 || \'\'3.6\'\'\n|-\n| 13410 || Östersund || −8.9 || −7.6 || −3.5 || 1.3 || 7.6 || 12.5 || 13.9 || 12.7 || 8.2 || 3.8 || −2.4 || −6.3 || \'\'2.6\'\'\n|-\n| 14050 || Umeå || −8.7 || −8.3 || −4.0 || 1.4 || 7.6 || 13.3 || 15.6 || 13.8 || 9.0 || 4.0 || −2.3 || −6.4 || \'\'2.9\'\'\n|-\n| 15045 || Skellefteå || −10.2 || −8.7 || −4.2 || 1.2 || 7.6 || 13.6 || 15.7 || 13.5 || 8.5 || 3.2 || −3.4 || −7.5 || \'\'2.5\'\'\n|-\n| 16288 || Luleå || −12.2 || −11.0 || −6.0 || 0.3 || 6.6 || 13.0 || 15.4 || 13.3 || 8.0 || 2.6 || −4.5 || −9.7 || \'\'1.3\'\'\n|-\n| 16395 || Haparanda || −12.1 || −11.4 || −6.8 || −0.5 || 6.1 || 12.8 || 15.4 || 13.2 || 8.0 || 2.5 || −4.2 || −9.5 || \'\'1.1\'\'\n|-\n| 16988 || Jokkmokk || −17.5 || −14.9 || −8.6 || −1.1 || 5.9 || 12.2 || 14.3 || 11.8 || 5.7 || −0.2 || −9.3 || −14.6 || \'\'-1.4\'\'\n|-\n| 17897 ||Tarfala (a mountain peak)|| −11.8 || −11.3 || −10.6 || −7.5 || −1.9 || 3.2 || 6.4 || 5.3 || 0.8 || −3.9 || −7.9 || −10.7 || \'\'-4.2\'\'\n|-\n| 18076 || Gällivare || −14.3 || −12.5 || −8.4 || −1.9 || 5.0 || 11.0 || 13.0 || 10.7 || 5.6 || −0.6 || −8.1 || −12.2 || \'\'-1.1\'\'\n|-\n| 18094 || Kiruna || −13.9 || −12.5 || −8.7 || −3.2 || 3.4 || 9.6 || 12.0 || 9.8 || 4.6 || −1.4 || −8.1 || −11.9 || \'\'-1.7\'\'\n|-\n|}<ref>The weather stations\' names and numbers are first found at {{cite web|url=http://www.smhi.se/polopoly_fs/1.2860!ttm6190%5B1%5D.pdf |title=Archived copy |accessdate=12 May 2015 |deadurl=no |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160303222636/http://www.smhi.se/polopoly_fs/1.2860%21ttm6190%5B1%5D.pdf |archivedate=3 March 2016 |df=dmy}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Average Temperatures for each Months and Annual Average |url=http://data.smhi.se/met/climate/time_series/month_year/normal_1961_1990/SMHI_month_year_normal_61_90_temperature_celsius.txt |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131009070301/http://data.smhi.se/met/climate/time_series/month_year/normal_1961_1990/SMHI_month_year_normal_61_90_temperature_celsius.txt |archivedate=2013-10-09}}</ref>\n\n=== Vegetation ===\n{{See also|Wildlife of Sweden}}\n[[File:Sweden Vegetation Zones.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|Map of Sweden\'s five major vegetation zones]]\nSweden has a considerable south to north distance (stretching between the [[latitude]]s N 55:20:13 and N 69:03:36) which causes large climatic difference, especially during the winter. The related matter of the length and strength of the four seasons plays a role in which plants that \'\'naturally\'\' can grow at various places. Sweden is divided in five major vegetation zones. These are:\n\n* The southern deciduous forest zone\n* The southern coniferous forest zone\n* The northern coniferous forest zone, or the [[Taiga]]\n* The alpine-birch zone\n* The bare mountain zone\n\nPlease see the map to the right, Vegetation Zones in Sweden.\n\n;Southern deciduous forest zone\nAlso known as the nemoral region, the southern deciduous forest zone is a part of a larger vegetation zone which also includes Denmark and large parts of Central Europe. It has to a rather large degree become agricultural areas, but larger and smaller forests still exist. The region is characterised by a large wealth of trees and shrubs. The [[beech]] are the most dominant tree, but [[oak]] can also form smaller forests. [[elm]] at one time formed forests, but have been heavily reduced due to [[Dutch Elm disease]]. Other important trees and shrubs in this zone include [[hornbeam]], [[Sambucus nigra|elder]], [[Corylus avellana|hazel]], [[Lonicera xylosteum|fly honeysuckle]], [[Tilia|linden (lime)]], [[Euonymus europaeus|spindle]], [[Taxus baccata|yew]], [[alder buckthorn]], [[blackthorn]], [[Populus tremula|aspen]], [[European rowan]], [[Swedish whitebeam]], [[Juniperus communis|juniper]], [[European holly]], [[Hedera helix|ivy]], [[Cornus sanguinea|dogwood]], [[goat willow]], [[Larix decidua|larch]], [[Prunus padus|bird cherry]], [[Prunus avium|wild cherry]], [[maple]], [[Fraxinus excelsior|ash]], [[alder]] along creeks, and in sandy soil [[birch]] compete with [[pine]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.skogskunskap.se/planera-skogsbruk/naturhansyn/naturmiljoer-fran-norr-till-soder/sodra-lovskogsregionen/|title=Södra lövskogsregionen – Skogskunskap|website=www.skogskunskap.se|access-date=11 October 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171012044304/https://www.skogskunskap.se/planera-skogsbruk/naturhansyn/naturmiljoer-fran-norr-till-soder/sodra-lovskogsregionen/|archive-date=12 October 2017|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> [[Spruce]] is not native but between approximately 1870 and 1980, large areas were planted with it.<ref>{{cite web |title=Forest and Buildings |url=http://www.lansstyrelsen.se/skane/Sv/samhallsplanering-och-kulturmiljo/landskapsvard/kulturmiljoprogram/historia-utveckling/skogens-landskap/skog-och-bebyggelse/Pages/index.aspx |website=lansstyrelsen.se |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171012055002/http://www.lansstyrelsen.se/skane/Sv/samhallsplanering-och-kulturmiljo/landskapsvard/kulturmiljoprogram/historia-utveckling/skogens-landskap/skog-och-bebyggelse/Pages/index.aspx |archivedate=2017-10-12 |language=Swedish|quote="Granskogen, som spreds norrifrån, nådde inte Skåne förrän mot slutet av 1800-talet. Under 1900-talets första hälft planterades stora arealer granskog." or in English "The spruce forest, which spread from the north, did not reach Scania until the end of the 19th century. During the first half of the twentieth century, large areas of pine forest were planted."}}</ref> They tend to grow too quickly due to being outside of their native range<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/27655197|title=Summary in English PDF, page 8 at|publisher=}}</ref> and large distances between the tree rings cause poor board quality.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.skogsstyrelsen.se/om-oss/var-tidning-skogseko/skogseko-2-2017/skogen-vaxer-battre--men-riskerna-blir-fler/|title=Skogen växer bättre – men riskerna blir fler|website=www.skogsstyrelsen.se|access-date=11 October 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171012043833/https://www.skogsstyrelsen.se/om-oss/var-tidning-skogseko/skogseko-2-2017/skogen-vaxer-battre--men-riskerna-blir-fler/|archive-date=12 October 2017|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Later some spruce trees began to die before reaching optimal height, and many more of the coniferous trees were uprooted during cyclones.<ref>Quote from [[Sydsvenska Dagbladet]], section "2" at [https://www.sydsvenskan.se/2015-01-04/en-kvarts-miljard-trad-foll-under-stormnatten] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171012044809/https://www.sydsvenskan.se/2015-01-04/en-kvarts-miljard-trad-foll-under-stormnatten |date=12 October 2017 }},"\'\'Efter stormen kritiserades skogsägarna för att de dominerande granskogarna gjorde att stormen tog hårdare. Uppblandning med lövträd gör skog stryktåligare\'\'" or in English "After the storm, the spruce and pine forest owners were criticized for the domination of the forests that made the storm tougher. Admixture with hardwood makes forest more stringent"</ref><ref>[[Dagens Nyheter]] about the same. [https://www.dn.se/nyheter/vetenskap/analys-dags-plantera-lovskog-i-soder/] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171012044443/https://www.dn.se/nyheter/vetenskap/analys-dags-plantera-lovskog-i-soder/ |date=12 October 2017 }}</ref> During the last 40–50 years large areas of former spruce plantings have been replanted with deciduous forest.<ref>About the 1984 "Ädellövskogslagen" [http://www.naturait.se/adellovskogen/] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171012044321/http://www.naturait.se/adellovskogen/ |date=12 October 2017 }} – "\'\'I Sydsverige (Skåne, Halland och Blekinge) skall minst 70% av beståndet utgöras av ädellöv. Enligt ädellövskogslagen skall efter slutavverkning, alltid ny ädellövskog anläggas på sådana marker.\'\'" or "In southern Sweden (Scania, Halland and Blekinge) at least 70% of the stock must be of [[edible leaves]]. According to the \'edible deciduous forests law\', after ever harvesting, new deciduous forests must always be planted on such fields." (in these three provinces)</ref>\n\n;Southern coniferous forest zone\nAlso known as the boreo-nemoral region, the southern coniferous forest zone is delimited by the [[oak]]\'s northern natural limit (\'\'limes norrlandicus\'\') and the [[Spruce]]\'s southern natural limit,<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.skogskunskap.se/planera-skogsbruk/naturhansyn/naturmiljoer-fran-norr-till-soder/sodra-barrskogsregionen/|title=Södra barrskogsregionen – Skogskunskap|website=www.skogskunskap.se|access-date=13 October 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171013120343/https://www.skogskunskap.se/planera-skogsbruk/naturhansyn/naturmiljoer-fran-norr-till-soder/sodra-barrskogsregionen/|archive-date=13 October 2017|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> between the southern deciduous zone and the [[Taiga]] farther north. In the southern parts of this zone the coniferous species are found, mainly [[spruce]] and [[pine]], mixed with various deciduous trees. [[Birch]] grows largely everywhere. The [[beech]]\'s northern boundary crosses this zone. This is however not the case with [[oak]] and [[Fraxinus excelsior|ash]]. Although in its natural area, also \'\'planted\'\' Spruce are common, and such woods are very dense, as the spruces can grow very tight, especially in this vegetation zone\'s southern areas.\n\n;Northern coniferous forest zone, or the [[Taiga]]\nThe northern coniferous forest zone begins north of the natural boundary of the [[oak]]. Of deciduous species the [[birch]] is the only one of significance. [[Pine]] and [[spruce]] are dominant, but the forests are slowly but surely more sparsely grown the farther towards the north it gets. In the extreme north is it difficult to state the trees forms true forests at all, due to the large distances between the trees.\n\n;Alpine-birch and bare mountain zones\nThe alpine-birch zone, in the Scandinavian mountains, depending on both latitude and altitude, is an area where only a smaller kind of [[birch]] (\'\'Betula pubescens\'\' or \'\'B.tortuosa\'\') can grow. Where this vegetation zone ends, no trees grow at all: the bare mountain zone.<ref>Swedish Encyclopedia "Bonniers Lexikon", vol 13 of 15, article "Sverige", Sweden, columns 1046–1050</ref>\n\n== Politics ==\n=== Constitutional framework ===\n{{Main|Politics of Sweden}}\n[[File:King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia EM1B1615 (34342167093).jpg|thumb|right|The current [[Monarchy of Sweden|King of Sweden]], [[Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden|Carl XVI Gustaf]], and [[Queen Silvia of Sweden]]]]\n\nSweden has four fundamental laws ({{lang-sv|grundlagar}}) which together forms the [[Constitution of Sweden|Constitution]]: the Instrument of Government ({{lang-sv|Regeringsformen}}), the [[Swedish Act of Succession|Act of Succession]] ({{lang-sv|Successionsordningen}}), the Freedom of the Press Act ({{lang-sv|Tryckfrihetsförordningen}}), and the Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression ({{lang-sv|Yttrandefrihetsgrundlagen}}).<ref name="The Constitution">{{cite web| url = http://www.riksdagen.se/en/How-the-Riksdag-works/Democracy/The-Constitution/| title = The Constitution| publisher = The [[Riksdag]]| accessdate = 8 November 2014| archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20141110215202/http://www.riksdagen.se/en/How-the-Riksdag-works/Democracy/The-Constitution/| archive-date = 10 November 2014| dead-url = no| df = dmy-all}}</ref><ref name="Petersson:38-40">[[#Petersson|Petersson]]: pp. 38–40.</ref>\n\nThe public sector in Sweden is divided into two parts: the [[legal person]] known as the State ({{lang-sv|staten}}){{efn|The State ({{lang-sv|staten}}) is also descriptively translated into English as the "central government", not to be confused with the [[Government of Sweden|Government]], i.e. the cabinet which is but one organ of the State.}} and local authorities:{{efn|An alternate English translation is "local governments".}} the latter includes regional [[County councils of Sweden|County Councils]] ({{lang-sv|landsting}}) and local [[Municipalities of Sweden|Municipalities]] ({{lang-sv|kommuner}}).<ref name="Larsson & Bäck:16-18">[[#Larsson & Bäck|Larsson & Bäck]]: pp. 16–18.</ref><ref name="Larsson & Bäck:212-215">[[#Larsson & Bäck|Larsson & Bäck]]: pp. 212–215.</ref><ref name="Petersson:92">[[#Petersson|Petersson]]: p. 92.</ref><ref name="Petersson:174">[[#Petersson|Petersson]]: p. 174.</ref> The local authorities, rather than the State, make up the larger part of the public sector in Sweden.<ref name="Petersson:79">[[#Petersson|Petersson]]: p. 79.</ref> County Councils and Municipalities are independent of one another, the former merely covers a larger geographical area than the latter.<ref name="Petersson:79" /><ref name="Larsson & Bäck:210">[[#Larsson & Bäck|Larsson & Bäck]]: p. 210.</ref> The local authorities have self-rule, as mandated by the Constitution, and their own tax base.<ref name="Larsson & Bäck:212-215" /><ref name="Petersson:79-82">[[#Petersson|Petersson]]: pp. 79–82.</ref> Notwithstanding their self-rule, local authorities are nevertheless in practice interdependent upon the State, as the parameters of their responsibilities and the extent of their jurisdiction is specified in the Local Government Act ({{lang-sv|Kommunallagen}}) passed by the [[Riksdag]].<ref name="Larsson & Bäck:212-215" /><ref name="Petersson:80-82">[[#Petersson|Petersson]]: pp. 80–82.</ref>\n\nSweden is a [[constitutional monarchy]] and [[Monarchy of Sweden|King]] [[Carl XVI Gustaf]] is the [[head of state]], but the role of the monarch is limited to ceremonial and representative functions.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sweden.se/eng/Home/Society/Monarchy/Facts/Monarchy/ |title=Monarchy: A modern royal family |publisher=Sweden.se |accessdate=13 March 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130425154216/http://www.sweden.se/eng/Home/Society/Monarchy/Facts/Monarchy/ |archive-date=25 April 2013 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> Under the provisions of the 1974 Instrument of Government, the King lacks any formal political power.<ref name="The Instrument of Government">{{cite web| url = http://www.riksdagen.se/en/How-the-Riksdag-works/Democracy/The-Constitution/The-Instrument-of-Government/| title = The Instrument of Government| publisher = The [[Riksdag]]| accessdate = 8 November 2014| archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20141024155000/http://www.riksdagen.se/en/How-the-Riksdag-works/Democracy/The-Constitution/The-Instrument-of-Government/| archive-date = 24 October 2014| dead-url = no| df = dmy-all}}</ref><ref name="The Head of State">{{cite web|url=http://www.government.se/sb/d/2853/nocache/true/a/21785/dictionary/true |title=The Head of State |publisher=[[Government of Sweden]] |accessdate=8 November 2014 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140225235411/http://www.government.se/sb/d/2853/nocache/true/a/21785/dictionary/true |archivedate=25 February 2014}}</ref> The King opens the annual Riksdag session, chairs the Special Council held during a change of Government, holds regular Information Councils with the Prime Minister and the Government, chairs the meetings of the \'\'Advisory Council on Foreign Affairs\'\' ({{lang-sv|Utrikesnämnden}}), and receives [[Letters of Credence]] of foreign ambassadors to Sweden and signs those of Swedish ambassadors sent abroad.<ref name="Duties of the Monarch">{{cite web | url = http://www.kungahuset.se/royalcourt/monarchy/themonarchyinsweden/dutiesofthemonarch.4.396160511584257f2180003302.html | title = Duties of the Monarch | publisher = [[Royal Court of Sweden]] | accessdate = 8 November 2014 | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20150316041821/http://www.kungahuset.se/royalcourt/monarchy/themonarchyinsweden/dutiesofthemonarch.4.396160511584257f2180003302.html | archive-date = 16 March 2015 | dead-url = no | df = dmy-all }}</ref><ref name="A new government is formed">{{cite web | url = http://www.riksdagen.se/en/How-the-Riksdag-works/Democracy/Forming-a-government/A-new-government-is-formed/ | title = A new government is formed | publisher = The [[Riksdag]] | accessdate = 8 November 2014 | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20141109002503/http://www.riksdagen.se/en/How-the-Riksdag-works/Democracy/Forming-a-government/A-new-government-is-formed/ | archive-date = 9 November 2014 | dead-url = no | df = dmy-all }}</ref> In addition, the King pays [[List of state visits made by King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden|State Visits abroad]] and receives those incoming as host.<ref name="Duties of the Monarch" /> Apart from strictly official duties, the King and the other members of [[Swedish Royal Family|Royal Family]] undertake a variety of unofficial and other representative duties within Sweden and abroad.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.kungahuset.se/download/18.4ea495e313c19c119aa766c/1390581085970/Verksamhetsberattelse2012_eng.pdf | title = Annual Report 2012 | publisher = [[Royal Court of Sweden]] | accessdate = 8 November 2014 | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20140604080143/http://www.kungahuset.se/download/18.4ea495e313c19c119aa766c/1390581085970/Verksamhetsberattelse2012_eng.pdf | archive-date = 4 June 2014 | dead-url = no | df = dmy-all }}</ref>\n\n[[Legislative power]] is vested in the [[unicameral]] Riksdag with 349 members. [[Elections in Sweden|General elections]] are held every four years, on the second Sunday of September. Legislation may be initiated by the Government or by members of the Riksdag. Members are elected on the basis of [[proportional representation]] to a four-year term. The internal workings of the Riksdag is, in addition to the Instrument of Government, regulated by the Riksdag Act ({{lang-sv|Riksdagsordningen}}).<ref name="The Riksdag Act – almost a fundamental law">{{cite web|url=https://www.riksdagen.se/en/How-the-Riksdag-works/Democracy/The-Constitution/The-Riksdag-Act---almost-a-fundamental-law/ |title=The Riksdag Act – almost a fundamental law |publisher=The [[Riksdag]] |accessdate=9 November 2014 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20141024155003/http://www.riksdagen.se/en/How-the-Riksdag-works/Democracy/The-Constitution/The-Riksdag-Act---almost-a-fundamental-law/ |archivedate=24 October 2014}}</ref> The fundamental laws can be altered by the Riksdag alone; only an absolute majority with two separate votes, separated by a general election in between, is required.<ref name="The Constitution" />\n\n[[File:Rosenbad 2006.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|left|[[Rosenbad]], in central [[Stockholm]], has been the seat of the Government since 1981.<ref name="The Swedish Government Offices – a historical perspective">{{cite web|url=http://www.government.se/sb/d/4140/ |title=The Swedish Government Offices – a historical perspective |publisher=[[Government Offices of Sweden]] |accessdate=8 November 2014 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20141024144929/http://www.government.se/sb/d/4140/ |archivedate=24 October 2014}}</ref>]]\nThe [[Government of Sweden|Government]] ({{lang-sv|Regeringen}}) operates as a [[Cabinet collective responsibility|collegial body with collective responsibility]] and consists of the [[Prime Minister of Sweden|Prime Minister]] {{mdash}} appointed and dismissed by the [[Speaker of the Riksdag]] (following an actual vote in the Riksdag before an appointment can be made) {{mdash}} and other [[cabinet minister]]s ({{lang-sv|Statsråd}}), appointed and dismissed at the sole discretion of the Prime Minister.<ref name="Forming a government">{{cite web| url = http://www.riksdagen.se/en/How-the-Riksdag-works/Democracy/Forming-a-government/| title = Forming a government| publisher = The [[Riksdag]]| accessdate = 8 November 2014| archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20141009160056/http://www.riksdagen.se/en/How-the-Riksdag-works/Democracy/Forming-a-government/| archive-date = 9 October 2014| dead-url = no| df = dmy-all}}</ref> The Government is the supreme executive authority and is [[Parliamentary system|responsible for its actions to the Riksdag]].<ref name="IG">{{cite web | url = http://www.riksdagen.se/Global/dokument/dokument/laws/the-instrument-of-government-2012.pdf | title = The Instrument of Government (as of 2012) | publisher = The [[Riksdag]] | accessdate = 8 November 2014 | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20141008133940/http://www.riksdagen.se/Global/dokument/dokument/laws/the-instrument-of-government-2012.pdf | archive-date = 8 October 2014 | dead-url = no | df = dmy-all }}</ref>\n\nMost of the State administrative authorities ({{lang-sv|statliga förvaltningsmyndigheter}}) report to the Government, including (but not limited to) the [[Swedish Armed Forces|Armed Forces]], the [[Enforcement Authority]], the [[National Library of Sweden|National Library]], the [[Swedish police]] and the [[Swedish Tax Agency|Tax Agency]]. A unique feature of Swedish State administration is that individual cabinet ministers \'\'do not bear any\'\' [[individual ministerial responsibility]] for the performance of the agencies within their portfolio; as the [[Director-General#Sweden|director-generals]] and other heads of government agencies reports directly to the Government as a whole; and individual ministers are prohibited to interfere; thus the origin of the pejorative in Swedish political parlance term \'\'[[ministerstyre]]\'\' (English: "ministerial rule") in matters that are to be handled by the individual agencies, unless otherwise specifically provided for in law.\n\nThe [[Judiciary of Sweden|Judiciary]] is independent from the Riksdag, Government and other State administrative authorities.<ref name="The Swedish courts">{{cite web | url = http://www.domstol.se/Funktioner/English/The-Swedish-courts/ | title = The Swedish courts | publisher = [[Swedish National Courts Administration]] | accessdate = 9 November 2014 | date = 2005-11-27 | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20141019174305/http://www.domstol.se/Funktioner/English/The-Swedish-courts/ | archive-date = 19 October 2014 | dead-url = no | df = dmy-all }}</ref> The role of [[judicial review]] of legislation is not practised by the courts; instead, the [[Council on Legislation (Sweden)|Council on Legislation]] gives non-binding opinions on legality.{{sfn|Terrill|2009|p=243}} There is no [[stare decisis]] in that courts are not bound by [[precedent]], although it is influential.{{sfn|Terrill|2009|p=246}}\n\n=== Political parties and elections ===\n{{Main|List of political parties in Sweden|Elections in Sweden}}\n[[File:Riksdag.ipred b9dn510 4451.jpg|thumb|right|The [[Riksdag]] chamber, at the time of a vote, in 2009]]\nThe Swedish Social Democratic Party has played a leading role in Swedish politics since 1917, after the [[Democratic socialism|Reformists]] had confirmed their strength and the [[Left Party (Sweden)|left-wing revolutionaries]] formed their own party. After 1932, most governments have been [[Dominant-party system#Europe|dominated]] by the Social Democrats. Only five general elections since World War II—[[1976 Swedish general election|1976]], [[1979 Swedish general election|1979]], [[1991 Swedish general election|1991]], [[2006 Swedish general election|2006]] and [[2010 Swedish general election|2010]]—have given the assembled bloc of centre-right parties enough seats in the Riksdag to form a government.\n\nFor over 50 years, Sweden had had five parties who continually received enough votes to gain seats in the Riksdag—the Social Democrats, the [[Moderate Party]], the [[Centre Party (Sweden)|Centre Party]], the [[Liberal People\'s Party (Sweden)|Liberal People\'s Party]] and the Left Party—before the [[Green Party (Sweden)|Green Party]] became the sixth party in the [[1988 Swedish general election|1988 election]]. In the 1991 election, while the Greens lost their seats, two new parties gained seats for the first time: the [[Christian Democrats (Sweden)|Christian Democrats]] and [[New Democracy (Sweden)|New Democracy]]. The [[1994 Swedish general election|1994 election]] saw the return of the Greens and the demise of New Democracy. It was not until elections in 2010 that an eighth party, the [[Sweden Democrats]], gained Riksdag seats. In the elections to the [[European Parliament]], parties who have failed to pass the Riksdag threshold have managed to gain representation at that venue: the [[June List]] ([[2004 European Parliament election in Sweden|2004–2009]]), the [[Pirate Party (Sweden)|Pirate Party]] ([[2009 European Parliament election in Sweden|2009–2014]]), and [[Feminist Initiative (Sweden)|Feminist Initiative]] ([[2014 European Parliament election in Sweden|2014–present]]).