Using Pywikibot

In [1]:
import pywikibot
import pywikibot.pagegenerators
In [33]:
enwiki = pywikibot.Site(code="en", fam="wikipedia")
Base_Cat = 'Category:Geography'
Cat_page = pywikibot.Category(enwiki, Base_Cat)

next_Pages = list(pywikibot.pagegenerators.CategorizedPageGenerator(Cat_page, recurse = False))

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In [35]:
next_Cat = list(Cat_page.subcategories(recurse = False))
print (next_Cat)
[Category('Category:Geography by place'), Category('Category:Geography-related lists'), Category('Category:Geography awards and competitions'), Category('Category:Branches of geography'), Category('Category:Geography conferences'), Category('Category:Geography education'), Category('Category:Environmental studies'), Category('Category:Exploration'), Category('Category:Geocodes'), Category('Category:Geographers'), Category('Category:Geographic data and information'), Category('Category:Geographical zones'), Category('Category:History of geography'), Category('Category:Land systems'), Category('Category:Landscape'), Category('Category:Lists of countries by geography'), Category('Category:Navigation'), Category('Category:Geography organizations'), Category('Category:Places'), Category('Category:Geographical regions'), Category('Category:Surveying'), Category('Category:Geographical technology'), Category('Category:Geography terminology'), Category('Category:Works about geography'), Category('Category:Geographic images'), Category('Category:Geography stubs')]
In [27]:
demo_page = pywikibot.Page(enwiki, 'Geography')
In [28]:
{{Redirect|Geographical|other uses|Geography (disambiguation)}}
[[File:World map 2004 CIA large 1.7m whitespace removed.jpg|thumb|upright=1.2|Physical map of the [[Earth]] with political borders as of 2004]]

'''Geography''' (from [[Greek language|Greek]] {{lang|el|γεωγραφία}}, ''geographia'', literally "earth description"<ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=Online Etymology Dictionary|last=Harper|first=Douglas|date=||publisher=Online Etymology Dictionary|accessdate=10 November 2016}}</ref>) is a field of [[science]] devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the  inhabitants, and the phenomena of [[Earth]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=Geography|last=|first=|date=|publisher=Houghton Mifflin Company|work=The American Heritage Dictionary/ of the English Language, Fourth Edition|accessdate=9 October 2006}}</ref> The first person to use the word "γεωγραφία" was [[Eratosthenes]] (276–194 BC).<ref>{{cite book|url=|title=Eratosthenes' Geography|last=Eratosthenes|first=|publisher=[[Princeton University Press]]|year=|isbn=9780691142678|location=|publication-date=24 January 2010|pages=|translator-last=Roller|translator-first=Duane W.|quote=|via=}}</ref> Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of the Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. It is often defined in terms of the two branches of [[human geography]] and [[physical geography]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Physical Geography|last=Pidwirny|first=Dr. Michael|last2=Jones|first2=Scott|date=||publisher=[[University of British Columbia Okanagan]]|accessdate=10 November 2016}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=|title=What is Geography?|last=Bonnett|first=Alastair|publisher=[[SAGE Publications]]|year=|isbn=9781849206495|location=|publication-date=16 January 2008|pages=|quote=|access-date=10 November 2016|via=}}</ref> The four historical traditions in geographical research are: [[spatial analysis|spatial analyses]] of natural and the human phenomena, [[area studies]] of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, and the [[Earth science]]s.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Pattinson|first=William D.|date=Summer 1990|title=The Four Traditions of Geography|url=|journal=[[Journal of Geography]]|publisher=[[National Council for Geographic Education]]|publication-date=1964|volume=September/October 1990|pages=202–206|doi=10.1080/00221349008979196|issn=0022-1341|access-date=10 November 2016}}</ref> Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the [[physical science]]s".

Geography is a systematic study of the Earth and its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with [[cartography]] and place names. Although many geographers are trained in [[toponymy]] and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the [[space]] and the [[temporal database]] distribution of phenomena, processes, and features as well as the [[interaction]] of humans and their [[Natural environment|environment]].<ref name="Hayes-Bohanan">{{Cite web|url=|title=What is Environmental Geography, Anyway?|last=Hayes-Bohanan|first=James|date=29 September 2009||publisher=[[Bridgewater State University]]|access-date=10 November 2016}}</ref> Because space and place affect a variety of topics, such as [[economics]], [[health]], [[climate]], [[plant]]s and [[animal]]s, geography is highly interdisciplinary. The interdisciplinary nature of the geographical approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns.<ref>{{Cite book|url=|title=An introduction to Settlement Geography|last=Hornby|first=William F.|last2=Jones|first2=Melvyn|publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]]|isbn=9780521282635|publication-date=29 June 1991|pages=|quote=|access-date=10 November 2016|via=}}</ref>