\n\n[[File:Inför slutdebatten i SVT.jpg|thumb|left|The party leaders lined up before the start of the [[Sveriges Television|televised]] live debate on 12 September 2014.]]\nIn the [[2006 Sweden general election|2006 general election]] the Moderate Party formed the centre-right [[Alliance for Sweden]] bloc and won a majority of the Riksdag seats. In the [[2010 Sweden general election|2010 general election]] the Alliance contended against a unified left block consisting of the Social Democrats, the Greens and the Left Party.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.sweden.se/eng/Home/Society/Government-politics/Reading/Center-right-wins-Swedish-election--but-short-of-majority/ |title=Center–right wins Swedish election — but short of majority |publisher=[[Sveriges Radio]] International/Radio Sweden |date=20 September 2010 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120511050348/http://www.sweden.se/eng/Home/Society/Government-politics/Reading/Center-right-wins-Swedish-election--but-short-of-majority/ |archivedate=11 May 2012}}</ref> The Alliance won a plurality of 173 seats, but remained two seats short of a 175-seat majority. Nevertheless, neither the Alliance, nor the left block, chose to form a coalition with the Sweden Democrats.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.val.se/val/val2006/slutlig/R/rike/roster.html |publisher=[[Election Authority (Sweden)|Election Authority]] |title=Val till riksdagen |author=The Official Website of the Swedish Election Authority |access-date=18 August 2007 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070809101606/http://www.val.se/val/val2006/slutlig/R/rike/roster.html |archive-date=9 August 2007 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n\nThe outcome of the [[2014 Sweden general election|2014 general election]] resulted in the attainment of more seats by the three centre-left parties in comparison to the centre-right Alliance for Sweden, with the two blocs receiving 159 and 141 seats respectively.<ref name="2014 Election Result">{{cite web | url = http://www.val.se/val/val2014/slutresultat/protokoll/protokoll_00R.pdf | title = Beslut 2014-09-20 | language = Swedish | publisher = [[Election Authority (Sweden)|Election Authority]] | accessdate = 8 November 2014 | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20140924075521/http://www.val.se/val/val2014/slutresultat/protokoll/protokoll_00R.pdf | archive-date = 24 September 2014 | dead-url = no | df = dmy-all }}</ref> The non-aligned Sweden Democrats more than doubled their support and won the remaining 49 seats.<ref name="2014 Election Result" /> On 3 October 2014, Stefan Löfven, formed a [[minority government]] consisting of the [[Löfven Cabinet|Social Democrats and the Greens]].<ref name="Sweden\'s new Government">{{cite web | url = http://www.government.se/sb/d/575/a/247235 | title = Sweden\'s new Government | publisher = [[Government Offices of Sweden]] | accessdate = 8 November 2014 | deadurl = yes | archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20141006234923/http://www.government.se/sb/d/575/a/247235 | archivedate = 6 October 2014 | df = dmy-all }}</ref><ref name="Change of Government Council at the Royal Palace of Stockholm">{{cite web | url = http://www.kungahuset.se/royalcourt/royalfamily/latestnews/latestnews/changeofgovernmentcouncilattheroyalpalaceofstockholm.5.67e94750148caf4ad27127.html | title = Change of Government Council at the Royal Palace of Stockholm | publisher = [[Royal Court of Sweden]] | accessdate = 8 November 2014 | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20141108004043/http://www.kungahuset.se/royalcourt/royalfamily/latestnews/latestnews/changeofgovernmentcouncilattheroyalpalaceofstockholm.5.67e94750148caf4ad27127.html | archive-date = 8 November 2014 | dead-url = no | df = dmy-all }}</ref>\n\nElection turnout in Sweden has always been high by international comparison. Although it declined in recent decades, the latest elections saw an increase in voter turnout (80.11% in [[2002 Sweden general election|2002]], 81.99% in 2006, 84.63% in 2010) and 85.81 in [[2014 Swedish general election|2014]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.val.se/val/val2014/slutresultat/R/rike/index.html|title=Röster – Val 2014|publisher=[[Election Authority (Sweden)|Election Authority]]|language=sv|access-date=15 February 2016|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150503192853/http://www.val.se/val/val2014/slutresultat/R/rike/index.html|archive-date=3 May 2015|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Swedish politicians enjoyed a high degree of confidence from the citizens in the 1960s, However, that level of confidence has since declined steadily, and is now at a markedly lower level than in its Scandinavian neighbours.<ref>{{cite book|editor=Norris, Pippa |author=Holmberg, Sören |title=Critical Citizens: Global Support for Democratic Government|publisher=[[Oxford University Press]]|year=1999|pages=103–123|isbn=978-0-19-829568-6}}</ref>\n\n=== Administrative divisions ===\n{{Main|Counties of Sweden|Municipalities of Sweden}}\n[[File:SWE-Map Kommuner2007.svg|thumb|upright|Municipal divisions of Sweden]]\nSweden is a [[unitary state]] divided into 21 county councils (\'\'landsting\'\') and 290 municipalities (\'\'kommuner\'\'). Every county council corresponds to a [[counties of Sweden|county]] (\'\'län\'\') with a number of municipalities per county. County councils and municipalities have different roles and separate responsibilities relating to local government. Health care, public transport and certain cultural institutions are administered by county councils. Preschools, primary and secondary schooling, public water utilities, garbage disposal, elderly care and rescue services are administered by the municipalities. Gotland is a special case of being a county council with only one municipality and the functions of county council and municipality are performed by the same organisation.<ref>Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions, [http://skl.se/tjanster/englishpages/municipalitiescountycouncilsandregions.1088.html Municipalities, county councils and regions] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161122153331/http://skl.se/tjanster/englishpages/municipalitiescountycouncilsandregions.1088.html |date=22 November 2016 }}; official translation of the [http://www.regeringen.se/content/1/c4/06/96/34cb7541.pdf Local Government Act] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20050220081642/http://www.regeringen.se/content/1/c4/06/96/34cb7541.pdf |date=20 February 2005 }} (\'\'Kommunallagen\'\');[http://www.sll.se/om-landstinget/Information-in-English1/About-Stockholm-County-Council/ About Stockholm County Council] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160821160842/http://www.sll.se/om-landstinget/Information-in-English1/About-Stockholm-County-Council/ |date=21 August 2016}}</ref>\n\nMunicipal and county council government in Sweden is similar to [[city commission government|city commission]] and [[cabinet-style council]] government. Both levels have legislative assemblies ([[municipal council (Sweden)|municipal councils]] and county council assemblies of between 31 and 101 members (always an uneven number) that are elected from [[party-list proportional representation]] at the general election which are held every four years in conjunction with the national parliamentary elections.\n\nMunicipalities are also divided into a total of 2,512 [[Parishes of Sweden|parishes]] (\'\'församlingar\'\'). These have no official political responsibilities but are traditional subdivisions of the [[Church of Sweden]] and still have some importance as census districts for census-taking and elections.\n\nThe Swedish government has 21 [[County Administrative Boards of Sweden|County Administrative Boards]] ({{lang-sv|länsstyrelser}}), which are responsible for regional state administration not assigned to other government agencies or local government. Each county administrative boards is led by a [[County governors of Sweden|County Governor]] ({{lang-sv|landshövding}}) appointed for a term of six years. The list of previous officeholders for the counties stretches back, in most cases, to 1634 when the counties were created by [[Lord High Chancellor of Sweden|Lord High Chancellor]] Count [[Axel Oxenstierna]]. The main responsibility of the County Administrative Board is to co-ordinate the development of the county in line with goals set by the Riksdag and Government.\n\nThere are older historical divisions, primarily the twenty-five provinces and three lands, which still retain cultural significance.\n{{Further|Subdivisions of Sweden|National Areas of Sweden}}\n\n=== Political history ===\n[[File:Scandinavia-12th century.png|thumb|left|Kingdoms of [[Swedes (Germanic tribe)|Svear]] (Sweonas) and [[Götar]] (Geats) in the 12th century, with modern borders in grey]]\nThe actual age of the kingdom of Sweden is unknown.<ref name="sh">{{cite book |last1=Hadenius |first1=Stig |last2=Nilsson |first2=Torbjörn |last3=Åselius |first3=Gunnar |title=Sveriges historia: vad varje svensk bör veta |trans-title=History of Sweden: what every Swede should know |year=1996 |publisher=Bonnier Alba |location=Stockholm |language=Swedish |isbn=978-91-34-51784-4}}:\n{|\n|-\n| &nbsp;\n|Hur och när det svenska riket uppstod vet vi inte. Först under 1100-talet börjar skriftliga dokument produceras i Sverige i någon större omfattning [...]\n| &nbsp;\n|How and when the Swedish kingdom appeared is not known. It is not until the 12th century that written document begin to be produced in Sweden in any larger extent [...]\n|}</ref> Establishing the age depends mostly on whether Sweden should be considered a nation when the \'\'Svear\'\' (Sweonas) ruled Svealand or if the emergence of the nation started with the \'\'Svear\'\' and the \'\'[[Götar]]\'\' (Geats) of Götaland being united under one ruler. In the first case, Svealand was first mentioned as having one single ruler in the year 98 by Tacitus, but it is almost impossible to know for how long it had been this way. However, historians usually start the line of [[Swedish monarchs]] from when Svealand and Götaland were ruled under the same king, namely Eric the Victorious (Geat) and his son [[Olof Skötkonung]] in the 10th century. These events are often described as the [[consolidation of Sweden]], although substantial areas were conquered and incorporated later.\n\nEarlier kings, for which no reliable historical sources exist, can be read about in [[mythical kings of Sweden]] and [[semi-legendary kings of Sweden]]. Many of these kings are only mentioned in various [[Norse sagas|saga]] and blend with Norse mythology.\n\nThe title \'\'Sveriges och Götes Konung\'\' was last used for [[Gustaf I of Sweden]], after which the title became "[[Kings of Sweden|King of Sweden]], [[King of the Goths|of the Goths]] and [[King of the Wends|of the Wends]]" (\'\'Sveriges, Götes och Vendes Konung\'\') in official documentation. Up until the beginning of the 1920s, all laws in Sweden were introduced with the words, "We, the king of Sweden, of the Goths and Wends". This title was used up until 1973.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://lagen.nu/1973:702|title=Kungl. Maj:ts kungörelse med anledning av konung Gustaf VI Adolfs frånfälle|publisher=Lagen.nu|accessdate=17 September 2014|language=sv|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140712202406/https://lagen.nu/1973:702|archive-date=12 July 2014|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> The present King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf, was the first monarch officially proclaimed "King of Sweden" (\'\'Sveriges Konung\'\') with no additional peoples mentioned in his title.\n\nThe term \'\'riksdag\'\' was used for the first time in the 1540s, although the first meeting where representatives of different social groups were called to discuss and determine affairs affecting the country as a whole took place as early as 1435, in the town of [[Arboga]].<ref name=Riksdagen>{{cite web|title=The history of the Riksdag|url=http://www.riksdagen.se/en/How-the-Riksdag-works/Democracy/The-history-of-the-Riksdag/|publisher=[[Riksdag]]|accessdate=9 June 2013|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140520020027/http://www.riksdagen.se/en/How-the-Riksdag-works/Democracy/The-history-of-the-Riksdag/|archive-date=20 May 2014|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> During the [[Riksdag of the Estates|Riksdag assemblies]] of 1527 and 1544, under King [[Gustav Vasa]], representatives of all four [[estates of the realm]] (clergy, [[Swedish nobility|nobility]], [[Bourgeoisie|townsmen]] and [[peasant]]s) were called on to participate for the first time.<ref name="Riksdagen" /> The monarchy became hereditary in 1544.\n\nExecutive power was historically shared between the King and an aristocratic [[Privy council]] until 1680, followed by the King\'s [[autocracy|autocratic rule]] initiated by the commoner estates of the Riksdag. As a reaction to the failed Great Northern War, a parliamentary system was introduced in 1719, followed by three different flavours of constitutional monarchy in 1772, 1789 and 1809, [[Swedish constitution of 1809|the latter]] granting several civil liberties. Already during the first of those three periods, the \'Era of Liberty\' (1719–72) the Swedish Rikstag had developed into a very active Parliament, and this tradition continued into the nineteenth century, laying the basis for the transition towards modern democracy at the end of that century.<ref>{{cite book|author=Baten, Jörg |title=A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present.|date=2016|publisher=Cambridge University Press|page=22|isbn=9781107507180}}</ref>\n\nIn 1866 Sweden became a constitutional monarchy with a [[bicameral]] parliament, with the First Chamber indirectly elected by local governments, and the Second Chamber directly elected in national elections every four years. In 1971 the parliament became unicameral. Legislative power was (symbolically) shared between the King and the Riksdag until 1975. Swedish taxation is controlled by the Riksdag.\n[[File:Riksdagen September 2014 02.jpg|thumb|The Riksdag, the Swedish Parliament in 2014]]\nSweden has a history of strong political involvement by ordinary people through its "popular movements" (\'\'Folkrörelser\'\'), the most notable being trade unions, the independent Christian movement, the temperance movement, the [[women\'s movement]], and the [[Pirate Party (Sweden)|intellectual property pirate]] movements. Sweden was the first country in the world to outlaw [[corporal punishment]] of children by their parents (parents\' right to spank their own children was first removed in 1966, and it was explicitly prohibited by law from July 1979<ref name="Durrant 1996">{{cite book |last=Durrant |first=Joan E. |editor1=Frehsee, Detlev  |display-editors=etal|title=Family Violence Against Children: A Challenge for Society |date=1996 |location=Berlin |publisher=Walter de Gruyter |isbn=978-3-11-014996-8 |page=20 |chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books/about/Family_Violence_Against_Children.html?id=8IyJkWAAXjkC&q=%22swedish+ban+on+corporal+punishment%22 |chapter=The Swedish Ban on Corporal Punishment: Its History and Effects}}</ref>).\n\nSweden is currently leading the EU in statistics measuring [[equality of opportunity|equality]] in the political system and equality in the education system.<ref name=EUEqualityReport>{{cite web|publisher=[[European Commission]] |work=[[Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion]] |title=Report On The Equality Between Men And Women |url=http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/publications/2006/keaj06001_en.pdf |format=[[PDF]] |date=February 2006 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070817175053/http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/publications/2006/keaj06001_en.pdf |archivedate=17 August 2007}}</ref> The \'\'Global Gender Gap Report 2006\'\' ranked Sweden as the number one country in terms of [[gender equality]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.norden.org/webb/news/news.asp?lang=6&id=6605 |title=Nordic countries rank highest in gender equality |publisher=Norden.org |accessdate=6 May 2009 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070821110128/http://www.norden.org/webb/news/news.asp?id=6605&lang=6 |archive-date=21 August 2007 |dead-url=yes |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n\nSome Swedish political figures have become known worldwide, among these are: Raoul Wallenberg, [[Folke Bernadotte]], the former [[Secretary-General of the United Nations|Secretary-General]] of the United Nations [[Dag Hammarskjöld]], the former Prime Minister [[Olof Palme]], the former Prime Minister and later [[Foreign minister]] [[Carl Bildt]], the former President of the [[United Nations General Assembly|General Assembly of the United Nations]] [[Jan Eliasson]], and the former [[International Atomic Energy Agency]] Iraq inspector [[Hans Blix]].\n\n=== Judicial system ===\n{{Main|Judiciary of Sweden}}\nThe courts are divided into two parallel and separate systems: The general courts ({{lang|sv|allmänna domstolar}}) for criminal and civil cases, and general administrative courts ({{lang|sv|allmänna förvaltningsdomstolar}}) for cases relating to disputes between private persons and the authorities.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.dom.se/templates/DV_InfoPage____2317.aspx |publisher=[[Swedish National Courts Administration]] |title=The Swedish courts |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090209002918/http://www.dom.se/templates/DV_InfoPage____2317.aspx |archivedate=9 February 2009|date=2005-03-10 }}</ref> Each of these systems has three tiers, where the top tier court of the respective system typically only will hear cases that may become [[precedent]]. There are also a number of special courts, which will hear a narrower set of cases, as set down by legislation. While independent in their rulings, some of these courts are operated as divisions within courts of the general or general administrative courts.\n\n[[File:Hogsta domstolen Stockholm.jpg|thumb|[[Bonde Palace]] in Stockholm, seat of the [[Supreme Court of Sweden]]]]\nThe [[Supreme Court of Sweden]] ({{lang-sv|Högsta domstolen}}) is the third and final instance in all civil and criminal cases in Sweden. Before a case can be decided by the Supreme Court, leave to appeal must be obtained, and with few exceptions, leave to appeal can be granted only when the case is of interest as a precedent. The Supreme Court consists of 16 Justices ({{lang-sv|justitieråd}}), appointed by the Government, but the court as an institution is independent of the Riksdag, and the Government is not able to interfere with the decisions of the court.\n\nAccording to a victimisation survey of 1,201 residents in 2005, Sweden has above-average [[crime rate]]s compared to other EU countries. Sweden has high or above-average levels of assaults, sexual assaults, hate crimes, and consumer fraud. Sweden has low levels of burglary, car theft and drug problems. Bribe seeking is rare.<ref name="burdenofcrime2005">{{cite web|url=http://www.gallup-europe.be/downloads/EUICS%20-%20The%20Burden%20of%20Crime%20in%20the%20EU.pdf |title=EUICS report, The Burden of Crime in the EU, A Comparative Analysis of the |last=van Dijk |first=Jan |author2=Robert Manchin |author3=John van Kesteren |author4=Sami Nevala |author5=Gergely Hideg |year=2005 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080428050421/http://www.gallup-europe.be/downloads/EUICS%20-%20The%20Burden%20of%20Crime%20in%20the%20EU.pdf |archivedate=28 April 2008}}</ref>\n\nA mid-November 2013 news report announced that four prisons in Sweden were closed during the year due to a significant drop in the number of inmates. The decrease in the number of Swedish prisoners was considered "out-of-the-ordinary" by the head of Sweden\'s prison and probation services, with prison numbers in Sweden falling by around 1% a year since 2004. Prisons were closed in the towns of Åby, Håja, Båtshagen, and Kristianstad.<ref>{{cite news|title=Sweden closes four prisons as number of inmates plummets|url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/11/sweden-closes-prisons-number-inmates-plummets|accessdate=15 November 2013|newspaper=[[The Guardian]]|date=11 November 2013|last=Orange|first=Richard|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131115000627/http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/11/sweden-closes-prisons-number-inmates-plummets|archive-date=15 November 2013|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n\n=== Foreign relations ===\n{{Main|Foreign relations of Sweden}}\n[[File:European-parliament-brussels-inside.JPG|thumb|The EU parliament in Brussels. Sweden is one of 28 member states of the European Union.]]\n\nThroughout the 20th century, [[Swedish foreign policy]] was based on the principle of non-alignment in peacetime and [[neutral country|neutrality]] in wartime. Sweden\'s government pursued an independent course of nonalignment in times of peace so that neutrality would be possible in the event of war.<ref name="NB335-339" />\n\nSweden\'s doctrine of neutrality is often traced back to the 19th century as the country has not been in a [[war|state of war]] since the end of the [[Swedish campaign against Norway (1814)|Swedish campaign against Norway]] in 1814. During World War II Sweden joined neither the [[Allies of World War II|allied]] nor [[Axis powers|axis]] powers. This has sometimes been disputed since in effect Sweden allowed in select cases the Nazi regime to use its railroad system to transport troops and goods,<ref name="Koblik303-313" /><!---Koblik, p. 313---><ref name="NB313-319" /> especially iron ore from mines in northern Sweden, which was vital to the German war machine.<ref name="NB313-319" /><ref>Nordstrom p. 302: "In fact, the plans were mostly a ruse to establish control of the crucial Norwegian port of Narvik and the iron mines of northern Sweden, which were vitally important to the German war efforts."</ref> However, Sweden also indirectly contributed to the defence of Finland in the Winter War, and permitted the training of Norwegian and Danish troops in Sweden after 1943.\n\n[[File:ODA percent of GNI 2009.png|thumb|left|[[Official development assistance|Development aid]] measured in [[Gross national income|GNI]] in 2009. Source: OECD. As a percentage Sweden is the largest donor.]]\n\nDuring the early [[Cold War]] era, Sweden combined its policy of non-alignment and a low profile in international affairs with a [[security policy]] based on strong [[National security|national defence]].<ref>As context, according to [[Edwin Reischauer]], "To be neutral you must be ready to be highly militarized, like Switzerland or Sweden." – \'\'see\'\' {{cite news |last=Chapin |first=Emerson |url=https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE2DC163AF931A3575AC0A966958260&scp=1&sq=edwin+o+reischauer&st=nyt |title=Edwin Reischauer, Diplomat and Scholar, Dies at 79 |newspaper=[[The New York Times]] |date=2 September 1990 |access-date=16 February 2016}}</ref> The function of the Swedish military was to deter attack.<ref>Nordstrom, p 336: "As a corollary, a security policy based on strong national defences designed to discourage, but not prevent, attack was pursued. For the next several decades, the Swedish poured an annual average of about 5% of GDP into making their defenses credible."</ref> At the same time, the country maintained relatively close informal connections with the Western bloc, especially in the realm of intelligence exchange. In 1952, a Swedish [[DC-3]] was [[Catalina affair|shot down]] over the Baltic Sea by a Soviet [[Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15|MiG-15]] [[jet aircraft|jet]] [[fighter aircraft|fighter]]. Later investigations revealed that the plane was actually gathering information for NATO.<ref>{{cite web|title=Cold War Spy Plane Found in Baltic Sea|url=http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/10/1010_031010_swedishspyplane.html|publisher=[[National Geographic News]]|accessdate=10 June 2013|date=10 October 2003|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170329214137/http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/10/1010_031010_swedishspyplane.html|archive-date=29 March 2017|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Another plane, a [[PBY Catalina|Catalina]] [[search and rescue]] plane, was sent out a few days later and shot down by the Soviets as well. Prime Minister Olof Palme made an official visit to [[Cuba]] during the 1970s, during which he denounced [[Fulgencio Batista]]\'s government and praised contemporary [[26 July Movement|Cuban]] and [[Khmer Rouge|Cambodian]] revolutionaries in a speech.\n\nBeginning in the late 1960s, Sweden attempted to play a more significant and independent role in international relations. It involved itself significantly in international peace efforts, especially through the United Nations, and in support to the [[Third World]].\n\nOn 27 October 1981, a [[Whiskey-class submarine]] ([[Soviet submarine S-363|\'\'U 137\'\']]) from the [[Soviet Union]] ran aground close to the [[Karlskrona naval base|naval base]] at [[Karlskrona]] in the southern part of the country. Research has never clearly established whether the submarine ended up on the shoals through a navigational mistake or if an enemy committed espionage against Swedish military potential. The incident triggered a diplomatic crisis between Sweden and the Soviet Union. Following the [[Assassination of Olof Palme|1986 assassination of Olof Palme]] and with the end of the Cold War, Sweden has adopted a more traditional foreign policy approach. Nevertheless, the country remains active in peace keeping missions and maintains a considerable foreign aid budget.\n\nSince 1995 Sweden has been a member of the European Union, and as a consequence of a new world security situation the country\'s foreign policy doctrine has been partly modified, with Sweden playing a more active role in European security co-operation.\n\n=== Military ===\n{{Main|Swedish Armed Forces|Law enforcement in Sweden}}\n[[File:Swedish JAS-39 Gripen landing.jpg|thumb|The Saab [[JAS 39 Gripen]] is an advanced Swedish multi-role [[fighter aircraft]] of the [[Swedish Air Force]].]]\nThe [[Law enforcement in Sweden|law is enforced in Sweden]] by several government entities. The Swedish police is a [[Government agencies in Sweden|Government agency]] concerned with police matters. The [[National Task Force]] is a national [[SWAT]] unit within the Police Service. The [[Swedish Security Service]]\'s responsibilities are [[counter-espionage]], anti-terrorist activities, protection of the constitution and protection of sensitive objects and people.\n\n\'\'Försvarsmakten\'\' (Swedish Armed Forces) is a government agency reporting to the Swedish [[Ministry of Defence (Sweden)|Ministry of Defence]] and responsible for the [[peacetime]] operation of the armed forces of Sweden. The primary task of the agency is to train and deploy peace support forces abroad, while maintaining the long-term ability to refocus on the defence of Sweden in the event of war. The armed forces are divided into [[Swedish Army|Army]], [[Swedish Air Force|Air Force]] and [[Swedish Navy|Navy]]. The head of the armed forces is the [[Supreme Commander of the Swedish Armed Forces|Supreme Commander]] (\'\'Överbefälhavaren\'\', ÖB), the most senior commissioned officer in the country. Up to 1974 the King was \'\'pro forma\'\' [[Commander in chief#Sweden|Commander-in-Chief]], but in reality it was clearly understood all through the 20th century that the Monarch would have no \'\'active\'\' role as a military leader.\n\n[[File:Stridsfordon 90 Revinge 2012-2.jpg|thumb|The Infantry fighting vehicle [[Combat Vehicle 90|CV90]], which is produced and used by Sweden]]\nUntil the end of the Cold War, nearly all males reaching the age of [[military service]] were [[conscription|conscripted]]. In recent years, the number of conscripted males has shrunk dramatically, while the number of female volunteers has increased slightly. Recruitment has generally shifted towards finding the most motivated recruits, rather than solely those otherwise most fit for service. All soldiers serving abroad must by law be volunteers. In 1975 the total number of conscripts was 45,000. By 2003 it was down to 15,000.\n\nOn 1 July 2010 Sweden stopped routine conscription, switching to an all volunteer force unless otherwise required for defence readiness.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.forsvarsmakten.se/sv/Rekrytering/Varnplikt/ |publisher=[[Swedish Armed Forces]] |title=Värnplikt |trans-title=Conscription |accessdate=21 April 2010 |language=sv }}{{dead link|date=May 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://svt.se/2.22620/1.1595556/allmanna_varnplikten_skrotas?lid=puff_1597044&lpos=extra_0 |publisher=[[Sveriges Television]] |title=Allmänna värnplikten skrotas |trans-title=General conscription scrapped |accessdate=21 April 2010 |language=sv |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110426203557/http://svt.se/2.22620/1.1595556/allmanna_varnplikten_skrotas?lid=puff_1597044&lpos=extra_0 |archivedate=26 April 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.thelocal.se/21494/20090816/ |newspaper=[[The Local]] |title=Military conscription phase out under fire |accessdate=21 April 2010 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100122021708/http://www.thelocal.se/21494/20090816/ |archivedate=22 January 2010}}</ref> The need to recruit only the soldiers later prepared to volunteer for international service will be emphasised. The total forces gathered would consist of about 60,000 men. This could be compared with the 1980s before the fall of the Soviet Union, when Sweden could gather up to 1,000,000 men.\n\nHowever, on 11 December 2014, due to tensions in the Baltic area, the [[Swedish Government]] reintroduced one part of the Swedish conscription system, [[Refresher training (military)|refresher training]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.forsvarsmakten.se/sv/information-och-fakta/varnplikt/repetitionsutbildning/fragor-och-svar-om-repetitionsutbildning/|title=Frågor och svar om repetitionsutbildning|last=Försvarsmakten|website=Försvarsmakten|access-date=13 November 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171101191751/http://www.forsvarsmakten.se/sv/information-och-fakta/varnplikt/repetitionsutbildning/fragor-och-svar-om-repetitionsutbildning/|archive-date=1 November 2017|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> On 2 March 2017 the Swedish Government decided to reintroduce the remaining part of the Swedish conscription system, the Basic Military Training. The first recruits began their training in 2018. As the law now is gender neutral, both men and women may have to service.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.regeringen.se/artiklar/2017/03/regeringen-ateraktiverar-monstring-och-grundutbildning-med-varnplikt/|title=Regeringen återaktiverar mönstring och grundutbildning med värnplikt|first=Regeringen och|last=Regeringskansliet|date=2 March 2017|website=Regeringskansliet|access-date=13 November 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171113222119/http://www.regeringen.se/artiklar/2017/03/regeringen-ateraktiverar-monstring-och-grundutbildning-med-varnplikt/|archive-date=13 November 2017|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Sweden decided not to sign the UN treaty on the [[Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons|Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons]].<ref>{{cite news |title=Sweden declines to sign UN nuclear ban treaty |url=https://www.thelocal.se/20190712/sweden-declines-to-sign-un-nuclear-treaty |work=The Local |date=12 July 2019}}</ref>\n\nSwedish units have taken part in peacekeeping operations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Liberia, Lebanon, Afghanistan and Chad.\n\n== Economy ==\n{{Main|Economy of Sweden}}\n[[File:Sweden GRP per Capita (2014).png|thumb|upright|[[Gross Regional Product]] (GRP) per capita in thousands of kronor (2014)]]\nSweden is the sixteenth-richest country in the world in terms of GDP (gross domestic product) per capita and a high standard of living is experienced by its citizens. Sweden is an export-oriented [[mixed economy]]. Timber, [[hydropower]] and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy with a heavy emphasis on [[foreign trade]]. Sweden\'s engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports, while telecommunications, the automotive industry and the pharmaceutical industries are also of great importance. Sweden is the ninth-largest [[arms industry|arms exporter in the world]]. Agriculture accounts for 2% of GDP and employment. The country ranks among the highest for telephone and Internet access penetration.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sw.html |publisher=[[Central Intelligence Agency]] |work=[[The World Factbook]] |title=EUROPE :: SWEDEN |access-date=16 February 2016 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160214005755/https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sw.html |archive-date=14 February 2016 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n\nTrade unions, employers\' associations and collective agreements cover a large share of the employees in Sweden.<ref>Anders Kjellberg (2019) [https://portal.research.lu.se/portal/en/publications/kollektivavtalens-tackningsgrad-samt-organisationsgraden-hos-arbetsgivarfoerbund-och-fackfoerbund(384bb031-c144-442b-a02b-44099819d605).html \'\'Kollektivavtalens täckningsgrad samt organisationsgraden hos arbetsgivarförbund och fackförbund\'\'], Department of Sociology, Lund University. Studies in Social Policy, Industrial Relations, Working Life and Mobility. Research Reports 2019:1, Appendix 3 (in English) Tables A-G (in English)</ref> <ref>Anders Kjellberg (2019) [https://portal.research.lu.se/portal/sv/publications/sweden-collective-bargaining-under-the-industry-norm(11510a6d-057c-4a81-b69b-a82670685caa).html "Sweden: collective bargaining under the industry norm"], in  Torsten Müller & Kurt Vandaele & Jeremy Waddington (eds.) \'\'Collective bargaining in Europe: towards an endgame\'\', European Trade Union Institute (ETUI) Brussels 2019. Vol. III (pp. 583-604)</ref> The high coverage of collective agreements is achieved despite the absence of state mechanisms extending collective agreements to whole industries or sectors. Both the prominent role of collective bargaining and the way in which the high rate of coverage is achieved reflect the dominance of self-regulation (regulation by the labour market parties themselves) over state regulation in Swedish industrial relations.<ref>Anders Kjellberg (2017) [https://web.archive.org/web/20170418083350/http://portal.research.lu.se/ws/files/23904978/Kjellberg_FSNumhauserHenning_Self_Regulation_State_Regulation.pdf "Self-regulation versus State Regulation in Swedish Industrial Relations"] In Mia Rönnmar and Jenny Julén Votinius (eds.) \'\'Festskrift till Ann Numhauser-Henning\'\'. Lund: Juristförlaget i Lund 2017, pp. 357–383</ref> When the Swedish [[Ghent system]] was changed in 2007, resulting in considerably raised fees to unemployment funds, a substantial decline in union density and density of unemployment funds occurred.<ref>Anders Kjellberg (2011) [http://portal.research.lu.se/portal/files/3462138/2064087.pdf "The Decline in Swedish Union Density since 2007"] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170312071120/http://portal.research.lu.se/portal/files/3462138/2064087.pdf |date=12 March 2017 }} \'\'Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies\'\' (NJWLS) Vol. 1. No 1 (August 2011), pp. 67–93</ref><ref>Anders Kjellberg and Christian Lyhne Ibsen (2016) [https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/ws/files/21682547/Kjellberg_og_Ibsen_2016_ur_Due_og_Madsen.pdf "Attacks on union organizing:  Reversible and irreversible changes to the Ghent-systems in Sweden and Denmark"] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170309062312/https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/ws/files/21682547/Kjellberg_og_Ibsen_2016_ur_Due_og_Madsen.pdf |date=9 March 2017 }} in Trine Pernille Larsen and Anna Ilsøe (eds.)(2016) \'\'Den Danske Model set udefra (The Danish Model Inside Out) – komparative perspektiver på dansk arbejdsmarkedsregulering\'\', Copenhagen: Jurist- og Økonomforbundets Forlag (pp.279–302)</ref>\n\n[[File:Volvo C30 registered February 2013 1999cc.JPG|thumb|right|Sweden is home to [[Volvo Cars]], a luxury automobile company which is headquartered in [[Gothenburg]]]]\n\nIn 2010 Sweden\'s income [[Gini coefficient]] was the third lowest among developed countries, at 0.25—slightly higher than Japan and Denmark—suggesting [[Income inequality in Sweden|Sweden had low income inequality]]. However, Sweden\'s wealth Gini coefficient at 0.853 was the second highest in developed countries, and above European and North American averages, suggesting high wealth inequality.<ref name=hdr2010>{{cite web|title=The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development (2010 Human Development Report – see Human Development Statistical Tables)|pages=152–156|publisher=[[United Nations Development Program]]|year=2011|url=http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2010/chapters/|access-date=4 August 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110716143706/http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2010/chapters/|archive-date=16 July 2011|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref><ref name=cs2010>{{cite web|title=Global Wealth Databook |publisher=[[Credit Suisse]] (using Statistics Sweden data) |year=2010 |pages=14–15, 83–86 |url=https://www.credit-suisse.com/news/doc/credit_suisse_global_wealth_databook.pdf |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20121023001729/https://www.credit-suisse.com/news/doc/credit_suisse_global_wealth_databook.pdf |archivedate=23 October 2012}}</ref> Even on a disposable income basis, the geographical distribution of Gini coefficient of income inequality varies within different regions and municipalities of Sweden. [[Danderyd Municipality|Danderyd]], outside Stockholm, has Sweden\'s highest Gini coefficient of income inequality, at 0.55, while [[Hofors Municipality|Hofors]] near Gävle has the lowest at 0.25. In and around Stockholm and Scania, two of the more densely populated regions of Sweden, the income Gini coefficient is between 0.35 and 0.55.<ref>{{cite book|title=Do unequal societies cause death and disease?|author1=Edvinsson, Sören |author2=Malmberg, Gunnar |author3=Häggström Lundevaller, Erling  |lastauthoramp=yes |year=2011|publisher=[[Umeå University]] |url=http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-51702}}</ref>\n\nIn terms of structure, the Swedish economy is characterised by a large, knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector; an increasing, but comparatively small, business [[service sector]]; and by international standards, a large public service sector. Large organisations, both in manufacturing and services, dominate the [[Swedish economy]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.infoexport.gc.ca/science/nordics_sweden_report-en.htm |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20061004050916/http://www.infoexport.gc.ca/science/nordics_sweden_report-en.htm |archivedate=4 October 2006 |title=Doing Business Abroad – Innovation, Science and Technology |publisher=Infoexport.gc.ca |accessdate=6 May 2009 |deadurl=yes |df=}}</ref> High and medium-high technology manufacturing accounts for 9.9% of GDP.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/innovation/high-medium-high-technology-manufacturing.aspx |title=High- and medium-high-technology manufacturing |publisher=Conferenceboard.ca |accessdate=22 September 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120923032054/http://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/innovation/high-medium-high-technology-manufacturing.aspx |archive-date=23 September 2012 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n\nThe 20 largest (by turnover) registered Swedish companies in 2007 were [[Volvo]], [[Ericsson]], [[Vattenfall]], [[Skanska]], [[Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB]], [[Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget]], [[Electrolux]], [[Volvo Personvagnar]], [[TeliaSonera]], [[Sandvik]], [[Scania AB|Scania]], [[ICA AB|ICA]], [[Hennes & Mauritz]], [[IKEA]], [[Nordea]], [[Preem]], [[Atlas Copco]], [[Securitas AB|Securitas]], [[Nordstjernan]] and [[SKF]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.largestcompanies.com/default$/lev2-TopList/lev2Desc-The_largest_companies_in_the_Nordic_countries_by%A0turnover%A0%28excl._national_subsidiaries%29/AdPageId-102/list-2/cc-SE/ |archive-url=https://archive.today/20120628210238/http://www.largestcompanies.com/default$/lev2-TopList/lev2Desc-The_largest_companies_in_the_Nordic_countries_by%A0turnover%A0(excl._national_subsidiaries)/AdPageId-102/list-2/cc-SE/ |dead-url=yes |archive-date=28 June 2012 |title=20 largest companies in Sweden |publisher=Largestcompanies.com |date=6 October 2009 |accessdate=25 August 2010 }}</ref> The vast majority of Sweden\'s industry is [[private sector|privately]] controlled, unlike many other industrialised Western countries, and, in accordance with a historical standard, publicly owned enterprises are of minor importance.\n\n[[File:Sw real gdp growth.svg|thumb|left|Real GDP growth in Sweden, 1996–2006]]\n\nAn estimated 4.5 million Swedish residents are employed and around a third of the workforce completed tertiary education. In terms of [[List of countries by GDP (PPP) per hour worked|GDP per-hour-worked]], Sweden was the world\'s ninth highest in 2006 at US$31, compared to US$22 in Spain and US$35 in the United States.<ref name="oecd2007" /> GDP per-hour-worked is growing 2.5% per year for the economy as a whole and the trade-terms-balanced productivity growth is 2%.<ref name="oecd2007" /> According to the OECD, deregulation, globalisation, and technology sector growth have been key productivity drivers.<ref name="oecd2007" /> Sweden is a world leader in privatised pensions and pension funding problems are relatively small compared to many other Western European countries.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.heritage.org/Research/SocialSecurity/bg1381.cfm|title=Pension Reform in Sweden: Lessons for American Policymakers|work=The Heritage Foundation|accessdate=17 September 2014|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100113085905/http://www.heritage.org/Research/SocialSecurity/bg1381.cfm|archivedate=13 January 2010|df=dmy-all}}</ref> A pilot program to test the feasibility of a six-hour workday, without loss of pay, will commence in 2014, involving the participation of Gothenburg municipal staff. The Swedish government is seeking to reduce its costs through decreased sick leave hours and increased efficiency.<ref>{{cite news|title=Swedes to give six-hour workday a go|url=http://www.thelocal.se/20140408/swedish-workers-to-test-six-hour-work-days|first=Oliver|last=Gee|accessdate=9 April 2014|newspaper=[[The Local]]|date=8 April 2014|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140409200149/http://www.thelocal.se/20140408/swedish-workers-to-test-six-hour-work-days|archive-date=9 April 2014|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n\n[[File:Euro accession.svg|thumb|Sweden is part of the [[Schengen Area]] and the EU single market.]]\nThe typical worker receives 40% of his or her labour costs after the [[tax wedge]]. Total tax collected by Sweden as a percentage of its GDP peaked at 52.3% in 1990.<ref name=oecdtax11 /> The country faced a real estate and banking crisis in 1990–1991, and consequently passed tax reforms in 1991 to implement tax rate cuts and tax base broadening over time.<ref name="AgellEnglund">{{cite journal|title=Tax reform of the Century – the Swedish Experiment|author1=Agell, Jonas|author2=Englund, Peter|author3=Södersten, Jan|lastauthoramp=yes|journal=National Tax Journal|volume=49|date=December 1996|pages=643–664|url=http://ntj.tax.org/wwtax/ntjrec.nsf/0/c7b05cd84d78235e85256863004b1f50/$file/v49n4643.pdf|issue=4|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20121127123312/http://ntj.tax.org/wwtax/ntjrec.nsf/0/c7b05cd84d78235e85256863004b1f50/$file/v49n4643.pdf|archivedate=27 November 2012|df=dmy-all}}</ref><ref name="RiksbankHeikensten">{{cite web |url=http://www.riksbank.se/sv/Press-och-publicerat/Tal/1998/Financial-Crisis----Experiences-from-Sweden/ |title=Financial Crisis – Experiences from Sweden, Lars Heikensten (1998) |publisher=[[Sveriges Riksbank]] |date=15 July 1998 |accessdate=13 March 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130202160149/http://www.riksbank.se/sv/Press-och-publicerat/Tal/1998/Financial-Crisis----Experiences-from-Sweden/ |archive-date=2 February 2013 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> Since 1990, taxes as a percentage of GDP collected by Sweden have been dropping, with total tax rates for the highest income earners dropping the most.<ref name="BengtssonHolmlund">{{cite journal|title=Lifetime Versus Annual Tax Progressivity: Sweden, 1968–2009|author1=Bengtsson, Niklas |author2=Holmlund, Bertil |author3=Waldenström, Daniel  |lastauthoramp=yes |date=June 2012|publisher=[[Uppsala University]] |ssrn=2098702}}</ref> In 2010 45.8% of the country\'s GDP was collected as taxes, the second highest among OECD countries, and nearly double the percentage in the US or South Korea.<ref name=oecdtax11>{{cite web|title=Revenue Statistics – Comparative tables|publisher=OECD, Europe|year=2011|url=http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?QueryId=21699|access-date=13 August 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120918223747/http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?QueryId=21699|archive-date=18 September 2012|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Tax income-financed employment represents a third of the Swedish workforce, a substantially higher proportion than in most other countries. Overall, GDP growth has been fast since reforms—especially those in manufacturing—were enacted in the early 1990s.<ref name="oecd2005">OECD Economic Surveys: Sweden – Volume 2005 Issue 9 by OECD Publishing</ref>\n[[File:Nordstan Öst.JPG|thumb|left|[[Nordstan]] is one of the largest shopping malls in northern Europe]]\nSweden is the fourth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the [[World Economic Forum]] in its \'\'[[Global Competitiveness Report]] 2012–2013\'\'.<ref name="wefcomp">{{cite web|url=http://www.weforum.org/issues/global-competitiveness |title=Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013 |publisher=World Economic Forum |date=5 September 2012 |accessdate=9 June 2013 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20141210040419/http://www.weforum.org/issues/global-competitiveness |archivedate=10 December 2014 |df=}}</ref> Sweden is the top performing country in the 2014 \'\'Global Green Economy Index (GGEI)\'\'.<ref name="ggei">{{cite web |url=http://dualcitizeninc.com/GGEI-Report2014.pdf |title=2014 Global Green Economy Index |publisher=Dual Citizen LLC |date=19 October 2014 |accessdate=19 October 2014 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141028201432/http://dualcitizeninc.com/GGEI-Report2014.pdf |archive-date=28 October 2014 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> Sweden is ranked fourth in the IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook 2013.<ref name="imd">{{cite web |url=http://www.imd.org/wcc/news-wcy-ranking/ |title=IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook 2013 |publisher=Imd.ch |date=30 May 2013 |accessdate=9 June 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130609063421/http://www.imd.org/wcc/news-wcy-ranking/ |archive-date=9 June 2013 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> According to the book \'\'The Flight of the Creative Class\'\' by the US economist Professor [[Richard Florida]] of the [[University of Toronto]], Sweden is ranked as having the best creativity in Europe for business and is predicted to become a talent magnet for the world\'s most purposeful workers. The book compiled an index to measure the kind of creativity it claims is most useful to business—talent, technology and tolerance.