{{quote|text= Names of places...are not geography...know by heart a whole [[gazetteer]] full of them would not, in itself, constitute anyone a [[geographer]]. Geography has higher aims than this: it seeks to classify phenomena (alike of the natural and of the political world, in so far as it treats of the latter), to compare, to generalize, to ascend from effects to causes, and, in doing so, to trace out the laws of nature and to mark their influences upon man. This is 'a description of the world'—that is Geography. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause and effect.<ref>Hughes, William. (1863). ''The Study of Geography''. Lecture delivered at King's College, London by Sir Marc Alexander. Quoted in {{Cite book|last=Baker |first=J.N.L |date=1963 |title=The History of Geography |publisher=Basil Blackwell |location=Oxford |pages=66 |isbn=0-85328-022-3}}</ref>|sign=[[William Hughes (geographer)|William Hughes]], 1863}}

{{quote|text=Just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they also exist in space and have a geography.<ref>"Chapter 3: Geography's Perspectives". {{Cite book|author=<!--Staff writer(s); no by-line.--> |date=1997 |title=Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society |publisher=The National Academies Press |location=Washington DC |pages=28 |accessdate=2014-05-06 |url= }}</ref>|sign=[[United States National Research Council]], 1997}}

Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: [[human geography]] and [[physical geography]]. The former largely focuses on the [[built environment]] and how humans create, view, manage, and influence space. The latter examines the natural environment, and how [[organism]]s, climate, [[soil]], [[water]], and [[landform]]s produce and interact.<ref>{{Cite web |title=What is geography? |work=AAG Career Guide: Jobs in Geography and related Geographical Sciences |publisher=Association of American Geographers |url= |accessdate=October 9, 2006 |archiveurl = <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = October 6, 2006}}</ref> The difference between these approaches led to a third field, [[environmental geography]], which combines physical and human geography and concerns the interactions between the environment and humans.<ref name="Hayes-Bohanan"/>


===Physical geography===
{{Main article|Physical geography}}

Physical geography (or physiography) focuses on geography as an [[Earth science]]. It aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of [[lithosphere]], [[hydrosphere]], [[Earth's atmosphere|atmosphere]], [[pedosphere]], and global [[flora]] and [[fauna]] patterns ([[biosphere]]).

<gallery mode=packed caption="Physical geography can be divided into many broad categories, including:">
File:Línea de Wallace.jpg|[[Biogeography]] 
File:Cyclone Catarina from the ISS on March 26 2004.JPG|[[Climatology]] & [[meteorology]] 
File:90 mile beach.jpg|[[Coastal geography]] 
File:Gavin Plant.JPG|[[Environmental management]]
File:Meridian convergence and spehrical excess.png|[[Geodesy]] 
File:Delicate Arch LaSalle.jpg|[[Geomorphology]] 
File:Receding glacier-en.svg|[[Glaciology]] 
File:Meander.svg|[[Hydrology]] & [[hydrography]]
File:Khajuraho-landscape.jpg|[[Landscape ecology]] 
File:Soil profile.jpg|[[Pedology (soil study)|Pedology]] 
File:Pangea animation 03.gif|[[Palaeogeography]]
File:Milankovitch Variations sv.png|[[Quaternary science]]

===Human geography===
{{Main article|Human geography}}

Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape the human society. It encompasses the [[human]], [[politics|political]], [[culture|cultural]], [[social]], and [[economics|economic]] aspects.

<gallery mode=packed caption="Human geography can be divided into many broad categories, such as:">
File:Qichwa conchucos 01.jpg|[[Cultural geography]] 
File:Pepsi in India.jpg|[[Development geography]] 
File:Christaller model 1.jpg|[[Economic geography]] 
File:Star of life.svg|[[Health geography]]
File:British Empire 1897.jpg|[[Historical geography|Historical]] & [[Time geography|Time geog.]] 
File:UN General Assembly.jpg|[[Political geography|Political geog.]] & [[Geopolitics]] 
File:Pyramide Comores.PNG|[[Population geography|Pop. geog.]] or [[Demography]] 
File:ReligionSymbol.svg|[[Religion geography]]
File:US-hoosier-family.jpg|[[Social geography]] 
File:Gare du Nord USFRT (Paris Metro).png|[[Transportation geography]] 
File:Tourists-2-x.jpg|[[Tourism geography]] 
File:New-York-Jan2005.jpg|[[Urban geography]]