<ref>"{{cite web|url=http://www.isa.se/templates/News____59355.aspx |dead-url=yes|title=Sweden most creative country in Europe & top talent hotspot |accessdate=11 February 2007  |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070521053538/http://www.isa.se/templates/News____59355.aspx |archivedate=21 May 2007 |df= }}, [[Invest in Sweden Agency]], 25 June 2005. Retrieved from Internet Archive 13 January 2014.</ref>\n\nSweden maintains its own currency, the [[Swedish krona]] (SEK), a result of the Swedes having rejected the [[euro]] in a referendum. The Swedish [[Sveriges Riksbank|Riksbank]]—founded in 1668 and thus the oldest central bank in the world—is currently focusing on price stability with an inflation target of 2%. According to the \'\'Economic Survey of Sweden 2007\'\' by the OECD, the average inflation in Sweden has been one of the lowest among European countries since the mid-1990s, largely because of deregulation and quick utilisation of globalisation.<ref name="oecd2007">{{cite web|url=http://www.oecd.org/document/37/0,3343,en_2649_34569_38048997_1_1_1_1,00.html |title=Economic survey of Sweden 2007 |publisher=Oecd.org |date=1 January 1970 |accessdate=25 August 2010 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110426123744/http://www.oecd.org/document/37/0%2C3343%2Cen_2649_34569_38048997_1_1_1_1%2C00.html |archivedate=26 April 2011 |df=}}</ref>\n\nThe largest trade flows are with Germany, the United States, Norway, the United Kingdom, Denmark and Finland.\n\nFinancial deregulation in the 1980s impacted adversely on the property market, leading to a bubble and eventually a crash in the early 1990s. Commercial property prices fell by up to two thirds, resulting in two Swedish banks having to be taken over by the government. In the following two decades the property sector strengthened. By 2014, legislators, economists and the IMF were again warning of a bubble with residential property prices soaring and the level of personal mortgage debt expanding. Household debt-to-income rose above 170% as the IMF was calling on legislators to consider zoning reform and other means of generating a greater supply of housing as demand was outstripping what was available, pushing prices higher. By August 2014, 40% of home borrowers had interest-only loans while those that didn\'t were repaying principal at a rate that would take 100 years to fully repay.<ref name="SwedenProperty">{{cite news|title=Sweden facing possible property bubble warns IMF|url=http://www.swedennews.net/index.php/sid/225058369|date=24 August 2014|accessdate=26 August 2014|publisher=\'\'Sweden News.Net\'\'|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140827112345/http://www.swedennews.net/index.php/sid/225058369|archive-date=27 August 2014|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n\n=== Energy ===\n{{See also|Nordic energy market|Nuclear power in Sweden|Making Sweden an Oil-Free Society}}\n\n[[File:Ringhals.JPG|thumb|[[Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant]], located south of [[Gothenburg]]]]\nSweden\'s energy market is largely privatised. The [[Nordic energy market]] is one of the first liberalised energy markets in Europe and it is traded in [[NASDAQ OMX Commodities Europe]] and [[Nord Pool Spot]]. In 2006, out of a total electricity production of 139 [[TWh]], electricity from hydropower accounted for 61 TWh (44%), and [[nuclear power]] delivered 65 TWh (47%). At the same time, the use of [[biofuel]]s, [[peat]] etc. produced 13 TWh (9%) of electricity, while wind power produced 1 TWh (1%). Sweden was a net importer of electricity by a margin of 6 TWh.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.svenskenergi.se/upload/Statistik/Tidigare%20statistik/Kraftl%C3%A4get%20i%20%C3%A5r/ve_07-01.pdf |title=Kraftläget i Sverige, Vattensituationen |accessdate=19 April 2007 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20080216021232/http://www.svenskenergi.se/upload/Statistik/Tidigare%20statistik/Kraftl%C3%A4get%20i%20%C3%A5r/ve_07-01.pdf |archivedate=16 February 2008 |df= }}</ref> [[Biomass]] is mainly used to produce heat for [[district heating]] and [[central heating]] and industry processes.\n\nThe [[1973 oil crisis]] strengthened Sweden\'s commitment to decrease dependence on imported fossil fuels. Since then, electricity has been generated mostly from hydropower and nuclear power. The use of nuclear power has been limited, however. Among other things, the accident of [[Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station]] (United States) prompted the Riksdag to ban new nuclear plants. In March 2005, an opinion poll showed that 83% supported maintaining or increasing nuclear power.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://world-nuclear.org/info/inf42.html |title=Nuclear Power in Sweden |publisher=[[World Nuclear Association]] |date=September 2009 |accessdate=29 January 2010 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100213132916/http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf42.html |archive-date=13 February 2010 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> Politicians have made announcements about oil phase-out in Sweden, decrease of nuclear power, and multibillion-dollar investments in [[renewable energy]] and energy efficiency.<ref name="Agenda21" /><ref name="Vidal">{{cite news|last=Vidal |first=John |url=https://www.theguardian.com/oil/story/0,,1704954,00.html |title=Sweden plans to be world\'s first oil-free economy |newspaper=[[The Guardian]] |date=8 February 2006 |accessdate=13 March 2013 |location=London}}</ref> The country has for many years pursued a strategy of indirect taxation as an instrument of [[environmental policy]], including [[energy tax]]es in general and [[carbon dioxide]] taxes in particular.<ref name="Agenda21">{{cite web |publisher=[[United Nations]] |url=https://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/sweden/natur.htm |work=[[Agenda 21]] |title=NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SWEDEN |date=April 1997 |access-date=17 February 2016 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304064226/http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/sweden/natur.htm |archive-date=4 March 2016 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> Sweden was in 2014 a net exporter of electricity by a margin of 16 TWh; the production from windpower mills had increased to 11.5 TWh.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.svenskenergi.se/Global/Statistik/Aktuellt%20kraftl%C3%A4ge/Aktuellt-Kraftl%C3%A4ge-Sverige-veckorapport.pdf |publisher=Svenskenergi.se |title=Kraftläget i Sverige |trans-title=Power situation in Sweden |language=sv |access-date=2 January 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150102043811/http://www.svenskenergi.se/Global/Statistik/Aktuellt%20kraftl%C3%A4ge/Aktuellt-Kraftl%C3%A4ge-Sverige-veckorapport.pdf |archive-date=2 January 2015 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n\n=== Transport ===\n{{Main|Transport in Sweden}}\n[[File:Öresundsbron i solnedgång 2.jpg|thumb|The [[Öresund Bridge]] between [[Malmö]] and [[Copenhagen]] in Denmark]]\n\nSweden has {{convert|162707|km|mi|abbr=on}} of paved road and {{convert|1428|km|mi|abbr=on}} of expressways. [[List of motorways in Sweden|Motorways]] run through Sweden and over the Øresund Bridge to Denmark. New motorways are still under construction and a new motorway from Uppsala to [[Gävle]] was finished on 17 October 2007. Sweden had left-hand traffic (Vänstertrafik in Swedish) from approximately 1736 and continued to do so well into the 20th century. Voters rejected right-hand traffic in 1955, but after the Riksdag passed legislation in 1963 changeover took place on 3 September 1967, known in Swedish as [[Dagen H]].\n\nThe [[Stockholm metro]] is the only underground system in Sweden and serves the city of Stockholm via 100 stations. The rail transport market is privatised, but while there are many privately owned enterprises, the largest operators are still owned by state. The counties have financing, ticket and marketing responsibility for local trains. For other trains the operators handle tickets and marketing themselves. Operators include [[SJ AB|SJ]], [[Veolia Transport]], [[DSB (railway company)|DSB]], [[Green Cargo]], [[Tågkompaniet]] and [[Inlandsbanan]]. Most of the railways are owned and operated by [[Trafikverket]].\n\n[[File:Hall, Stockholm Central Station.jpg|thumb|left|[[Stockholm Central Station]]]]\n\nMost tram nets were closed in 1967, as Sweden changed from left-side to right-side driving. But they survived in [[Norrköping]], Stockholm and Gothenburg, with [[Gothenburg tram network]] being the largest. A new tram line is set to open in [[Lund]] in 2019.\n\nThe largest airports include [[Stockholm–Arlanda Airport]] (16.1 million passengers in 2009) {{convert|40|km|mi|abbr=on}} north of Stockholm, [[Göteborg Landvetter Airport]] (4.3 million passengers in 2008), and [[Stockholm–Skavsta Airport]] (2.0 million passengers). Sweden hosts the two largest port companies in Scandinavia, [[Port of Gothenburg|Port of Göteborg AB]] (Gothenburg) and the transnational company [[Copenhagen Malmö Port|Copenhagen Malmö Port AB]]. The most used airport for a large part of Southern Sweden is [[Copenhagen Airport|Kastrup or Copenhagen Airport]] which is located only 12 minutes by train from the closest Swedish railway station, [[Hyllie railway station|Hyllie]]. Copenhagen Airport also is the largest \'\'international\'\' airport in Scandinavia and Finland.\n\nSweden also has a number of car ferry connections to several neighbouring countries.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.ferrylines.com/en/ferries/baltic-sea/|title=Ferry to Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Poland, Baltic, Russia, Germany.|last=Kowalski|first=Oliver|website=www.ferrylines.com|access-date=28 August 2016|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160816025904/http://www.ferrylines.com/en/ferries/baltic-sea|archivedate=16 August 2016|df=dmy-all}}</ref> This includes a route from [[Umeå]] across [[Kvarken|the Gulf of Bothnia]] to [[Vaasa]] in Finland. There are several connections from the Stockholm area across the [[Sea of Åland]] to [[Mariehamn]] in the [[Åland Islands]] as well as [[Turku]] and [[Helsinki]] on the Finnish mainland and beyond to Estonia and [[Saint Petersburg|St Petersburg]] in Russia. Ferry routes from the Stockholm area also connect with [[Ventspils]] and [[Riga]] in Latvia as well as [[Gdańsk]] in Poland across the Baltic Sea. The ferry ports of [[Karlskrona]] and [[Karlshamn]] in southeastern Sweden serve [[Gdynia]], Poland, and [[Klaipėda|Klaipeda]], Lithuania. Ystad and Trelleborg near the southern tip of Sweden have ferry links with the Danish island of [[Bornholm]] and the German ports of [[Sassnitz]], [[Rostock]] and [[Travemünde]], respectively, and ferries run to [[Świnoujście]], Poland, from both of them. Trelleborg is the busiest ferry port in Sweden in terms of weight transported by lorry.<ref>John Bitton and Nils-Åke Svensson, "Øresund sett från himlen" (Oresund seen from the sky), 2005, {{ISBN|918530510-3}}, page 38</ref> Its route to Sassnitz started as a steam-operated railway ferry in the 19th century, and today\'s ferry still carries trains to [[Berlin]] during the summer months.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.snalltaget.se/om-oss/destinationer/berlin|title=Tåg till Berlin – Berlin Night Express – Nattåg till Berlin InterRail – Snälltåget|publisher=Snälltåget.se|language=sv|access-date=12 May 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150518081052/http://www.snalltaget.se/om-oss/destinationer/berlin|archive-date=18 May 2015|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Another ferry route to Travemünde originates from [[Malmö]]. Despite the opening of the fixed link to Denmark, the [[Øresund Bridge]], the busiest ferry route remains the short link across the narrowest section of the [[Øresund]] between [[Helsingborg]] and the Danish port of [[Helsingør]], known as the [[HH Ferry route]]. There are over seventy departures a day each way; during peak times, a ferry departs every fifteen minutes.<ref>At {{cite web|url=http://www.scandlines.se/tider-och-priser/tidtabell.aspx |title=Tidtabell |accessdate=12 May 2015 |deadurl=no |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20161224165755/http://www.scandlines.se/tider-och-priser/tidtabell.aspx |archivedate=24 December 2016 |df=dmy }} please press "Tidtabell 2 jan – 31 maj 2015" (Time table 2. January to 31. May 2015) for PDF download</ref> Ports higher up the Swedish west coast include [[Varberg]], with a ferry connection across the [[Kattegat]] to [[Grenaa]] in Denmark, and Göteborg, serving [[Frederikshavn]] at the northern tip of Denmark and [[Kiel]] in Germany. Finally, there are ferries from [[Strömstad]] near the Norwegian border to destinations around the [[Oslofjord]] in Norway. There used to be ferry services to the [[United Kingdom]] from Göteborg to destinations such as Immingham, Harwich and Newcastle, but these have been discontinued.\n\nSweden has two domestic ferry lines with large vessels, both connecting Gotland with the mainland. The lines leave from Visby harbour on the island, and the ferries sail to either [[Oskarshamn]] or Nynäshamn.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.destinationgotland.se/Farja/|title=Boka båtbiljetter till och från Gotland|work=destinationgotland.se|language=sv|access-date=12 May 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150518093055/http://www.destinationgotland.se/Farja/|archive-date=18 May 2015|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> A smaller car ferry connects the island of [[Ven (Sweden)|Ven]] in Øresund with [[Landskrona]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ventrafiken.se/index.php/en/|title=Ventrafiken -Upplev sundets pärla|work=ventrafiken.se|language=sv|access-date=12 May 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150501190157/http://www.ventrafiken.se/index.php/en/|archive-date=1 May 2015|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n\n=== Public policy ===\n{{See also|Nordic model|Social welfare in Sweden}}\nSweden has one of the most highly developed welfare states in the world. According to a 2012 OECD report, the country had the second-highest public social spending as a percentage of its GDP after France (27.3% and 28.4%, respectively), and the third-highest total (public and private) social spending at 30.2% of its GDP, after France and [[Belgium]] (31.3% and 31.0%, respectively).<ref>{{cite web |title=OECD Factbook 2011–2012 (see Public Finance -> Social Expenditure) |year=2012 |publisher=OECD Publishing |url=http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/economics/oecd-factbook_18147364 |access-date=9 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120823004743/http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/economics/oecd-factbook_18147364 |archive-date=23 August 2012 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> Sweden spent 6.3% of its GDP, the 9th-highest among 34 OECD countries, to provide equal access to education.<ref>{{cite web |title=OECD Factbook 2011–2012 (see Education -> Education Expenditure) |year=2012 |publisher=OECD Publishing |url=http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/economics/oecd-factbook_18147364 |access-date=9 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120823004743/http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/economics/oecd-factbook_18147364 |archive-date=23 August 2012 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> On health care, the country spent 10.0% of its total GDP, the 12th highest.<ref>{{cite web |title=OECD Factbook 2011–2012 (see Health -> Health Expenditure) |year=2012 |publisher=OECD Publishing |url=http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/economics/oecd-factbook_18147364 |access-date=9 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120823004743/http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/economics/oecd-factbook_18147364 |archive-date=23 August 2012 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n\nHistorically, Sweden provided solid support for [[free trade]] (except agriculture) and mostly relatively strong and stable property rights (both private and public), though some economists have pointed out that Sweden promoted industries with tariffs and used publicly subsidised R&D during the country\'s early critical years of industrialisation.<ref name="H-J.C-Sweden">{{cite book |title=Kicking Away The Ladder |pages=39–42 |first=Ha-Joon |last=Chang}}</ref> After World War II a succession of governments expanded the welfare state by raising the taxes. During this period Sweden\'s economic growth was also one of the highest in the industrial world. A series of successive social reforms transformed the country into one of the most equal and developed on earth. The consistent growth of the welfare state led to Swedes achieving unprecedented levels of social mobility and quality of life—to this day Sweden consistently ranks at the top of league tables for health, literacy and Human Development—far ahead of some wealthier countries (for example the United States).<ref name="Equal Societies">{{cite web |url=http://www.health.gov.au/internet/nhhrc/publishing.nsf/Content/135-interim/$FILE/135%20-%20Submission%20-%20Childrens%20Hospitals%20Australasia%20(Attachment%20C).pdf |publisher=[[Department of Health (Australia)|Department of Health]] |title=The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do Better |first1=Richard |last1=Wilkinson |first2=Kate |last2=Pickett |date=8 March 2009 |access-date=16 February 2016 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160205120331/http://www.health.gov.au/internet/nhhrc/publishing.nsf/Content/135-interim/$FILE/135%20-%20Submission%20-%20Childrens%20Hospitals%20Australasia%20(Attachment%20C).pdf |archivedate=5 February 2016 |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n\nHowever, from the 1970s and onwards Sweden\'s GDP growth fell behind other industrialised countries and the country\'s per capita ranking fell from 4th to 14th place in a few decades.<ref name="eu-usa">[http://www.timbro.se/bokhandel/pdf/9175665646.pdf EU versus USA] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161115141716/http://www.timbro.se/bokhandel/pdf/9175665646.pdf |date=15 November 2016 }}, Fredrik Bergström & Robert Gidehag</ref> From the mid-1990s until today Sweden\'s economic growth has once again accelerated and has been higher than in most other industrialised countries (including the US) during the last 15 years.<ref name="growth-Swe">{{cite web|url=http://www.ekonomifakta.se/en/Facts-and-figures/Economy/Economic-growth/GDP-per-capita-/|title=Sweden\'s GDP per capita|date=16 September 2014|publisher=Ekonomifakta.se|accessdate=17 September 2014|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140721130115/http://www.ekonomifakta.se/en/Facts-and-figures/Economy/Economic-growth/GDP-per-capita-/|archive-date=21 July 2014|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> A report from the [[United Nations Development Program]] predicted that Sweden\'s rating on the [[Human Development Index]] will fall from 0.949 in 2010 to 0.906 in 2030.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Asher|first1=Jana|author1-link=Jana Asher|last2=Osborne Daponte|first2=Beth|title=A Hypothetical Cohort Model of Human Development|journal=Human Development Research Paper|page=41|url=http://ww.rrojasdatabank.info/HDRP_2010_40.pdf|accessdate=30 December 2014|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150219010417/http://ww.rrojasdatabank.info/HDRP_2010_40.pdf|archive-date=19 February 2015|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n\nSweden began slowing the expansion of the welfare state in the 1980s, and even trimming it back. Sweden has been relatively quick to adopt [[neoliberal]] policies, such as [[privatization]], [[financialization]] and [[deregulation]],<ref>{{cite book|editor-last=Pierre|editor-first=Jon|date=2016|title=The Oxford Handbook of Swedish Politics (Oxford Handbooks)|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=hDcICwAAQBAJ&lpg=PP1&pg=PA573#v=onepage&q&f=false|location=|publisher=[[Oxford University Press]]|page=573|isbn=978-0199665679|access-date=31 July 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171009201639/https://books.google.com/books?id=hDcICwAAQBAJ&lpg=PP1&pg=PA573#v=onepage&q&f=false|archive-date=9 October 2017|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |editor1-last=Springer |editor1-first=Simon |editor2-last=Birch |editor2-first=Kean |editor3-last=MacLeavy |editor3-first=Julie |date=2016 |title=The Handbook of Neoliberalism |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=M5qkDAAAQBAJ&lpg=PP1&pg=PA569#v=onepage&q&f=false |location= |publisher=[[Routledge]] |page=569 |isbn=978-1138844001 |access-date=31 July 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171009201645/https://books.google.com/books?id=M5qkDAAAQBAJ&lpg=PP1&pg=PA569#v=onepage&q&f=false |archive-date=9 October 2017 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> compared to countries such as France.<ref name="oecd2007" /><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mckinsey.com/mgi/mginews/businessweek/swedenbalance.asp|title=Sweden\'s balancing lessons for Europe|publisher=|accessdate=17 September 2014|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111031224326/http://www.mckinsey.com/mgi/mginews/businessweek/swedenbalance.asp|archive-date=31 October 2011|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> The current Swedish government is continuing the trend of moderate rollbacks of previous social reforms.<ref name="oecd2007" /><ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.economist.com/displayStory.cfm?story_id=9803876|title=Moderate revolution|work=[[The Economist]]|accessdate=17 September 2014|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100104025637/http://www.economist.com/displayStory.cfm?story_id=9803876|archive-date=4 January 2010|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Growth has been higher than in many other [[EU-15]] countries. Also since the mid-1980s, Sweden has had the fastest growth in inequality of any developed nation, according to the OECD. This has largely been attributed to the reduction in state benefits and a shift toward the privatisation of public services. According to Barbro Sorman, an activist of the opposition Left Party, "The rich are getting richer, and the poor are getting poorer. Sweden is starting to look like the USA." Nevertheless, it remains far more egalitarian than most nations.<ref name="nytimes" /><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/may/23/swedish-riots-stockholm|title=Swedish riots rage for fourth night|work=[[The Guardian]]|date=23 May 2013|accessdate=17 September 2014|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140817040239/http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/may/23/swedish-riots-stockholm|archive-date=17 August 2014|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Partly as a result of these privatisations and widening economic disparity, the Swedes in the 2014 elections put the Social Democrats back in power.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://time.com/3373946/sweden-parliament-election/ |newspaper=[[Time (magazine)|Time]] |title=Sweden Shifts to Left in Parliamentary Election |author=[[The Associated Press]] |date=14 September 2014 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140920215539/http://time.com/3373946/sweden-parliament-election/ |archivedate=20 September 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |first=Igor |last=Bobic |date=13 September 2014 |url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/09/13/sweden-austerity-election_n_5816010.html |title=Sweden\'s Turn Left Could Deal A Blow To European Austerity |newspaper=[[The Huffington Post]] |access-date=6 October 2014 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141007050658/http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/09/13/sweden-austerity-election_n_5816010.html |archive-date=7 October 2014 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n\nSweden adopted free market agricultural policies in 1990. Since the 1930s, the agricultural sector had been subject to price controls. In June 1990, the Riksdag voted for a new agricultural policy marking a significant shift away from price controls. As a result, food prices fell somewhat. However, the liberalisations soon became moot because EU agricultural controls supervened.<ref>{{cite journal |journal=[[Econ Journal Watch]] |last=Lindberg |first=Henrik |title=The Role of Economists in Liberalising Swedish Agriculture |date=May 2007 |url=http://econjwatch.org/issues/volume-4-number-1-may-2007 |volume=4 |issue=2 |access-date=17 February 2016 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160303193526/http://econjwatch.org/issues/volume-4-number-1-may-2007 |archive-date=3 March 2016 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n\nSince the late 1960s, Sweden has had the highest tax quota (as percentage of GDP) in the industrialised world, although today the gap has narrowed and Denmark has surpassed Sweden as the most heavily taxed country among developed countries. Sweden has a two-step [[progressive tax]] scale with a municipal income tax of about 30% and an additional high-income state tax of 20–25% when a salary exceeds roughly 320,000 SEK per year. [[Payroll tax]]es amount to 32%. In addition, a national [[Value added tax|VAT]] of 25% is added to many things bought by private citizens, with the exception of food (12% VAT), transportation, and books (6% VAT). Certain items are subject to additional taxes, e.g. electricity, petrol/diesel and alcoholic beverages.\n\n{{As of|2007|alt=In 2007}}, total tax revenue was 47.8% of GDP, the second-highest tax burden among developed countries, down from 49.1% 2006.<ref>{{cite news|first=Kenneth |last=Westerlund |title=Danmark har högsta skattetrycket |trans-title=Denmark has the highest tax burden |url=http://www.dn.se/DNet/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=3130&a=750879 |newspaper=[[Dagens Nyheter]] |date=11 March 2008 |accessdate=11 March 2008 |language=Swedish |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090214084943/http://www.dn.se/DNet/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=3130&a=750879 |archivedate=14 February 2009}}</ref> Sweden\'s inverted tax wedge – the amount going to the service worker\'s wallet – is approximately 15%, compared to 10% in Belgium, 30% in Ireland, and 50% in the United States.<ref name="eu-usa" /> Public sector spending amounts to 53% of the GDP. State and municipal employees total around a third of the workforce, much more than in most Western countries. Only Denmark has a larger public sector (38% of Danish workforce). Spending on transfers is also high.\n\nIn 2015 and 2016, 69 per cent of the employed workers is organised in trade unions. Union density in 2016 was 62% among blue-collar-workers (most of them in the [[Swedish Trade Union Confederation]], LO) and 75% among white-collar workers (most of them in the Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees, TCO, and the [[Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations]], SACO).<ref>Yearly averages excluding full-time students working part-time. See Anders Kjellberg [https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/ws/files/21676527/Kollektivavtalst_ckning_samt_organisationsgrad_2017_LUP.pdf \'\'Kollektivavtalens täckningsgrad samt organisationsgraden hos arbetsgivarförbund och fackförbund\'\'] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170312031300/https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/ws/files/21676527/Kollektivavtalst_ckning_samt_organisationsgrad_2017_LUP.pdf |date=12 March 2017 }}, Department of Sociology, Lund University. Studies in Social Policy, Industrial Relations, Working Life and Mobility. Research Reports 2017:1, Appendix 3 (in English) Table A</ref> Sweden has state-supported union unemployment funds ([[Ghent system]]).<ref>Anders Kjellberg and Christian Lyhne Ibsen [https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/ws/files/21682547/Kjellberg_og_Ibsen_2016_ur_Due_og_Madsen.pdf "Attacks on union organizing:  Reversible and irreversible changes to the Ghent-systems in Sweden and Denmark"] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170309062312/https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/ws/files/21682547/Kjellberg_og_Ibsen_2016_ur_Due_og_Madsen.pdf |date=9 March 2017 }} in Trine Pernille Larsen and Anna Ilsøe (eds.)(2016) \'\'Den Danske Model set udefra (The Danish Model Inside Out) – komparative perspektiver på dansk arbejdsmarkedsregulering\'\', Copenhagen: Jurist- og Økonomforbundets Forlag (pp.279–302)</ref> Trade unions have the right to elect two representatives to the board in all Swedish companies with more than 25 employees. Sweden has a relatively high amount of sick leave per worker in OECD: the average worker loses 24 days due to sickness.<ref name="oecd2005" />\n\nThe unemployment rate was 7.2% in May 2017 while the employment rate was 67.4%, with the workforce consisting of 4,983,000 people while 387,000 are unemployed.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.scb.se/en/finding-statistics/statistics-by-subject-area/labour-market/labour-force-surveys/labour-force-surveys-lfs/pong/statistical-news/labour-force-surveys-lfs-may-2017/ |title=Continued increase in the number of employees in the municipal sector |work=Statistics Sweden |date=20 June 2017 |access-date=30 June 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171009190725/http://www.scb.se/en/finding-statistics/statistics-by-subject-area/labour-market/labour-force-surveys/labour-force-surveys-lfs/pong/statistical-news/labour-force-surveys-lfs-may-2017/ |archive-date=9 October 2017 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=https://www.svd.se/scb-72-procent-ar-arbetslosa |title=SCB: Arbetslösheten minskar i landet |publisher=Svenska Dagbladet |agency=Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå |date=20 June 2017 |language=Swedish |access-date=30 June 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170623040007/https://www.svd.se/scb-72-procent-ar-arbetslosa |archive-date=23 June 2017 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> Unemployment among youth (aged 24 or younger) in 2012 was 24.2%, making Sweden the OECD country with the highest ratio of youth unemployment versus unemployment in general.<ref>{{cite web|title=Sweden: Highest ratio of youth unemployment|publisher=[[UNRIC|United Nations Regional Information Centre for Western Europe]], Brussels|year=2012|url=http://www.unric.org/en/youth-unemployment/27411-sweden-highest-ratio-of-youth-unemployment|access-date=9 August 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130202221352/http://www.unric.org/en/youth-unemployment/27411-sweden-highest-ratio-of-youth-unemployment|archive-date=2 February 2013|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n\n=== Science and technology ===\n{{Main|Swedish inventions}}\n[[File:AlfredNobel adjusted.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Alfred Nobel]], inventor of dynamite and institutor of the Nobel Prize]]\n\nIn the 18th century Sweden\'s [[scientific revolution]] took off. Previously, technical progress had mainly come from mainland Europe.\n\nIn 1739, the [[Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences]] was founded, with people such as [[Carl Linnaeus]] and [[Anders Celsius]] as early members. Many of the companies founded by early pioneers still remain major international brands. [[Gustaf Dalén]] founded [[AGA AB|AGA]], and received the Nobel Prize for his [[sun valve]]. [[Alfred Nobel]] invented [[dynamite]] and instituted the Nobel Prizes. [[Lars Magnus Ericsson]] started the company bearing his name, Ericsson, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world. [[Jonas Wenström]] was an early pioneer in [[alternating current]] and is along with [[Serbia]]n inventor [[Nikola Tesla]] credited as one of the inventors of the three-phase electrical system.<ref name="si91e" />\n\nThe traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground. [[Tetra Pak]] was an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by [[Erik Wallenberg]]. [[Losec]], an ulcer medicine, was the world\'s best-selling drug in the 1990s and was developed by [[AstraZeneca]]. More recently [[Håkan Lans]] invented the [[Automatic Identification System]], a worldwide standard for shipping and civil aviation navigation. A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors.<ref name="si91e">{{cite web|url=http://www.sweden.se/eng/Home/Education/Research/Facts/Innovation/|title=Innovation, Science/Research: Inventing tomorrow\'s world|publisher=Sweden.se|accessdate=27 January 2011|date=February 2010|work=Fact Sheet FS 4|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110104021652/http://www.sweden.se/eng/Home/Education/Research/Facts/Innovation/|archive-date=4 January 2011|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n\nSwedish inventors held 47,112 patents in the United States {{as of|2014|alt=in 2014}}, according to the [[United States Patent and Trademark Office]]. As a nation, only ten other countries hold more patents than Sweden.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/ac/ido/oeip/taf/cst_all.htm |publisher=[[United States Patent and Trademark Office]] |title=Patents By Country, State, and Year – All Patent Types (December 2014) |access-date=17 February 2016 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160226160611/http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/ac/ido/oeip/taf/cst_all.htm |archive-date=26 February 2016 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n\nCombined, the public and the private sector in Sweden allocate over 3.5% of GDP to [[research & development]] (R&D) per year, making Sweden\'s investment in R&D as a percentage of GDP the second-highest in the world.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/eco_res_and_dev_exp_of_gdp-economy-research-development-expenditure-gdp |title=% Of GDP > Research And Development Expenditure statistics – countries compared |publisher=NationMaster |accessdate=22 September 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121008062145/http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/eco_res_and_dev_exp_of_gdp-economy-research-development-expenditure-gdp |archive-date=8 October 2012 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> For several decades the [[Swedish government]] has prioritised scientific and R&D activities. As a percentage of GDP, the Swedish government spends the most of any nation on research and development.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/eco_gov_spe_in_res_and_dev-economy-government-spending-research-development |title=Government spending in research and development statistics – countries compared |publisher=NationMaster.com |date=1 April 2007 |accessdate=22 September 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120930043550/http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/eco_gov_spe_in_res_and_dev-economy-government-spending-research-development |archive-date=30 September 2012 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> Sweden tops other European countries in the number of published scientific works per capita.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.swedenabroad.se/Page____50008.aspx |title=Embassy of Sweden New Delhi – Science & Technology |publisher=Swedenabroad.se |accessdate=6 May 2009 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080916211008/http://www.swedenabroad.se/Page____50008.aspx |archivedate=16 September 2008 |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n\n[[File:Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope The Sentinel.jpg|upright=2.75|thumb|center|Swedish–[[European Southern Observatory|ESO]] Submillimetre Telescope discovered the [[Boomerang Nebula]] and the first extragalactic [[Astrophysical maser|silicon monoxide maser]].<ref>{{cite web|title=The Sentinel|url=http://www.eso.org/public/images/potw1529a/|publisher=[[European Southern Observatory]]|accessdate=20 July 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150723070241/http://www.eso.org/public/images/potw1529a/|archive-date=23 July 2015|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>]]\n\nIn 2009, the decisions to construct Sweden\'s two largest scientific installations, the synchrotron radiation facility [[MAX IV]] and the European Spallation Source, were taken.<ref>{{cite web|title=European Spallation Source|url=http://europeanspallationsource.se/|publisher=ESS AB|accessdate=16 October 2013|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140517050510/http://europeanspallationsource.se/|archive-date=17 May 2014|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=MAX IV |url=https://www.maxlab.lu.se/maxiv |publisher=[[MAX-lab]] |accessdate=16 October 2013 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130603131912/https://www.maxlab.lu.se/maxiv |archivedate=3 June 2013 |df=}}</ref> Both installations will be built in [[Lund]]. The [[European Spallation Source]], costing some SEK 14 billion to construct,<ref>{{cite web|title=MAX IV och ESS (in Swedish)|url=http://www.lu.se/forskning/starka-forskningsmiljoer/max-iv-och-ess|publisher=[[Lund University]]|accessdate=16 October 2013|date=2012-04-04|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131105020653/http://www.lu.se/forskning/starka-forskningsmiljoer/max-iv-och-ess|archive-date=5 November 2013|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> will be operational in 2019 and will give an approximately 30 times stronger neutron beam than any of today\'s existing neutron source installations.<ref>{{cite web|title=Neutron scattering|url=http://www.iop.org/publications/iop/2011/file_47455.pdf|publisher=[[Institute of Physics]]|accessdate=16 October 2013|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131022104114/http://www.iop.org/publications/iop/2011/file_47455.pdf|archive-date=22 October 2013|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> The MAX IV, costing some SEK 3 billion, will be operational in 2015. Both facilities have strong implications on material research.\n\n=== Taxes ===\n{{Main|Taxation in Sweden}}\nOn average, 27% of taxpayer\'s money in Sweden goes to education and healthcare, whereas 5% goes to the police and military, and 42% to social security.<ref>{{cite news|date=22 August 2017|title=Offentliga sektorns utgifter|url=https://www.ekonomifakta.se/Fakta/Offentlig-ekonomi/Offentlig-sektor/Offentliga-sektorns-utgifter/?graph=/10870/all/all/|access-date=21 April 2019|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180707010104/https://www.ekonomifakta.se/Fakta/Offentlig-ekonomi/Offentlig-sektor/Offentliga-sektorns-utgifter/?graph=%2F10870%2Fall%2Fall%2F|archive-date=7 July 2018|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n\nThe typical worker receives 40% of his or her labour costs after the [[tax wedge]]. Total tax collected by Sweden as a percentage of its GDP peaked at 52.3% in 1990.<ref name=oecdtax11 /> The country faced a real estate and banking crisis in 1990–1991, and consequently passed tax reforms in 1991 to implement tax rate cuts and tax base broadening over time.<ref name="AgellEnglund"/><ref name="RiksbankHeikensten"/> Since 1990, taxes as a percentage of GDP collected by Sweden have been dropping, with total tax rates for the highest income earners dropping the most.<ref name="BengtssonHolmlund"/> In 2010 45.8% of the country\'s GDP was collected as taxes, the second highest among OECD countries, and nearly double the percentage in the US or South Korea.<ref name=oecdtax11/>\n\n=== Pensions ===\n{{Main|Social security in Sweden}}\nEvery Swedish resident receives a state pension. Swedish Pensions Agency is responsible for pensions. People who have worked in Sweden, but relocated to another country, can also receive the Swedish pension. There are several types of pensions in Sweden: national retirement, occupational and private pensions. A person can receive a combination of the various types of pensions.\n\n== Demographics ==\n{{Main|Demographics of Sweden|Swedes}}\n[[File:Swedenpop.svg|thumb|Population pyramid 2017]]\n[[File:DIMG 5456 (4735649602).jpg|thumb|Swedes celebrating [[Midsummer]] (Swedish: Midsommar)]]\nThe total resident population of Sweden was 10,223,505 on 30 November 2018.<ref name="population" /> The population exceeded 9 million for the first time on approximately 12 August 2004 and 9.5 million in the spring of 2012, according to Statistics Sweden.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.scb.se/Pages/PressRelease____95792.aspx |archive-url=https://archive.today/20130616041939/http://www.scb.se/Pages/PressRelease____95792.aspx |dead-url=yes |archive-date=16 June 2013 |publisher=[[Statistics Sweden]] |title=Sweden\'s population hits 9 million |accessdate=8 June 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.scb.se/Pages/PressRelease____338779.aspx |publisher=[[Statistics Sweden]] |title=More than 9.5 million inhabitants |accessdate=8 June 2013 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120817063555/http://www.scb.se/Pages/PressRelease____338779.aspx |archivedate=17 August 2012}}</ref> The population density is 22.5 people per km² (58.2 per square mile) and it is substantially higher in the south than in the north. About 85% of the population live in urban areas.<ref name="publikationer2007">\'\'Yearbook of Housing and Building Statistics 2007\'\'</ref> The capital city Stockholm has a municipal population of about 950,000 (with 1.5 million in the urban area and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area). The second- and third-largest cities are Gothenburg and Malmö. Greater Gothenburg counts just over a million inhabitants and the same goes for the western part of Scania, along the [[Öresund]]. The [[Öresund Region]], the Danish-Swedish cross-border region around the Öresund that Malmö is part of, has a population of 4 million. Outside of major cities, areas with notably higher population density include the agricultural part of Östergötland, the western coast, the area around Lake Mälaren and the agricultural area around Uppsala.\n\nNorrland, which covers approximately 60% of the Swedish territory, has a very low population density (below 5 people per square kilometre). The mountains and most of the remote coastal areas are almost unpopulated. Low population density exists also in large parts of western Svealand, as well as southern and central Småland. An area known as \'\'Finnveden\'\', which is located in the south-west of Småland, and mainly below the 57th parallel, can also be considered as almost empty of people.\n\nBetween 1820 and 1930, approximately 1.3 million Swedes, a third of the country\'s population at the time, [[Swedish emigration to North America|emigrated to North America]], and most of them to the United States. There are more than 4.4 million [[Swedish Americans]] according to a 2006 US Census Bureau estimate.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_06_EST_DP2&prodType=table |title=United States – Selected Social Characteristics: 2006 |publisher=[[United States Census Bureau]] |accessdate=21 March 2014 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140322001931/http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_06_EST_DP2&prodType=table |archive-date=22 March 2014 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> In Canada, the community of [[Swedish Canadian|Swedish ancestry]] is 330,000 strong.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/data/highlights/ethnic/pages/Page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo=PR&Code=01&Data=Count&Table=2&StartRec=1&Sort=3&Display=All&CSDFilter=5000 |publisher=[[Statistics Canada]] |title=Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada Highlight Tables, 2006 Census |accessdate=30 June 2008 |date=2008-04-02 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130723224016/http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/index-eng.cfm |archive-date=23 July 2013 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n\nThere are no official statistics on ethnicity, but according to Statistics Sweden, around 3,193,089 (31.5%) inhabitants of Sweden were of a [[Immigration to Sweden|foreign background]] in 2017, defined as being born abroad or born in Sweden with at least one parent born abroad.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.statistikdatabasen.scb.se/pxweb/en/ssd/?rxid=86abd797-7854-4564-9150-c9b06ae3ab07 |title=Number of persons with foreign or Swedish background (detailed division) by region, age and sex. Year 2016 |work=[[Statistics Sweden]] |date=8 June 2017 |access-date=11 July 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170712140211/http://www.statistikdatabasen.scb.se/pxweb/en/ssd/?rxid=86abd797-7854-4564-9150-c9b06ae3ab07 |archive-date=12 July 2017 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> The most common countries of origin were [[Syrians in Sweden|Syria]] (1.70%), [[Sweden Finns|Finland]] (1.49%), [[Swedish Iraqis|Iraq]] (1.39%), [[Poles in Sweden|Poland]] (0.90%), [[Swedish Iranians|Iran]] (0.73%) and [[Somalis in Sweden|Somalia]] (0.66%).<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.statistikdatabasen.scb.se/pxweb/en/ssd/?rxid=86abd797-7854-4564-9150-c9b06ae3ab07|title=Statistics Sweden|date=|website=|access-date=7 July 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170706144131/http://www.statistikdatabasen.scb.se/pxweb/en/ssd/?rxid=86abd797-7854-4564-9150-c9b06ae3ab07|archive-date=6 July 2017|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Sweden subsequently has one of the oldest populations in the world, with the average age of 41.1 years.<ref>{{cite|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sw.html|title=World Factbook EUROPE : SWEDEN|work=[[The World Factbook]]|date=July 12, 2018}}</ref>\n\n{{Largest cities of Sweden}}\n\n=== Language ===\n{{Main|Swedish language|Languages of Sweden}}\n{{See also|Swedish dialects}}\n[[File:Distribution-sv.png|thumb|left|Distribution of speakers of the Swedish language]]\nThe official language of Sweden is Swedish,<ref name="Swedish">{{cite web|url=http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Spraklag-2009600_sfs-2009-600/|title=Språklag (2009:600)|date=28 May 2009|publisher=[[Riksdag]]|language=Swedish|accessdate=10 November 2014|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141110205547/http://www.riksdagen.se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svenskforfattningssamling/Spraklag-2009600_sfs-2009-600/|archive-date=10 November 2014|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref><ref name="Swedish2">{{cite news|url=http://www.thelocal.se/20090701/20404|title=Swedish becomes official \'main language\'|last=Landes|first=David|date=1 July 2009|newspaper=[[The Local]]|accessdate=15 July 2009|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131210004646/http://www.thelocal.se/20090701/20404|archive-date=10 December 2013|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> a North Germanic language, related and very similar to [[Danish language|Danish]] and [[Norwegian language|Norwegian]], but differing in pronunciation and [[orthography]]. Norwegians have little difficulty understanding Swedish, and Danes can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than Norwegians. The same goes for standard Swedish speakers, who find it far easier to understand Norwegian than Danish. The [[Scanian dialects|dialects spoken in Scania]], the southernmost part of the country, are influenced by Danish because [[Skåneland|the region traditionally was a part of Denmark]] and is nowadays situated closely to it. [[Sweden Finns]] are Sweden\'s largest linguistic minority, comprising about 5% of Sweden\'s population,<ref name="Finns">{{cite web|url=http://www.scb.se/Pages/PressRelease____255905.aspx |title=På lördag kan 440 000 flagga blått och vitt |trans-title=On Saturday 440 000 can flag blue and white |publisher=[[Statistics Sweden]] |language=Swedish |date=5 December 2008 |accessdate=16 June 2009 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100820073639/http://www.scb.se/Pages/PressRelease____255905.aspx |archivedate=20 August 2010}}</ref> and Finnish is recognised as a minority language.<ref name="Swedish2" /> Owing to a 21st-century influx of native speakers of [[Arabic language|Arabic]], the use of Arabic is likely more widespread in the country than that of Finnish. However, no official statistics are kept on language use.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://sverigesradio.se/sida/artikel.aspx?programid=3993&artikel=6003931|title=Hur många språk talas i Sverige?