Various approaches to the study of human geography have also arisen through time and include:
* [[Behavioral geography]]
* [[Feminist geography]]
* [[Culture theory]]
* [[Geosophy]]

===Integrated geography===
{{Main article|Integrated geography}}

[[Integrated geography]] is concerned with the description of the spatial interactions between humans and the natural world. It requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Integrated geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the physical geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Furthermore, as human relationship with the environment has changed as a result of [[globalization]] and [[technological change]], a new approach was needed to understand the changing and dynamic relationship. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include: [[emergency management]], [[environmental management]], [[sustainability]], and [[political ecology]].

{{Main article|Geomatics}}

[[File:Geabios3d.jpg|thumb|right|Digital Elevation Model (DEM)]]
[[Geomatics]] is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in [[cartography]] and [[topography]]. Geomatics emerged from the [[quantitative revolution]] in geography in the mid-1950s. Today, geomatics methods include [[spatial analysis]], [[Geographic information system|Geographic information systems (GIS)]], [[Remote sensing]], and [[Global Positioning System|Global positioning systems (GPS)]]. Geomatics has led to a revitalization of some geography departments, especially in Northern America where the subject had a declining status during the 1950s.

===Regional geography===
{{Main article|Regional geography}}

Regional geography is concerned with the description of the unique characteristics of a particular region such as it natural or human elements. The main aim is to understand, or define the uniqueness, or character of a particular region that consists of natural as well as human elements. Attention is paid also to [[regionalisation|regionalization]], which covers the proper techniques of space [[delimitation]] into regions.

===Related fields===
* [[Urban planning]], [[regional planning]], and [[spatial planning]]: Use the science of geography to assist in determining how to develop (or not develop) the land to meet particular criteria, such as safety, beauty, economic opportunities, the preservation of the built or natural heritage, and so on. The planning of towns, cities, and rural areas may be seen as [[applied geography]].
* [[Regional science]]: In the 1950s, the regional science movement led by [[Walter Isard]] arose to provide a more quantitative and analytical base to geographical questions, in contrast to the descriptive tendencies of traditional geography programs. Regional science comprises the body of knowledge in which the spatial dimension plays a fundamental role, such as [[regional science|regional economics]], [[resource management]], [[location theory]], [[urban planning|urban]] and [[regional planning]], [[transport]] and [[communication]], [[human geography]], population distribution, [[landscape ecology]], and environmental quality.
* [[Planetary science|Interplanetary Sciences]]: While the discipline of geography is normally concerned with the [[Earth]], the term can also be informally used to describe the study of other worlds, such as the [[planet]]s of the [[Solar System]] and even beyond. The study of systems larger than the Earth itself usually forms part of [[Astronomy]] or [[Cosmology]]. The study of other planets is usually called [[planetary science]]. Alternative terms such as [[Geology of Mars|Areology]] (the study of Mars) have been proposed but are not widely used.

As spatial interrelationships are key to this synoptic science, [[map]]s are a key tool. Classical [[cartography]] has been joined by a more modern approach to geographical analysis, computer-based [[geographic information system]]s (GIS).

In their study, geographers use four interrelated approaches:
* Systematic — Groups geographical knowledge into categories that can be explored globally.
* Regional — Examines systematic relationships between categories for a specific region or location on the planet.
* Descriptive — Simply specifies the locations of features and populations.
* Analytical — Asks ''why'' we find features and populations in a specific geographic area.

[[File:Cook chart of New Zealand.jpg|thumb|[[James Cook]]'s 1770 chart of [[New Zealand]]]]
{{Main article|Cartography}}

Cartography studies the representation of the Earth's surface with abstract symbols (map making). Although other subdisciplines of geography rely on maps for presenting their analyses, the actual making of maps is abstract enough to be regarded separately. Cartography has grown from a collection of drafting techniques into an actual science.

Cartographers must learn [[cognitive psychology]] and [[ergonomics]] to understand which symbols convey information about the Earth most effectively, and [[behaviorism|behavioural psychology]] to induce the readers of their maps to act on the information. They must learn [[geodesy]] and fairly advanced [[mathematics]] to understand how the [[Figure of the Earth|shape of the Earth]] affects the distortion of map symbols projected onto a flat surface for viewing. It can be said, without much controversy, that cartography is the seed from which the larger field of geography grew. Most geographers will cite a childhood fascination with maps as an early sign they would end up in the field.

===Geographic information systems===
{{Main article|Geographic information system}}
<!-- the section's use of a singular verb for a seemingly plural noun is intentional. The name of the academic subject is "Geographic information systems". If you didn't care about parallel construction, you could precede the following with THE SUBJECT OF --->
Geographic information systems (GIS) deal with the storage of information about the Earth for automatic retrieval by a computer, in an accurate manner appropriate to the information's purpose. In addition to all of the other subdisciplines of geography, GIS specialists must understand [[computer science]] and [[database]] systems. GIS has revolutionized the field of cartography: nearly all mapmaking is now done with the assistance of some form of [[List of GIS software|GIS software]]. GIS also refers to the science of using GIS software and GIS techniques to represent, analyse, and predict the spatial relationships. In this context, GIS stands for Geographic Information Science.

===Remote sensing===
{{Main article|Remote sensing}}
Remote sensing is the science of obtaining information about Earth features from measurements made at a distance. Remotely sensed data comes in many forms, such as [[satellite imagery]], [[aerial photography]], and data obtained from hand-held sensors. Geographers increasingly use remotely sensed data to obtain information about the Earth's [[land surface]], ocean, and atmosphere, because it: a) supplies objective information at a variety of spatial scales (local to global), b) provides a synoptic view of the area of interest, c) allows access to distant and inaccessible sites, d) provides spectral information outside the visible portion of the [[electromagnetic spectrum]], and e) facilitates studies of how features/areas change over time. Remotely sensed data may be analysed either independently of, or in conjunction with other digital data layers (e.g., in a Geographic Information System).

===Quantitative methods===
{{Main article|Geostatistics}}

[[Geostatistics]] deal with [[Numerical data|quantitative data]] analysis, specifically the application of statistical methodology to the exploration of geographic phenomena. Geostatistics is used extensively in a variety of fields, including [[hydrology]], [[geology]], [[petroleum]] exploration, weather analysis, [[urban planning]], [[logistics]], and [[epidemiology]]. The mathematical basis for geostatistics derives from [[cluster analysis]], [[linear discriminant analysis]] and [[non-parametric statistics|non-parametric statistical tests]], and a variety of other subjects. Applications of geostatistics rely heavily on [[geographic information system]]s, particularly for the [[interpolation]] (estimate) of unmeasured points. Geographers are making notable contributions to the method of quantitative techniques.

===Qualitative methods===
{{Main article|Ethnography}}
Geographic qualitative methods, or ethnographical research techniques, are used by human geographers. In [[cultural geography]] there is a tradition of employing [[qualitative research]] techniques, also used in [[anthropology]] and [[sociology]]. [[Participant observation]] and in-depth interviews provide human geographers with qualitative data.

{{Main article|History of geography}}

The oldest known world maps date back to ancient [[Babylon]] from the 9th century BC.<ref name="Kurt A. Raaflaub & Richard J. A. Talbert 2009 147">{{Cite book |title=Geography and Ethnography: Perceptions of the World in Pre-Modern Societies |author=Kurt A. Raaflaub & Richard J. A. Talbert |publisher=[[John Wiley & Sons]] |date=2009 |isbn=1-4051-9146-5 |page=147 |postscript=<!--None-->}}</ref> The best known [[Babylonia]]n world map, however, is the ''[[Babylonian Map of the World|Imago Mundi]]'' of 600 BC.<ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=Slide 103|last=Siebold|first=Jim|date=||publisher=Henry Davis Consulting Inc.|access-date=10 November 2016}}</ref> The map as reconstructed by [[Eckhard Unger]] shows [[Babylon]] on the [[Euphrates]], surrounded by a circular landmass showing [[Assyria]], [[Urartu]]<ref>{{cite journal|first=Catherine|year=1996|title=Imago Mundi's Logo the Babylonian Map of the World|url=|journal=Imago Mundi|volume=48|pages=209–211|jstor=1151277|access-date=10 November 2016|author=Delano Smith}}</ref> and several cities, in turn surrounded by a "bitter river" ([[Oceanus]]), with seven islands arranged around it so as to form a seven-pointed star. The accompanying text mentions seven outer regions beyond the encircling ocean. The descriptions of five of them have survived.<ref>{{Cite book|title=A join to the map of the world: A notable discovery|last=Finkel|first=Irving|publisher=[[British Museum Magazine]]|isbn=9780714120737|publication-date=Winter 1995|pages=26–27|quote=|via=}}</ref> In contrast to the ''Imago Mundi'', an earlier Babylonian [[world map]] dating back to the 9th century BC depicted Babylon as being further north from the center of the world, though it is not certain what that center was supposed to represent.<ref name="Kurt A. Raaflaub & Richard J. A. Talbert 2009 147"/>