|trans-title=How many languages are spoken in Sweden?|publisher=[[Sveriges Radio]]|language=sv|date=29 October 2014|accessdate=10 January 2016|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304090814/http://sverigesradio.se/sida/artikel.aspx?programid=3993&artikel=6003931|archive-date=4 March 2016|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n\nAlong with Finnish, [[Minority languages of Sweden|four other minority languages]] are also recognised: [[Meänkieli]], [[Sami languages|Sami]], [[Romani language|Romani]], and [[Yiddish language|Yiddish]]. Swedish became Sweden\'s official language on 1 July 2009, when a new language law was implemented.<ref name="Swedish2" /> The issue of whether Swedish should be declared the official language had been raised in the past, and the Riksdag voted on the matter in 2005, but the proposal narrowly failed.<ref>{{cite web|title=Svenskan blir inte officiellt språk|trans-title=Swedish will not become an official language|url=http://www.svt.se/nyheter/sverige/svenskan-blir-inte-officiellt-sprak|publisher=[[Sveriges Television]]|language=Swedish|accessdate=9 June 2013|date=7 December 2005|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140311014951/http://www.svt.se/nyheter/sverige/svenskan-blir-inte-officiellt-sprak|archive-date=11 March 2014|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n\nIn varying degrees, depending largely on frequency of interaction with English, a majority of Swedes, especially those born after World War II, understand and speak English, owing to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, a strong Anglo-American influence and the tradition of [[subtitle (captioning)|subtitling]] rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films, and the [[Germanic languages|relative similarity]] of the two languages which makes learning English easier. In a 2005 survey by [[Eurobarometer]], 89% of Swedes reported the ability to speak English.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://ec.europa.eu/education/languages/pdf/doc631_en.pdf |title=Oooops... We didn\'t find the page you are looking for... |publisher=[[European Commission]] |date=12 March 2012 |accessdate=17 September 2014 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131116073533/http://ec.europa.eu/education/languages/pdf/doc631_en.pdf |archivedate=16 November 2013}}</ref>\n\nEnglish became a compulsory subject for secondary school students studying [[natural science]]s as early as 1849, and has been a compulsory subject for all Swedish students since the late 1940s.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www3.lu.se/info/lum/LUM_07_99/01_engelska.html |title=English spoken – fast ibland hellre än bra |publisher=[[Lund University]] newsletter 7/1999 |language=Swedish |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20060106110733/http://www3.lu.se/info/lum/LUM_07_99/01_engelska.html |archivedate=6 January 2006 |df=}}</ref> Depending on the local school authorities, English is currently a compulsory subject between [[first grade]] and [[ninth grade]], with all students continuing in secondary school studying English for at least another year. Most students also study one and sometimes two additional languages. These include (but are not limited to) German, French and Spanish. Some Danish and Norwegian is at times also taught as part of Swedish courses for native speakers. Because of the extensive [[mutual intelligibility]] between the three continental [[Scandinavian language]]s Swedish speakers often use their native language when visiting or living in Norway or Denmark.\n\n=== Religion ===\n{{Main|Religion in Sweden}}\n\n{| cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" rules="all" style="float:right; width:250px; margin:1em; background:#fff; border:2px solid #aaa; font-size:100%;"\n|- style="background:#ddd;"\n| colspan="8" style="text-align:center;"| \'\'\'Church of Sweden<ref name="svenskakyrkan 1972-2012">{{cite web |url=https://www.svenskakyrkan.se/default.aspx?id=1470789 |publisher=[[Church of Sweden]] |title=Svenska kyrkans medlemsutveckling år 1972–2012 |trans-title=Church of Sweden\'s membership development in 1972–2015 |format=[[PDF]] |access-date=18 March 2017 |language=Swedish |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160919000227/https://www.svenskakyrkan.se/default.aspx?id=1470789 |archive-date=19 September 2016 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> \'\'\' <br />\n|-  style="background:#f0f0f0; text-align:left;"\n! Year\n! Population\n! Church members\n! Percentage\n|- style="text-align:center;"\n| 1972 || 8,146,000 || 7,754,784 || 95.2%\n|- style="text-align:center;"\n| 1980 || 8,278,000 || 7,690,636 || 92.9%\n|- style="text-align:center;"\n| 1990 || 8,573,000 || 7,630,350 || 89.0%\n|- style="text-align:center;"\n| 2000 || 8,880,000 || 7,360,825 || 82.9%\n|- style="text-align:center;"\n| 2010 || 9,415,570 || 6,589,769 || 70.0%\n|- style="text-align:center;"\n| 2011 || 9,482,855 || 6,519,889 || 68.8%\n|- style="text-align:center;"\n| 2012 || 9,555,893 || 6,446,729 || 67.5%\n|- style="text-align:center;"\n| 2013 || 9,644,864 || 6,357,508 || 65.9%\n|- style="text-align:center;"\n| 2014 || 9,747,355 || 6,292,264 || 64.6%<ref name="svenskakyrkan 2014">{{cite web |url=http://www.svenskakyrkan.se/statistik |publisher=[[Church of Sweden]] |title=Svenska kyrkan i siffror |trans-title=Church of Sweden in figures |access-date=17 February 2016 |language=Swedish |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304220055/https://www.svenskakyrkan.se/statistik |archive-date=4 March 2016 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n|- style="text-align:center;"\n| 2015 || 9,850,452 || 6,225,091 || 63.2%\n|- style="text-align:center;"\n| 2016 || 9,995,153 || 6,116,480 || 61.2%<ref name="svenskakyrkan 2014" />\n|- style="text-align:center;"\n| 2017 || 10 120 242 || 5 999 509 || 59.3%<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.svenskakyrkan.se/filer/31863fc6-9a8d-4f15-b7d4-d53b6075dfb3.pdf|title=Medlemmar i Svenska kyrkan i förhållande till folkmängd den 31.12.2017 per församling, kommun och län samt riket|language=Swedish|accessdate=27 April 2019|publisher=[[Church of Sweden]]}}</ref>\n|- style="text-align:center;"\n| 2018 || 10 230 185 || 5 904 830 || 57.7%<ref name=svenskakyrkan18>{{cite web|url=https://www.svenskakyrkan.se/filer/Medlemmar%20i%20svk%20i%20f%C3%B6rh%C3%A5llande%20till%20folkm%C3%A4ngd%2031.12.2018%20per%20f%C3%B6rsamling,%20kommun,%20l%C3%A4n%20och%20riket(1).PDF|title=Medlemmar i Svenska kyrkan i förhållande till folkmängd den 31.12.2018 per församling, kommun och län samt riket|language=Swedish|accessdate=27 April 2019|publisher=[[Church of Sweden]]}}</ref>\n|}\n\nBefore the 11th century, Swedes adhered to [[Norse paganism]], worshiping [[Æsir]] gods, with its centre at the [[temple at Uppsala|Temple in Uppsala]]. With [[Christianization of Scandinavia|Christianisation]] in the 11th century, the laws of the country changed, forbidding worship of other deities until the late 19th century. After the [[Protestant Reformation]] in the 1530s, a change led by [[Martin Luther]]\'s Swedish associate [[Olaus Petri]], the authority of the [[Roman Catholic Church]] was abolished and [[Lutheranism]] became widespread. Adoption of Lutheranism was completed by the [[Uppsala Synod]] of 1593, and it became the official religion. During the era following the Reformation, usually known as the period of [[Lutheran orthodoxy]], small groups of non-Lutherans, especially [[Calvinism|Calvinist]] [[Dutch people|Dutchmen]], the [[Moravian Church]] and [[French Huguenots]] played a significant role in trade and industry, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept a low religious profile.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Gritsch|first1=Eric|title=A History of Lutheranism|date=2010|publisher=Fortress Press|location=Minneapolis|isbn=9781451407754|pages=351|edition=2nd|url=https://books.google.com/?id=ApWxByVqe-MC&dq=lutheranism+history+in+sweden|accessdate=20 March 2017}}</ref> The [[Sami people|Sami]] originally had their own [[Animism|shamanistic religion]], but they were converted to Lutheranism by Swedish missionaries in the 17th and 18th centuries.\n\n[[File:Katarina kyrka February 2015 02.jpg|thumb|left|The Protestant [[Katarina Church]] in Stockholm]]\n[[File:Moske Malmo 2014Jun17 0002-3.jpg|thumb|left|The second oldest mosque in Sweden is the [[Malmö Mosque]]]]\n\nWith religious liberalisations in the late 18th century believers of other faiths, including [[History of the Jews in Sweden|Judaism]] and [[Roman Catholicism]], were allowed to live and work freely in the country. However, until 1860 it remained illegal for Lutherans to convert to another religion. The 19th century saw the arrival of various [[Low church|evangelical]] [[free church]]es, and, towards the end of the century, [[secularism]], leading many to distance themselves from church rituals. Leaving the Church of Sweden became legal with the so-called dissenter law of 1860, but only under the provision of entering another [[Christian denomination]]. The right to stand outside any religious denomination was formally established in the law on [[freedom of religion]] in 1951.\n\nIn 2000, the [[Church of Sweden]] was disestablished. Sweden was the second [[Nordic country]] to [[Separation of church and state|disestablish]] its [[state church]] (after [[Finland]] did so in the Church Act of 1869).<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.iclrs.org/content/blurb/files/Sweden.1.pdf|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160110072754/http://www.iclrs.org/content/blurb/files/Sweden.1.pdf|deadurl=y|title=MAARIT JÄNTERÄ-JAREBORG: Religion and the Secular State in Sweden|archivedate=10 January 2016}}</ref>\n\nAt the end of 2018, 57.7% of Swedes belonged to the [[Church of Sweden]]; this number had been decreasing by about 1.5 percentage points a year for the previous 7 years and one percentage point a year on average for the previous two decades.<ref name=svenskakyrkan18/><ref name="svenskakyrkan.se">{{cite web |url=https://www.svenskakyrkan.se/default.aspx?di=978164 |publisher=[[Church of Sweden]] |title=Stift |trans-title=Diocese |format=PDF |language=Swedish }}{{dead link|date=November 2017 |bot=BabbaQ |fix-attempted=yes }}</ref><ref name="thelocal1">{{cite news |url=http://www.thelocal.se/26878/20100527/ |title=Swedes depart church in droves |newspaper=[[The Local]] |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100802045112/http://www.thelocal.se/26878/20100527/ |archivedate=2 August 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|publisher=[[Church of Sweden]] |url=http://www.svenskakyrkan.se/statistik/xls/medlem_diagram.xls |title=Medlemmar 1972–2006 |trans-title=Members 1972–2006 |format=xls |language=Swedish |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070930212556/http://www.svenskakyrkan.se/statistik/xls/medlem_diagram.xls |archivedate=30 September 2007}}</ref> Approximately 2% of the church\'s members regularly attend Sunday services.<ref>{{cite web|publisher=[[Church of Sweden]] |url=http://www.svenskakyrkan.se/SVK/eng/liturgy.htm |title=Liturgy and Worship |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100422193814/http://www.svenskakyrkan.se/SVK/eng/liturgy.htm |archivedate=22 April 2010}}</ref> The reason for the large number of inactive members is partly that, until 1996, children automatically became members at birth if at least one of the parents was a member. Since 1996, only children that are christened become members. Some 275,000 Swedes are today members of various [[Evangelical Protestant]] free churches (where congregation attendance is much higher), and due to recent immigration, there are now some 100,000 [[Eastern Orthodox Church|Eastern Orthodox Christians]] and 92,000 Roman Catholics living in Sweden.<ref>[[:sv:Frikyrka|Statistics about free churches and immigration churches from Swedish Wikipedia – in Swedish]]</ref>\n\nThe first Muslim congregation was established in 1949, when a small contingent of [[Tatars]] migrated from Finland. Islam\'s presence in Sweden remained marginal until the 1960s, when Sweden started to receive migrants from [[the Balkans]] and [[Turkey]]. Further immigration from [[North Africa]] and the [[Middle East]] have brought the estimated [[Islam in Sweden|Muslim population]] to 600,000.<ref>[https://2009-2017.state.gov/documents/organization/238650.pdf International Religious Freedom Report 2014 : Sweden] , U.S. Department Of State.</ref> However, only about 110,000 were members of a congregation around 2010.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://sydsvenskan.se/sverige/article140868.ece |first1=Erik |last1=Magnusson |first2=Olle |last2=Lönnaeus |first3=Niklas |last3=Orrenius |title=Djup splittring bland Malmös muslimer |trans-title=Deep splits among Malmö\'s Muslims |newspaper=[[Sydsvenska Dagbladet]] |language=Swedish |date=8 February 2006 |accessdate=25 August 2010 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120113112554/http://www.sydsvenskan.se/sverige/article140868.ece |archivedate=13 January 2012 |df=}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sst.a.se/statistik.4.7501238311cc6f12fa580005236.html |title=Statistik |trans-title=Statistics |publisher=Swedish Commission for Government Support to Faith Communities |language=Swedish |year=2010 |accessdate=4 July 2012 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20121129111255/http://www.sst.a.se/statistik.4.7501238311cc6f12fa580005236.html |archivedate=29 November 2012 |df=dmy-all }}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.arvsfonden.se/upload/utvarderingar/Islam%20och%20muslimer%20i%20Sverige%20Mattias%20Gardell.pdf |first=Mattias |last=Gardell |title=Islam och muslimer i Sverige |trans-title=Islam and Muslims in Sweden |publisher=[[Inheritance Fund (Sweden)|Inheritance Fund]] |date=May 2010 |language=Swedish |accessdate=4 July 2012 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100813171738/http://www.arvsfonden.se/upload/utvarderingar/Islam%20och%20muslimer%20i%20Sverige%20Mattias%20Gardell.pdf |archivedate=13 August 2010}}</ref>\n\nAccording to the [[Eurobarometer|Eurobarometer Poll]] 2010,<ref name="Special Eurobarometer 393">{{cite web|url=http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_341_en.pdf |publisher=[[Eurobarometer]] |title=Biotechnology report 2010 |date=2010 |page=381 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20101215001129/http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_341_en.pdf |archivedate=15 December 2010 |df= }}{{better source|date=January 2014}}</ref>\n* \'\'\'18%\'\'\' of Swedish citizens responded that "they believe there is a god".\n* \'\'\'45%\'\'\' answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force".\n* \'\'\'34%\'\'\' answered that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".\n\nAccording to a Demoskop study in 2015 about the beliefs of the Swedish showed that\n* \'\'\'21%\'\'\' believed in a god (down from 35 percent in 2008).\n* \'\'\'16%\'\'\' believed in ghosts.\n* \'\'\'14%\'\'\' believed in creationism or intelligent design.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.thelocal.se/20151030/belief-in-ghosts-rises-in-secular-sweden |newspaper=[[The Local]] |title=Belief in ghosts rises across secular Sweden |first=August |last=Håkansson |date=30 October 2015 |access-date=17 February 2016 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304054008/http://www.thelocal.se/20151030/belief-in-ghosts-rises-in-secular-sweden |archive-date=4 March 2016 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.vof.se/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/VoF-Undersökningen-2015.pdf |publisher=[[Föreningen Vetenskap och Folkbildning]] |title=VoF-Undersökningen 2015 |trans-title=VoF survey of 2015 |date=2015 |access-date=17 February 2016 |language=Swedish |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304083406/http://www.vof.se/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/VoF-Unders%C3%B6kningen-2015.pdf |archive-date=4 March 2016 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n\nSociology professor [[Phil Zuckerman]] claims that Swedes, despite a lack of belief in God, commonly question the term [[atheist]], preferring to call themselves Christians while being content with remaining in the Church of Sweden.<ref name="Peter Steinfels">{{cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/28/us/28beliefs.html?pagewanted=1|last=Steinfels|first=Peter|title=Scandinavian Nonbelievers, Which Is Not to Say Atheists|newspaper=[[The New York Times]]|quote=Mr. Zuckerman, a sociologist who teaches at Pitzer College in Claremont, Calif., has reported his findings on religion in Denmark and Sweden in "Society Without God" (New York University Press, 2008). Much that he found will surprise many people, as it did him. The many nonbelievers he interviewed, both informally and in structured, taped and transcribed sessions, were anything but antireligious, for example. They typically balked at the label "atheist." An overwhelming majority had in fact been baptized, and many had been confirmed or married in church. Though they denied most of the traditional teachings of Christianity, they called themselves Christians, and most were content to remain in the Danish National Church or the Church of Sweden, the traditional national branches of Lutheranism.|accessdate=31 December 2007|year=2009|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121111010613/http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/28/us/28beliefs.html?pagewanted=1|archive-date=11 November 2012|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n\n=== Health ===\n{{See also|Healthcare in Sweden|Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare}}\nHealthcare in Sweden is similar in quality to other developed nations. Sweden ranks in the top five countries with respect to low [[infant mortality]]. It also ranks high in [[life expectancy]] and in safe [[drinking water]]. A person seeking care first contacts a clinic for a doctor\'s appointment, and may then be referred to a specialist by the clinic physician, who may in turn recommend either in-patient or out-patient treatment, or an elective care option. The health care is governed by the 21 [[County Councils of Sweden|landsting]] of Sweden and is mainly funded by taxes, with nominal fees for patients.\n\n=== Education ===\n{{Main|Education in Sweden}}\n[[File:Entrance hall of Uppsala University main building.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Uppsala University]] (established 1477)]]\nChildren aged 1–5 years old are guaranteed a place in a public [[kindergarten]] ({{lang-sv|förskola}} or, colloquially, \'\'dagis\'\'). Between the ages of 6 and 16, children attend compulsory comprehensive school. In the [[Programme for International Student Assessment]] (PISA), Swedish 15-year-old pupils score close to the OECD average.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/42/8/39700724.pdf |publisher=[[Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development|OECD]] |title=PISA results for Sweden |accessdate=25 August 2010 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091229020307/http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/42/8/39700724.pdf |archive-date=29 December 2009 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> After completing the 9th grade, about 90% of the students continue with a three-year upper secondary school (\'\'gymnasium\'\'), which can lead to both a job qualification or entrance eligibility to university. The school system is largely financed by taxes.\n\nThe Swedish government treats public and independent schools equally<ref name="swedishmodeleconomist">{{cite news|url=http://www.economist.com/business/displaystory.cfm?story_id=11535645|title=The Swedish model|work=[[The Economist]]|accessdate=17 September 2014|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161226014533/http://www.economist.com/business/displaystory.cfm?story_id=11535645|archive-date=26 December 2016|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> by introducing [[education voucher]]s in 1992 as one of the first countries in the world after the Netherlands. Anyone can establish a for-profit school and the municipality must pay new schools the same amount as municipal schools get. School lunch is free for all students in Sweden, and providing breakfast is also encouraged.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.childrensfoodtrust.org.uk/assets/research-reports/school_food_in18countries.pdf |title=The provision of school food in 18 countries |publisher=[[Children\'s Food Trust]] |date=July 2008 |accessdate=9 June 2013 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130301002902/http://www.childrensfoodtrust.org.uk/assets/research-reports/school_food_in18countries.pdf |archivedate=1 March 2013 |df=}}</ref>\n\nThere are a number of different [[List of universities in Sweden|universities and colleges in Sweden]], the oldest and largest of which are situated in [[Uppsala University|Uppsala]], [[Lund University|Lund]], [[University of Gothenburg|Gothenburg]] and [[Stockholm University|Stockholm]]. In 2000, 32% of Swedish people held a [[tertiary education|tertiary degree]], making the country 5th in the OECD in that category.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/edu_edu_att_ter-education-educational-attainment-tertiary |title=Tertiary > Educational Attainment statistics – countries compared |publisher=NationMaster.com |access-date=17 February 2016 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131104153515/http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/edu_edu_att_ter-education-educational-attainment-tertiary |archive-date=4 November 2013 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> Along with several other European countries, the government also subsidises tuition of international students pursuing a degree at Swedish institutions, although a recent bill passed in the Riksdag will limit this subsidy to students from EEA countries and [[Switzerland]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.studyinsweden.se/Home/News-archive/2010/Tuition-fees-from-2011/ |title=Sweden introduces tuition fees and offers scholarships for students from outside EU |date=21 April 2010 |publisher=Studyinsweden.se |accessdate=3 August 2010 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100628053602/http://www.studyinsweden.se/Home/News-archive/2010/Tuition-fees-from-2011/ |archivedate=28 June 2010}}</ref>\n\nThe large influx of immigrants to Swedish schools has been cited as a significant part of the reason why Sweden has dropped more than any other European country in the international [[PISA]] rankings.<ref>{{cite news|date=16 March 2016|title=Immigrant children in Sweden blamed for country\'s poor test scores|url=https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/immigrant-children-in-sweden-blamed-for-countrys-poor-test-scores-a6934111.html|access-date=28 January 2018|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180127202352/https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/immigrant-children-in-sweden-blamed-for-countrys-poor-test-scores-a6934111.html|archive-date=27 January 2018|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|date=10 August 2015|title=Immigration helps explain Sweden’s school trouble|url=https://blogs.spectator.co.uk/2015/08/immigration-helps-explain-swedens-school-trouble/|access-date=17 November 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170812101756/https://blogs.spectator.co.uk/2015/08/immigration-helps-explain-swedens-school-trouble/|archive-date=12 August 2017|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|date=16 June 2016|title=Why Sweden’s free schools are failing|url=https://www.newstatesman.com/politics/education/2016/06/why-sweden-s-free-schools-are-failing|access-date=17 November 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171115014822/https://www.newstatesman.com/politics/education/2016/06/why-sweden-s-free-schools-are-failing|archive-date=15 November 2017|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|date=23 February 2016|title=Invandring säker faktor bakom Pisa-tappet|url=https://www.dagenssamhalle.se/kronika/invandring-saeker-faktor-bakom-pisa-tappet-22744|access-date=17 November 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171115082856/https://www.dagenssamhalle.se/kronika/invandring-saeker-faktor-bakom-pisa-tappet-22744|archive-date=15 November 2017|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n\n=== Immigration ===\n{{Main|Immigration to Sweden}}\n\nImmigration has been a major source of [[population growth]] and cultural change throughout much of the [[history of Sweden]], and in recent centuries the country has been transformed from a nation of net emigration, ending after World War I, to a nation of net immigration, from World War II onwards. The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward [[social mobility]], crime, and voting behaviour.<ref>{{cite news |url=https://www.economist.com/news/special-report/21570836-immigration-and-growing-inequality-are-making-nordics-less-homogeneous-ins-and |title=Immigrants: The ins and the outs |newspaper=[[The Economist]] |date=2 February 2013 |accessdate=10 June 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130530054825/http://www.economist.com/news/special-report/21570836-immigration-and-growing-inequality-are-making-nordics-less-homogeneous-ins-and |archive-date=30 May 2013 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n\nThere are no exact numbers on the [[ethnicity|ethnic]] background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden because the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity. This is, however, not to be confused with the migrants\' [[Nationality|national backgrounds]], which are recorded.\n\n[[File:Number of persons by foreign Swedish background in 2002-2011.jpg|thumb|Population by ancestry, Sweden 2002–2011]]\n[[File:Invandrare utvandrare Sverige 1850-2007.svg|thumb|Immigrants (red) and emigrants (blue), Sweden 1850–2007]]\nIn 2018, there were 2,543,420 inhabitants of a foreign background (foreign-born and children of international migrants), comprising around 25% of the Swedish population.<ref name=":0" /> The number of people with at least one foreign parent was 3,311,312 which counts for 32% of the population.<ref name="statistikdatabasen.scb.se">{{Cite web|url=http://www.statistikdatabasen.scb.se/pxweb/en/ssd/START__BE__BE0101__BE0101Q/UtlSvBakgFin/table/tableViewLayout1/?rxid=86abd797-7854-4564-9150-c9b06ae3ab07c9b06ae3ab07|title=Number of persons with foreign or Swedish background (detailed division) by region, age and sex. Year 2002 – 2017|last=|first=|date=|website=www.statistikdatabasen.scb.se|access-date=7 April 2019}}</ref> Of these inhabitants, 1,955,569 persons living in Sweden were born abroad. In addition, 587,851 persons were born in Sweden to two parents born abroad and another 767,892 persons had one parent born abroad (with the other parent born in Sweden).<ref name="statistikdatabasen.scb.se"/>\n\nImmigrants in Sweden are mostly concentrated in the urban areas of Svealand and Götaland.<ref name="scb%252Ese">{{cite web|url=http://www.scb.se/Pages/PublishingCalendarViewInfo____259923.aspx?PublObjId=11400|title=Tabeller över Sveriges befolkning 2009|date=24 January 2009|publisher=[[Statistics Sweden]]|language=Swedish|trans-title=Tables of Sweden\'s population in 2009|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110812141807/http://www.scb.se/Pages/PublishingCalendarViewInfo____259923.aspx?PublObjId=11400|archivedate=12 August 2011|deadurl=yes|accessdate=1 September 2011|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Since the early 1970s, immigration to Sweden has been mostly due to refugee migration and family reunification from countries in the Middle East and Latin America.<ref name="MPI">{{cite web |url=http://www.migrationinformation.org/usfocus/display.cfm?ID=406 |title=Sweden: Restrictive Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism, Migration Policy Institute, 2006 |publisher=Migrationinformation.org |date=June 2006 |access-date=12 January 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100805212457/http://www.migrationinformation.org//USfocus//display.cfm?ID=406 |archive-date=5 August 2010 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> In 2013, Sweden granted 29,000 people asylum,<ref name="mig2013">{{cite web|url=http://www.migrationsverket.se/Om-Migrationsverket/Nyhetsarkiv/Nyhetsarkiv-2014/2014-01-02-67-procent-fler-fick-skydd-jamfort-med-2012.html |title=67 procent fler fick skydd jämfört med 2012 |trans-title=67 percent more received protection compared to 2012 |publisher=[[Swedish Migration Agency]] |accessdate=17 September 2014 |language=Swedish |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140820093136/http://www.migrationsverket.se/Om-Migrationsverket/Nyhetsarkiv/Nyhetsarkiv-2014/2014-01-02-67-procent-fler-fick-skydd-jamfort-med-2012.html |archivedate=20 August 2014}}</ref> an increase of 67% compared to 2012.<ref name="mig2013" />\n\nThe ten largest groups of foreign-born persons in the Swedish [[civil registry]] in 2018 were from:<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.statistikdatabasen.scb.se/pxweb/en/ssd/START__BE__BE0101__BE0101E/FodelselandArK/?rxid=86abd797-7854-4564-9150-c9b06ae3ab07c9b06ae3ab07|title=Population by country of birth, age and sex. Year 2000 – 2018|last=|first=|date=7 April 2019|website=|publisher=[[Statistics Sweden]]|language=|trans-title=|accessdate=7 April 2019}}</ref>\n# {{flag|Syria}} (185,991)\n# {{flag|Finland}} (147,883)\n# {{flag|Iraq}} (144,035)\n# {{flag|Poland}} (92,759)\n# {{flag|Iran}} (77,386)\n# {{flag|Somalia}} (68,678)\n# {{flagdeco|Yugoslavia}} Former [[Federal Republic of Yugoslavia|Yugoslavia]] (65,124)\n# {{flag|Bosnia and Herzegovina}} (59,395)\n# {{flag|Afghanistan}} (51,979)\n# {{flag|Germany}} (51,140)\n\nAccording to an official investigation by [[Ministry of Finance (Sweden)#Financial Institutions and Markets Department|The Swedish Pensions Agency]] on order from the government, the immigration to Sweden will double the state\'s expenses for pensions to the population. The total immigration to Sweden for 2017 will be roughly 180 000 people, and after that 110 000 individuals every year.<ref name="DI Pensions">{{cite news|date=17 October 2017|title=Migrationen kan fördubbla statens kostnader för pensionärer|url=https://www.di.se/nyheter/migrationen-kan-fordubbla-statens-kostnader-for-pensionarer/|access-date=17 November 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171117160557/https://www.di.se/nyheter/migrationen-kan-fordubbla-statens-kostnader-for-pensionarer/|archive-date=17 November 2017|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref><ref name="Pensions Agency Report">{{cite news|date=13 October 2017|title=Pensionsmyndigheten svarar på regeringsuppdrag om migration|url=https://www.pensionsmyndigheten.se/nyheter-och-press/pressrum/pensionsmyndigheten-svarar-pa-regeringsuppdrag-om-migration|access-date=17 November 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171117160618/https://www.pensionsmyndigheten.se/nyheter-och-press/pressrum/pensionsmyndigheten-svarar-pa-regeringsuppdrag-om-migration|archive-date=17 November 2017|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n\n=== Crime ===\n{{Main|Crime in Sweden}}\nFigures from the 2013 Swedish Crime Survey (SCS) show that exposure to crime decreased from 2005 to 2013.<ref name=SCS2014>{{cite web|title=The Swedish Crime Survey 2013 – English summary of Brå report 2014:1|url=http://www.bra.se/download/18.9eaaede145606cc86546f/1398774378897/2014_Swedish_Crime_Survey_2013.pdf|publisher=The [[Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention]]|accessdate=15 July 2014|pages=5, 7|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140724052101/http://www.bra.se/download/18.9eaaede145606cc86546f/1398774378897/2014_Swedish_Crime_Survey_2013.pdf|archive-date=24 July 2014|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Since 2014 there has been an increase in exposure to some categories of crimes, including fraud, some property crime and especially sexual offences (with a 70% increase since 2013) according to the 2016 SCS.<ref name=SCS2016>{{cite web|title=The Swedish Crime Survey 2016 – English summary of the Brå report 2016|url=https://www.bra.se/bra/bra-in-english/home/publications/archive/publications/2017-02-15-swedish-crime-survey-2016.html|publisher=[[Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention]]|accessdate=2 March 2017|pages=5–7|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170303200845/https://www.bra.se/bra/bra-in-english/home/publications/archive/publications/2017-02-15-swedish-crime-survey-2016.html|archive-date=3 March 2017|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Violence (both lethal and non-lethal) has been on a downward trend the last 25 years.<ref name=facts>{{cite web|url=http://www.government.se/articles/2017/02/facts-about-migration-and-crime-in-sweden/|title=Facts about migration, integration and crime in Sweden|first=Regeringen och|last=Regeringskansliet|date=23 February 2017|website=Regeringskansliet|access-date=17 November 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171115044305/http://www.government.se/articles/2017/02/facts-about-migration-and-crime-in-sweden|archive-date=15 November 2017|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> The figures for fraud and property damage (excluding car theft) are in contrast with the numbers of reported crimes under such categories which have remained roughly constant over the period 2014–16.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.thelocal.se/20170112/swedens-2016-crime-stats-analyzed|title=Here are Sweden\'s crime stats for 2016|accessdate=6 March 2017|date=2017-01-12|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170307045457/http://www.thelocal.se/20170112/swedens-2016-crime-stats-analyzed|archive-date=7 March 2017|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> The number of reported sexual offences clearly reflect the figures in the 2016 SCS, and car related damages/theft are also somewhat reflected.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.bra.se/bra/brott-och-statistik/valdtakt-och-sexualbrott.html|title=Rape & Sexual Offences|date=16 January 2017|website=bra.se|archiveurl=https://archive.today/20170221212501/https://www.bra.se/bra/brott-och-statistik/valdtakt-och-sexualbrott.html|archivedate=21 February 2017|deadurl=yes|accessdate=17 March 2017|df=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.brottsrummet.se/sv/sexualbrott |title=Sexual Offences |date= |website=Brottsrummet |archiveurl=https://archive.today/20170317143743/http://www.brottsrummet.se/sv/sexualbrott |archivedate=17 March 2017 |deadurl=yes |accessdate=17 March 2017 |df= }}</ref> The number of convictions up to 2013 has remained between 110,000 and 130,000 in the 2000s — a decrease since the 1970s, when they numbered around 300,000 — despite the population growth.<ref>{{cite web|title=Personer lagförda för brott|page=5|language=Swedish|url=http://www.bra.se/download/18.1ff479c3135e8540b29800013251/1338449406369/Sammanfattning_lagforda_2011.pdf|publisher=[[Brå]]|accessdate=15 July 2014|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140708181451/http://bra.se/download/18.1ff479c3135e8540b29800013251/1338449406369/Sammanfattning_lagforda_2011.pdf|archive-date=8 July 2014|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref> Consistent with other [[Western world|Western]] countries in the [[post-war|postwar era]], the number of reported crimes has increased when measured from the 1950s; which can be explained by a number of factors, such as immigration, statistical and legislative changes and increased public willingness to report crime.<ref name=crime-trend-stats-1>{{cite web|title=Rapport 2008:23 – Brottsutvecklingen i sverige fram till år 2007|url=http://www.bra.se/download/18.cba82f7130f475a2f180006972/2008_23_brottsuvecklingen.pdf|publisher=[[Brå]]|accessdate=15 July 2014|pages=38, 41|language=Swedish|quote=I Sverige har den registrerade brottsligheten precis som i övriga västvärlden ökat kraftigt under efterkrigstiden. [...] Vid mitten av 1960-talet införde Polisen nya rutiner av statistikföring en vilket har framförts som en delförklaring till den kraftiga ökningen, i synnerhet i början av denna period (Brå 2004). [...] Detta beror sannolikt främst på att toleransen mot vålds- och sexualbrott har minskat i samhället. Att man i samhället tar våld på större allvar demonstreras inte minst genom att synen på olika våldshandlingar skärpts i lagstiftningen (ibid. samt kapitlet Sexualbrott)|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140112053148/http://www.bra.se/download/18.cba82f7130f475a2f180006972/2008_23_brottsuvecklingen.pdf|archive-date=12 January 2014|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n\n== Culture ==\n{{Main|Culture of Sweden}}\n[[File:Nationalmuseum Stockholm.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Nationalmuseum]] in Stockholm]]\nSweden has many authors of worldwide recognition including [[August Strindberg]], [[Astrid Lindgren]], and Nobel Prize winners [[Selma Lagerlöf]] and [[Harry Martinson]]. In total seven [[Nobel Prize in Literature|Nobel Prizes in Literature]] have been awarded to Swedes. The nation\'s most well-known artists are painters such as [[Carl Larsson]] and [[Anders Zorn]], and the sculptors [[Tobias Sergel]] and [[Carl Milles]].\n\nSwedish 20th-century culture is noted by pioneering works in the early days of cinema, with [[Mauritz Stiller]] and [[Victor Sjöström]]. In the 1920s–1980s, the filmmaker [[Ingmar Bergman]] and actors [[Greta Garbo]] and [[Ingrid Bergman]] became internationally noted people within cinema. More recently, the films of [[Lukas Moodysson]], [[Lasse Hallström]], and [[Ruben Östlund]] have received international recognition.\n\nThroughout the 1960s and 1970s Sweden was seen as an international leader in what is now referred to as the "[[sexual revolution]]", with gender equality having particularly been promoted.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.sweden.se/eng/Home/Lifestyle/Reading/The-Swedish-myths-True-false-or-somewhere-in-between/ |title=The Swedish Myths: True, False, or Somewhere In Between? |publisher=Sweden.se |accessdate=27 January 2011 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100917004928/http://www.sweden.se/eng/Home/Lifestyle/Reading/The-Swedish-myths-True-false-or-somewhere-in-between/ |archivedate=17 September 2010}}</ref> The early Swedish film \'\'[[I Am Curious (Yellow)]]\'\' (1967) reflected a liberal view of sexuality, including scenes of love making that caught international attention, and introduced the concept of the "Swedish sin" that had been introduced earlier in the US with Ingmar Bergman\'s \'\'[[Summer with Monika]].\'\'\n\nThe image of "hot love and cold people" emerged. Sexual liberalism was seen as part of modernisation process that by breaking down traditional borders would lead to the emancipation of natural forces and desires.<ref>{{cite journal |first1=Carl |last1=Marklund |title=Hot Love and Cold People. Sexual Liberalism as Political Escapism in Radical Sweden |year=2009 |journal=NORDEUROPAforum |volume=19 |issue=1 |pages=83–101 |url=http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/nordeuropaforum/2009-1/marklund-carl-83/XML/ |access-date=5 May 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121217062419/http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/nordeuropaforum/2009-1/marklund-carl-83/XML/ |archive-date=17 December 2012 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref>\n\nSweden has also become very liberal towards homosexuality, as is reflected in the popular acceptance of films such as \'\'[[Fucking Åmål|Show Me Love]]\'\', which is about two young lesbians in the small Swedish town of Åmål. Since 1 May 2009, Sweden repealed its "registered partnership" laws and fully replaced them with [[gender-neutral marriage]],<ref>{{cite news|title=Sweden passes new gay marriage law |newspaper=[[The Local]] |date=2 April 2009 |url=http://www.thelocal.se/18608/20090402/ |accessdate=5 May 2009 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090410151816/http://www.thelocal.se/18608/20090402/ |archivedate=10 April 2009}}</ref> Sweden also offers [[domestic partnership]]s for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Cohabitation (\'\'sammanboende\'\') by couples of all ages, including teenagers as well as elderly couples, is widespread. As of 2009, Sweden is experiencing a baby boom.<ref>{{cite web|title=Babyboom i Sverige? |url=http://www.scb.se/Pages/TableAndChart____231102.aspx |language=Swedish |publisher=[[Statistics Sweden]] |accessdate=5 May 2009 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090730195209/http://www.scb.se/Pages/TableAndChart____231102.aspx |archivedate=30 July 2009}}</ref>\n\n===Music===\n<!-- NOTE: Please do not insert your own favourite band into a list here. The examples given are meant to be examples, not an exhaustive list of all Swedish bands which  has had some international success. The place for that is [[Music of Sweden]] or\n some other, more detailed article.-->\n{{Main|Music of Sweden}}\n[[File:ABBA - TopPop 1974 5.png|thumb|upright|left|The Swedish band [[ABBA]] in April 1974, a few days after they won the [[Eurovision Song Contest 1974|Eurovision Song Contest]]]]\nHistorical re-creations of Norse music have been attempted based on instruments found in Viking sites. The instruments used were the \'\'[[lur]]\'\' (a sort of trumpet), simple string instruments, wooden flutes and drums. Sweden has a significant [[Music of Sweden|folk-music]] scene. There is Sami music, called the \'\'[[joik]]\'\', which is a type of chant which is part of the traditional Sami animistic spirituality. Notable composers include [[Carl Michael Bellman]] and [[Franz Berwald]].\n\nSweden also has a prominent choral music tradition. Out of a population of 9.5 million, it is estimated that five to six hundred thousand people sing in choirs.<ref>{{cite book |last=Durant |first=Colin |year=2003 |title=Choral Conducting: philosophy and practice |publisher=Routledge |pages=46–47 |isbn=978-0-415-94356-7 |quote=Sweden has a strong and enviable choral singing tradition. [..] All those interviewed placed great emphasis on the social identification through singing and also referred to the importance of Swedish folk song in the maintenance of the choral singing tradition and national identity.}}</ref>\n\nIn 2007, with over 800 million dollars in revenue, Sweden was the third-largest music exporter in the world and surpassed only by the US and the UK.<ref name="export music">{{cite web|url=http://www.swedenabroad.com/Page____59218.aspx |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080615001724/http://www.swedenabroad.com/Page____59218.aspx |archivedate=15 June 2008 |title=Consulate General of Sweden Los Angeles – Export Music Sweden at MuseExpo |publisher=Swedenabroad.com |accessdate=6 May 2009 |deadurl=yes |df=}}</ref><ref name=autogenerated1>[https://web.archive.org/web/20120111124414/http://casgroup.fiu.edu/pages/docs/551/1264626358_Interesting_Facts_about_EU_Countries.pdf Interesting facts about EU countries]. casgroup.fiu.edu</ref>{{Better source|date=March 2013}} According to one source 2013, Sweden produces the most chart hits per capita in the world, followed by the UK and the USA.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.svtplay.se/video/1628310/del-16-av-16 |publisher=[[Sveriges Television]] |work=[[Agenda (Swedish TV program)|Agenda]] |title=Del 16 av 16 |trans-title=Part 16 of 16 |date=15 December 2013 |access-date=17 December 2013 |language=Swedish |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131217224031/http://www.svtplay.se/video/1628310/del-16-av-16 |archivedate=17 December 2013 }} at 19:45, citing the [[Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth]].</ref> \nSweden has a rather lively jazz scene. During the last sixty years or so it has attained a remarkably high artistic standard, stimulated by domestic as well as external influences and experiences. The Centre for Swedish Folk Music and Jazz Research has published an overview of jazz in Sweden by Lars Westin.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.visarkiv.se/en/jazz/index.htm |title=Lars Westin: Jazz in Sweden – an overview |publisher=Visarkiv.se |accessdate=25 August 2010 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080623003444/http://www.visarkiv.se/en/jazz/index.htm |archivedate=23 June 2008}}</ref>\n\n===Architecture===\n{{Main|Architecture of Sweden}}\n[[File:Djurgardsbron 2008.jpg|left|thumb|[[Djurgårdsbron]]]]\nBefore the 13th century almost all buildings were made of timber, but a shift began towards stone. Early Swedish stone buildings are the [[Romanesque architecture|Romanesque]] churches on the country side. As so happens, many of them were built in Scania and are in effect Danish churches. This would include the [[Lund Cathedral]] from the 11th century and the somewhat younger church in [[Dalby, Lund|Dalby]], but also many early [[Gothic (architecture)|Gothic]] churches built through influences of the Hanseatic League, such as in Ystad, Malmö and Helsingborg.\n\nCathedrals in other parts of Sweden were also built as seats of Sweden\'s bishops. The [[Skara Cathedral]] is of bricks from the 14th century, and the [[Uppsala Cathedral]] in the 15th. In 1230 the foundations of the [[Linköping]] Cathedral were made, the material was there [[limestone]], but the building took some 250 years to finish.\n\nAmong older structures are also some significant fortresses and other historical buildings such as at [[Borgholm Castle]], [[Halltorps Manor]] and [[Eketorp]] fortress on the island Öland, the [[Nyköping]] fortress and the [[Visby city wall]].\n\n[[File:Kalmar domkyrka 002.jpg|thumb|[[Kalmar Cathedral]]]]\nAround 1520 Sweden was out of the [[Middle Ages]] and united under King Gustav Vasa, who immediately initiated grand mansions, castles and fortresses to be built. Some of the more magnificent include the Kalmar fortress, the [[Gripsholm Castle]] and the one at [[Vadstena]].\n\nIn the next two centuries, Sweden was designated by [[Baroque architecture]] and later the [[rococo]]. Notable projects from that time include the city Karlskrona, which has now also been declared a World Heritage Site and the [[Drottningholm Palace]].\n\n1930 was the year of the great Stockholm exhibition, which marked the breakthrough of [[Functionalism (architecture)|Functionalism]], or "funkis" as it became known. The style came to dominate in the following decades. Some notable projects of this kind were the [[Million Programme]], offering affordable living in large apartment complexes.\n\nThe [[Ericsson Globe]] is the largest hemispherical building on Earth, Shaped like a large white ball, and took two and a half years to build. It\'s located in Stockholm.\n\n===Media===\n{{Main|Media in Sweden}}\n[[File:Sveriges Television, 2.jpg|thumb|Headquarters of [[Sveriges Television]] in Stockholm]]\nSwedes are among the greatest consumers of newspapers in the world, and nearly every town is served by a local paper. The country\'s main quality morning papers are \'\'[[Dagens Nyheter]]\'\' (liberal), \'\'[[Göteborgs-Posten]]\'\' (liberal), \'\'[[Svenska Dagbladet]]\'\' (liberal conservative) and \'\'[[Sydsvenska Dagbladet]]\'\' (liberal). The two largest evening [[tabloid (newspaper format)|tabloids]] are \'\'[[Aftonbladet]]\'\' (social democratic) and \'\'[[Expressen]]\'\' (liberal). The ad-financed, free international morning paper, \'\'[[Metro International]]\'\', was founded in Stockholm, Sweden. The country\'s news is reported in English by, among others, \'\'[[The Local]]\'\' (liberal).<ref>{{cite book |first=Kenneth E. |last=Olson |title=The history makers;: The press of Europe from its beginnings through 1965 |publisher=LSU Press |year=1966 |pages=33–49}}</ref>\n\nThe public broadcasting companies held a monopoly on radio and television for a long time in Sweden. Licence funded radio broadcasts started in 1925. A second radio network was started in 1954 and a third opened 1962 in response to pirate radio stations. Non-profit [[Community radio#Sweden|community radio]] was allowed in 1979 and in 1993 commercial local radio started.\n\nThe licence-funded television service was officially launched in 1956. A second channel, [[SVT2|TV2]], was launched in 1969. These two channels (operated by [[Sveriges Television]] since the late 1970s) held a monopoly until the 1980s when cable and satellite television became available. The first Swedish language satellite service was [[TV3 (Sweden)|TV3]] which started broadcasting from London in 1987. It was followed by [[Kanal 5 (Sweden)|Kanal 5]] in 1989 (then known as Nordic Channel) and [[TV4 (Sweden)|TV4]] in 1990.\n\nIn 1991 the government announced it would begin taking applications from private television companies wishing to broadcast on the [[terrestrial television|terrestrial network]]. TV4, which had previously been broadcasting via satellite, was granted a permit and began its terrestrial broadcasts in 1992, becoming the first private channel to broadcast television content from within the country.\n\nAround half the population are connected to cable television. [[Digital terrestrial television in Sweden]] started in 1999 and the last analogue terrestrial broadcasts were terminated in 2007.\n\n===Literature===\n{{Main|Swedish literature}}\n[[File:Portrait of August Strindberg by Richard Bergh 1905.jpg|upright|thumb|The writer and playwright [[August Strindberg]]]]\n\nThe first literary text from Sweden is the [[Rök Runestone]], carved during the Viking Age c. 800 AD. With the conversion of the land to Christianity around 1100 AD, Sweden entered the [[Middle Ages]], during which monastic writers preferred to use Latin. Therefore, there are only a few texts in the [[Swedish language#Old Swedish|Old Swedish]] from that period. Swedish literature only flourished when the Swedish language was standardised in the 16th century, a standardisation largely due to the full translation of the Bible into Swedish in 1541. This translation is the so-called [[Gustav Vasa Bible]].\n\nWith improved education and the freedom brought by [[secularisation]], the 17th century saw several notable authors develop the Swedish language further. Some key figures include [[Georg Stiernhielm]] (17th century), who was the first to write classical poetry in Swedish; [[Johan Henric Kellgren]] (18th century), the first to write fluent Swedish prose; Carl Michael Bellman (late 18th century), the first writer of [[burlesque]] ballads; and August Strindberg (late 19th century), a socio-realistic writer and playwright who won worldwide fame. The early 20th century continued to produce notable authors, such as Selma Lagerlöf, (Nobel laureate 1909), [[Verner von Heidenstam]] (Nobel laureate 1916) and [[Pär Lagerkvist]] (Nobel laureate 1951).\n\nIn recent decades, a handful of Swedish writers have established themselves internationally, including the detective novelist [[Henning Mankell]] and the writer of spy fiction [[Jan Guillou]]. The Swedish writer to have made the most lasting impression on world literature is the children\'s book writer Astrid Lindgren, and her books about [[Pippi Longstocking]], [[Emil i Lönneberga|Emil]], and others. In 2008, the second best-selling fiction author in the world was [[Stieg Larsson]], whose \'\'Millennium\'\' series of crime novels is being published posthumously to critical acclaim.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.abebooks.com/blog/index.php/2009/01/15/bestselling-fiction-authors-in-the-world-for-2008/ |title=Bestselling fiction authors in the world for 2008 |publisher=Abebooks.com |access-date=5 September 2009 |archive-url=https://archive.today/20120529183203/http://www.abebooks.com/blog/index.php/2009/01/15/bestselling-fiction-authors-in-the-world-for-2008/ |archive-date=29 May 2012 |dead-url=no |df=dmy-all }}</ref> Larsson drew heavily on the work of Lindgren by basing his central character, Lisbeth Salander, on Longstocking.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.theguardian.com/books/2009/jul/26/stieg-larsson-thriller-novels-sweden|title=Poisoned Legacy Left By The King Of Thrillers|first=Vanessa|last=Thorpe|newspaper=[[The Guardian]]|accessdate=17 September 2014|date=2009-07-25|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141013155817/http://www.theguardian.com/books/2009/jul/26/stieg-larsson-thriller-novels-sweden|archive-date=13 October 2014|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n\n===Holidays===\n{{Main|Public holidays in Sweden}}\n[[File:Valborgsbrasa-1.jpg|thumb|left|[[Walpurgis Night]] bonfire in Sweden]]\nApart from traditional Protestant [[Liturgical year|Christian holidays]], Sweden also celebrates some unique holidays, some of a pre-Christian tradition. They include [[Midsummer]] celebrating the summer [[solstice]]; [[Walpurgis Night]] (\'\'Valborgsmässoafton\'\') on 30 April lighting bonfires; and Labour Day or Mayday on 1 May is dedicated to socialist demonstrations. The day of giver-of-light [[Saint Lucy|Saint Lucia]], 13 December, is widely acknowledged in elaborate celebrations which betoken its Italian origin and commence the month-long Christmas season.\n\n6 June is the [[National holiday of Sweden|National Day of Sweden]] and has since 2005 been a public holiday. Furthermore, there are [[Flag days in Sweden|official flag day]] observances and a [[Namesdays in Sweden]] calendar. In August many Swedes have \'\'kräftskivor\'\' (crayfish dinner parties). [[Martin of Tours]] Eve is celebrated in [[Scania]] in November with \'\'Mårten Gås\'\' parties, where roast goose and \'\'[[svartsoppa]]\'\' (\'black soup\', made of goose stock, fruit, spices, spirits and goose blood) are served. The [[Sami people|Sami]], one of Sweden\'s indigenous minorities, have their holiday on 6 February and Scania celebrate their Scanian Flag day on the third Sunday in July.\n\n===Cuisine===\n\n{{Main|Swedish cuisine}}\n[[File:Sveriges Nationaldag 2014.jpg|thumb|The [[cinnamon roll]]s originated in Sweden and Denmark.]]\n[[File:Knaeckebroed.jpg|thumb|Swedish knäckebröd ([[crisp bread]])]]\n\nSwedish cuisine, like that of the other [[Scandinavia]]n countries ([[Cuisine of Denmark|Denmark]], [[Cuisine of Norway|Norway]] and [[Cuisine of Finland|Finland]]), was traditionally simple. Fish (particularly [[herring]]), meat, potatoes and [[dairy products]] played prominent roles. Spices were sparse. Preparations include Swedish meatballs, traditionally served with gravy, boiled potatoes and [[lingonberry jam]]; pancakes; \'\'[[lutefisk|lutfisk]]\'\'; and the [[smörgåsbord]], or lavish buffet. \'\'[[Akvavit]]\'\' is a popular alcoholic [[distilled beverage]], and the drinking of \'\'[[snaps]]\'\' is of cultural importance. The traditional flat and dry [[crisp bread]] has developed into several contemporary variants. Regionally important foods are the \'\'[[surströmming]]\'\' (a fermented fish) in northern Sweden and [[eel]] in Scania in southern Sweden.\n\nSwedish traditional dishes, some of which are many hundreds of years old, are still an important part of Swedish everyday meals, in spite of the fact that modern-day Swedish cuisine adopts many international dishes.\n\nIn August, at the traditional feast known as crayfish party, \'\'[[kräftskiva]]\'\', Swedes eat large amounts of [[crayfish]] boiled with dill.\n\n===Cinema===\n{{Main|Cinema of Sweden}}\nSwedes have been fairly prominent in the film area through the years. A number of Swedish people have found success in Hollywood, including Ingrid Bergman, Greta Garbo and [[Max von Sydow]]. Amongst several directors who have made internationally successful films can be mentioned Ingmar Bergman, Lukas Moodysson and Lasse Hallström.\n\n===Fashion===\nInterest in fashion is big in Sweden and the country is headquartering famous brands like [[H&M|Hennes & Mauritz]] (operating as H&M), [[J. Lindeberg]] (operating as JL), [[Acne Jeans|Acne]], [[Lindex]], [[Odd Molly]], [[Cheap Monday]], [[Gant U.S.A.|Gant]], [[WESC]], [[Filippa K]], and [[Nakkna]] within its borders. These companies, however, are composed largely of buyers who import fashionable goods from throughout Europe and America, continuing the trend of Swedish business toward multinational economic dependency like many of its neighbours.\n\n===Sports===\n{{Main|Sport in Sweden}}\n[[File:Björn Borg2.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Former World No. 1 tennis player [[Björn Borg]]]]\nSport activities are a national movement with half of the population actively participating in organised sporting activities. The two main spectator sports are [[Association football|football]] and [[ice hockey]]. Second to football, [[Horse#Sport|horse sports]] have the highest number of practitioners who are mostly women.{{ambiguous|date=February 2018}}<!--should probably be "most of whom are women"?--> Thereafter, golf, [[track and field]], and the [[team sport]]s of [[handball]], [[floorball]], basketball and [[bandy]] are the most popular.{{citation needed|date=February 2018}}\n\nThe Swedish national men\'s ice hockey team, affectionately known as \'\'[[Sweden men\'s national ice hockey team|Tre Kronor]]\'\' (English: [[Three Crowns]]; the national symbol of Sweden), is regarded as one of the best in the world. The team has won the [[Ice Hockey World Championships|World Championships]] nine times, placing them third in the all-time medal count. Tre Kronor also won Olympic gold medals in [[Ice hockey at the 1994 Winter Olympics|1994]] and [[Ice hockey at the 2006 Winter Olympics|2006]]. In 2006, Tre Kronor became the first national hockey team to win both the Olympic and world championships in the same year. The [[Sweden national football team|Swedish national football team]] has seen some success at the World Cup in the past, finishing second when they hosted the tournament in 1958, and third twice, in [[1950 FIFA World Cup|1950]] and [[1994 FIFA World Cup|1994]]. Athletics has enjoyed a surge in popularity due to several successful athletes in recent years, such as [[Carolina Klüft]] and [[Stefan Holm]].\n\nSweden hosted the [[1912 Summer Olympics]], [[Equestrian at the 1956 Summer Olympics]] and the [[FIFA World Cup]] in [[1958 FIFA World Cup|1958]]. Other big sports events include the [[UEFA Euro 1992]], [[1995 FIFA Women\'s World Cup]], [[1995 World Championships in Athletics]], [[UEFA Women\'s Euro 2013]], and several championships of ice hockey, [[curling]], athletics, [[skiing]], [[Bandy World Championship|bandy]], [[figure skating]] and swimming.\n\nSuccessful football players include [[Gunnar Nordahl]], [[Gunnar Gren]], [[Nils Liedholm]], [[Henrik Larsson]], [[Freddie Ljungberg]], [[Caroline Seger]], [[Lotta Schelin]], [[Hedvig Lindahl]], and [[Zlatan Ibrahimović]]. Successful tennis players include former world number 1 players [[Björn Borg]], [[Mats Wilander]] and [[Stefan Edberg]]. Other famous Swedish athletes include the [[heavyweight]] [[boxing]] champion and [[International Boxing Hall of Fame]]r [[Ingemar Johansson]], [[World Golf Hall of Fame]]r [[Annika Sörenstam]], and multiple World Championships and Olympics medalist in table tennis [[Jan-Ove Waldner]]. Due to its northerly latitude numerous world class winter sports athletes have come from Sweden. This includes alpine skiers [[Ingemar Stenmark]], [[Anja Pärson]] and [[Pernilla Wiberg]] as well as cross country-skiers [[Gunde Svan]], [[Thomas Wassberg]], [[Charlotte Kalla]] and [[Marcus Hellner]], all Olympic gold medalists.\n\nIn 2016, The Swedish Poker Federation (Svepof) has joined The [[International Federation of Poker]] (IFP).<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://pokerfed.org/2016/05/17/sweden-becomes-member-ifp-family/|title=Sweden Becomes a Member of the IFP Family|last=Goenka|first=Varun|date=17 May 2016|website=International Federation of Poker|access-date=4 July 2016|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160715082640/http://pokerfed.org/2016/05/17/sweden-becomes-member-ifp-family/|archive-date=15 July 2016|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n\n==International rankings==\nThe following are links to international rankings of Sweden from selected research institutes and foundations including economic output and various composite indices.\n{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center;"\n|-\n! style="width:65%;"| Index\n! style="width:15%;"| Rank\n! style="width:20%;"| Countries reviewed\n|-\n|align="left"| [[WIN/GIA]] 2015 End of Year Report, Economic Pessimism<ref>{{cite news |title=WIN/Gallup International’s Annual global End of Year survey reveals a world of conflicting hopes, happiness and despair |url=http://www.wingia.com/web/files/richeditor/filemanager/WINGIA_Final_Press_Release_EOY_2015.pdf |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171202051424/http://www.wingia.com/web/files/richeditor/filemanager/WINGIA_Final_Press_Release_EOY_2015.pdf |dead-url=yes |archive-date=2 December 2017 |accessdate=19 June 2018}}</ref>\n| 4th|| 68\n|-\n|align="left"| [[Climate Change Performance Index]] 2018<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.climate-change-performance-index.org/|title=Climate Change Performance Index|website=Climate Change Performance Index|publisher=Germanwatch, Climate Action Network International, and NewClimate Institute|language=en|date=November 2017|access-date=2018-05-13|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180703224204/https://www.climate-change-performance-index.org/|archive-date=3 July 2018|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n| 4th <sup>(no countries received rankings one to three)</sup>|| 60\n|-\n|align="left"| [[Index of Economic Freedom]] 2018<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.heritage.org/index/ranking|title=Country Rankings: World & Global Economy Rankings on Economic Freedom|website=www.heritage.org|access-date=13 May 2018|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181124020846/https://www.heritage.org/index/ranking|archive-date=24 November 2018|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n| 15th|| 180\n|-\n|align="left"| [[Ease of Doing Business Index]] 2017<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.doingbusiness.org/rankings|title=Rankings|publisher=|access-date=13 May 2018|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150206025936/http://www.doingbusiness.org/rankings|archive-date=6 February 2015|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n| 10th|| 190\n|-\n|align="left"| [[EF English Proficiency Index]] 2017<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ef.com/ca/epi|title=EF English Proficiency Index – A comprehensive ranking of countries by English skills|date=|website=Ef.com|accessdate=7 January 2018|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180114020751/https://www.ef.com/ca/epi/|archive-date=14 January 2018|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n| 2nd|| 80\n|-\n|align="left"| [[Logistics Performance Index]] 2016<ref>{{cite web|url=https://lpi.worldbank.org/international/global|title=Global Rankings 2018 – Logistics Performance Index|website=lpi.worldbank.org|access-date=13 May 2018|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180929000309/https://lpi.worldbank.org/international/global|archive-date=29 September 2018|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n| 3rd|| 160\n|-\n|align="left"| [[Inequality adjusted Human Development Index]] 2016\n| 8th|| 151\n|-\n|align="left"| [[Corruption Perceptions Index]] 2017<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.transparency.org/news/feature/corruption_perceptions_index_2017|title=Corruption Perceptions Index 2017|first=Transparency International|last=e.V.|publisher=|access-date=13 May 2018|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181124010205/https://www.transparency.org/news/feature/corruption_perceptions_index_2017|archive-date=24 November 2018|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n| 6th|| 180\n|-\n|align="left"| [[Globalization Index]] 2015\n| 4th|| 207\n|-\n|align="left"| [[Human Development Index]] 2016\n| 14th|| 188\n|-\n|align="left"| [[United Nations]] [[World Happiness Report]] 2018<ref>{{cite web|url=https://s3.amazonaws.com/happiness-report/2018/WHR_web.pdf|title=World Happiness Report 2018|website=worldhappiness.report|page=20|accessdate=6 April 2018|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180318092013/https://s3.amazonaws.com/happiness-report/2018/WHR_web.pdf|archive-date=18 March 2018|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}</ref>\n| 9th|| 156\n|}\n\n==See also==\n{{Portal|Sweden|Arctic}}\n{{Wikipedia books}}\n*[[List of Sweden-related topics]]\n* [[Outline of Sweden]]\n\n==Notes==\n{{notelist}}\n{{reflist|group=nb}}\n\n==References==\n{{reflist}}\n\n==Further reading==\n{{refbegin|30em}}\n* Bagge, Sverre (2005). "The Scandinavian Kingdoms". In \'\'The New Cambridge Medieval History\'\'. Eds. Rosamond McKitterick et al. Cambridge University Press, 2005. {{ISBN|0-521-36289-X}}.\n* {{cite journal |url=http://lawfam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/4/2/154 |title=Radical principles and the legal institution of marriage: domestic relations law and social democracy in Sweden—BRADLEY 4 (2): 154—International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family |journal="international Journal of Law, Policy and the Family" |volume=4 |issue=2 |pages=154–185 |accessdate=13 June 2007 |doi=10.1093/lawfam/4.2.154 |year=1990 |last1=Bradley |first1=David }}\n* {{CIA World Factbook link|sw|Sweden}}\n* {{cite web|url=http://www.scb.se/Pages/Product____25799.aspx |title=Sweden\'s population 2012 |publisher=[[Statistics Sweden]] |accessdate=24 March 2013 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131105201119/http://www.scb.se/Pages/Product____25799.aspx |archivedate=5 November 2013 }}\n* Durant, Colin (2003). \'\'Choral Conducting: philosophy and practice\'\', Routledge, pp.&nbsp;46–47. {{ISBN|0-415-94356-6}}.\n* Einhorn, Eric and John Logue (1989). \'\'Modern Welfare States: Politics and Policies in Social Democratic Scandinavia\'\'. Praeger Publishers, 1989. {{ISBN|0-275-93188-9}}.\n* Koblik, Steven (1975). \'\'Sweden\'s Development from Poverty to Affluence 1750–1970\'\'. University of Minnesota Press. {{ISBN|0-8166-0757-5}}.\n* {{cite book | last1 = Larsson | first1 = Torbjörn | first2 = Henry | last2 = Bäck | title = Governing and Governance in Sweden | location = Lund | publisher = [[Studentlitteratur]] AB | year = 2008 | isbn = 978-91-44-03682-3 | ref = Larsson & Bäck }}\n* Magocsi, Paul Robert (1998). \'\'Encyclopedia of Canada\'s Peoples\'\'. University of Minnesota Press, 1998. {{ISBN|0-8020-2938-8}}.\n* [https://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/sweden/natur.htm Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Sweden] Agenda 21 – Natural Resource Aspects – Sweden. 5th Session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997.\n* Nordstrom, Byron J. (2000). \'\'Scandinavia since 1500\'\'. [[University of Minnesota Press]], 2000. {{ISBN|0-8166-2098-9}}.\n* {{cite book | last = Petersson | first = Olof | title = Den offentliga makten | location = Stockholm | publisher = SNS Förlag | year = 2010 | language = Swedish | isbn = 978-91-86203-66-5 | ref = Petersson }}\n* {{cite book |last=Sawyer |first=Birgit |last2=Sawyer |first2=Peter H. |author2-link=Peter Hayes Sawyer |title=Medieval Scandinavia: from Conversion to Reformation, Circa 800–1500 |publisher=University of Minnesota Press |year=1993 |url=https://books.google.com/?id=jGJrXOjYvQgC&printsec=frontcover|isbn=978-0-8166-1739-5}}\n* Ståhl, Solveig. (1999). [https://web.archive.org/web/20060106110733/http://www3.lu.se/info/lum/LUM_07_99/01_engelska.html "English spoken – fast ibland hellre än bra"]. \'\'LUM, Lunds universitet med\'\'delar, 7:1999, 3 September 1999. In Swedish.\n* {{cite web |url=http://www.scb.se/Pages/TableAndChart____193256.aspx |title=2006 census |publisher=[[Statistics Sweden]] |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090731025052/http://www.scb.se/Pages/TableAndChart____193256.aspx |archivedate=31 July 2009 }}\n* {{cite web |url=http://www.scb.se/Pages/TableAndChart____25897.aspx |title=Preliminary Population Statistics, by month, 2004–2006 |publisher=[[Statistics Sweden]] |date=1 January 2007 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090714003037/http://www.scb.se/Pages/TableAndChart____25897.aspx |archivedate=14 July 2009 }}\n* {{cite book |title=Yearbook of Housing and Building Statistics 2007 |publisher=[[Statistics Sweden]], Energy, Rents and Real Estate Statistics Unit |year=2007 |isbn=978-91-618-1361-2 |url=http://www.scb.se/statistik/_publikationer/BO0801_2007A01_BR_BO01SA0701.pdf |access-date=19 February 2007 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090325013009/http://www.scb.se/statistik/_publikationer/BO0801_2007A01_BR_BO01SA0701.pdf |archive-date=25 March 2009 |dead-url=yes }}\n* {{cite EB1911 |wstitle=Sweden |volume=26 |pages=188–221 |short=1}}\n* [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-29865/Sweden#403810.hook Sweden: Social and economic conditions] (2007). In \'\'Encyclopædia Britannica\'\'. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.\n* {{cite book |title=World Criminal Justice Systems: A Survey |first=Richard J. |last=Terrill |publisher=[[Elsevier]] |year=2009 |edition=7 |isbn=978-1-59345-612-2 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=hJaEzC1CBe8C&pg=PA248 |ref=harv}}\n* Uddhammar, Emil (1993). \'\'Partierna och den stora staten: en analys av statsteorier och svensk politik under 1900-talet\'\'. Stockholm, City University Press.\n* [[United States Department of State]] – [https://2009-2017.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2880.htm Sweden]\n* Zuckerman, Phil (2007), Atheism: Contemporary Rates and Patterns PDF i Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. {{ISBN|0-521-60367-6}}\n{{refend}}\n\n==External links==\n{{Sister project links|Sweden}}\n{{Wikivoyage}}\n\n* {{CIA World Factbook link|sw|Sweden}}\n* [http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/576478/Sweden Sweden] entry at \'\'[[Encyclopædia Britannica]]\'\'\n* [https://web.archive.org/web/20090125101315/http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/govpubs/for/sweden.htm Sweden] from \'\'UCB Libraries GovPubs\'\'\n* {{dmoz|Regional/Europe/Sweden}}\n* [https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-17955808 Sweden profile] from the [[BBC News]]\n* {{wikiatlas|Sweden}}\n* {{osmrelation-inline|52822}}\n* [http://www.ifs.du.edu/ifs/frm_CountryProfile.aspx?Country=SE Key Development Forecasts for Sweden] from [[International Futures]]\n* [http://www.studyinsweden.se/ Study in Sweden] – official guide to studying in Sweden\n* [https://web.archive.org/web/20141230162402/http://www.circle.lu.se/upload/CIRCLE/workingpapers/200906_Schoen.pdf] Technological Waves and Economic Growth in Sweden 1850–2005\n* [https://web.archive.org/web/20150928122527/http://eh.net/encyclopedia/sweden-economic-growth-and-structural-change-1800-2000/ Sweden – Economic Growth and Structural Change, 1800–2000] — EH.Net Encyclopedia\n* [https://web.archive.org/web/20131207061449/http://www.vifanord.de/index.php?id=1&L=1&rd=243343734 vifanord] – a digital library that provides scientific information on the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as the Baltic region as a whole\n\n\'\'\'Public sector\'\'\'\n* [http://www.sweden.se/ Sweden.se] — Sweden\'s official portal\n* [http://www.riksdagen.se/en/ The Swedish Parliament] – official website\n* [http://www.government.se/ The Government of Sweden] – official website\n* [http://www.kungahuset.se/royalcourt.4.367010ad11497db6cba800054503.html The Royal Court] – official website of the Swedish Monarchy\n\n\'\'\'News media\'\'\'\n* [http://www.radiosweden.org/ Radio Sweden] – public service\n* [http://www.svt.se/ Sveriges Television] {{sv icon}} – public service\n* [http://www.dn.se/ Dagens Nyheter] {{sv icon}}\n* [http://www.svd.se/ Svenska Dagbladet] {{sv icon}}\n* [http://www.thelocal.se/ The Local – Sweden\'s news in English] – independent English language news site\n\n\'\'\'Trade\'\'\'\n* [http://wits.worldbank.org/CountryProfile/Country/SWE/Year/2012/Summary World Bank Summary Trade Statistics Sweden]\n\n\'\'\'Travel\'\'\'\n* [http://www.visitsweden.com/ VisitSweden.com] – official travel and tourism website for Sweden\n{{Sweden topics}}\n{{Navboxes\n|title=Articles related to Sweden\n|list=\n{{Member states of the European Union}}\n{{Nordic countries}}\n{{Sovereign states of Europe}}\n{{Countries bordering the Baltic Sea}}\n}}\n<!-- Please keep Sweden at the TOP of its category list -->\n{{Authority control}}\n\n[[Category:Sweden| ]]\n[[Category:Germanic countries and territories]]\n[[Category:Northern European countries]]\n[[Category:Members of the Nordic Council]]\n[[Category:Member states of the Council of Europe]]\n[[Category:Member states of the European Union]]\n[[Category:Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean]]\n[[Category:Member states of the United Nations]]\n[[Category:Scandinavian countries]]\n[[Category:Countries in Europe]]\n[[Category:States and territories established in the 12th century]]'}