The ideas of [[Anaximander]] (c. 610 BC-c. 545 BC): considered by later Greek writers to be the true founder of geography, come to us through fragments quoted by his successors. Anaximander is credited with the invention of the [[gnomon]], the simple, yet efficient Greek instrument that allowed the early measurement of [[latitude]]. Thales is also credited with the prediction of eclipses. The foundations of geography can be traced to the ancient cultures, such as the ancient, medieval, and early modern [[History of China|Chinese]]. The [[ancient Greece|Greeks]], who were the first to explore geography as both [[art]] and [[science]], achieved this through [[History of cartography|Cartography]], [[Greek philosophy|Philosophy]], and [[Ancient Greek literature|Literature]], or through [[History of mathematics|Mathematics]]. There is some debate about who was the first person to assert that the [[Spherical Earth|Earth is spherical]] in shape, with the credit going either to [[Parmenides]] or [[Pythagoras]]. [[Anaxagoras]] was able to demonstrate that the profile of the Earth was circular by explaining [[eclipse]]s. However, he still believed that the Earth was a flat disk, as did many of his contemporaries. One of the first estimates of the radius of the Earth was made by [[Eratosthenes]].<ref>{{Cite book|url=|title=A Concise History of Solar and Stellar Physics|first=Jean-Louis|last2=Tassoul|first2=Monique|publisher=[[Princeton University Press]]|year=2004|isbn=0-691-11711-X|location=London|pages=|quote=|access-date=10 November 2016|via=|author=Tassoul}}</ref>

The first rigorous system of [[Geographic coordinate system|latitude and longitude]] lines is credited to [[Hipparchus]]. He employed a [[sexagesimal]] system that was derived from [[Babylonian mathematics]]. The meridians were sub-divided into 360°, with each degree further subdivided 60′ ([[minute of arc|minutes]]). To measure the longitude at different location on Earth, he suggested using eclipses to determine the relative difference in time.<ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=Hipparchus of Rhodes|last=|first=|date=2001||publisher=[[Thessaloniki Science Center and Technology Museum]]|archive-url=|archive-date=20 July 2008|dead-url=yes|accessdate=10 November 2016}}</ref> The extensive mapping by the [[Roman Empire|Romans]] as they explored new lands would later provide a high level of information for [[Ptolemy]] to construct detailed [[atlas]]es. He extended the work of [[Hipparchus]], using a grid system on his maps and adopting a length of 56.5 miles for a degree.<ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=Mapmaking and its History|last=Sullivan|first=Dan|date=2000|website=|publisher=[[Rutgers University]]|accessdate=10 November 2016}}</ref>

From the 3rd century onwards, [[History of China|Chinese]] methods of geographical study and writing of geographical literature became much more complex than what was found in Europe at the time (until the 13th century).<ref name="needham volume 3 512"/> Chinese geographers such as [[Liu An]], [[Pei Xiu]], [[Jia Dan]], [[Shen Kuo]], [[Fan Chengda]], [[Zhou Daguan]], and [[Xu Xiake]] wrote important treatises, yet by the 17th century advanced ideas and methods of Western-style geography were adopted in China.

[[File:PtolemyWorldMap.jpg|thumb|The [[Ptolemy world map]], reconstituted from [[Ptolemy]]'s ''Geographia'', written {{circa|150}}]]
During the [[Middle Ages]], the [[Decline of the Roman Empire|fall of the Roman empire]] led to a shift in the evolution of geography from [[Europe]] to the [[Muslim world|Islamic world]].<ref name="needham volume 3 512">{{Cite journal|last=Needham|first=Joseph|year=1959|title=Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and the Earth|url=|journal=Science and Civilization in China|location=Taipei|publisher=Caves Books, Ltd.|volume=3|page=512|isbn=9780521058018|access-date=10 November 2016}}</ref> [[Geography in medieval Islam|Muslim geographers]] such as [[Muhammad al-Idrisi]] produced detailed world maps (such as [[Tabula Rogeriana]]), while other geographers such as [[Yaqut al-Hamawi]], [[Abu Rayhan Biruni]], [[Ibn Battuta]], and [[Ibn Khaldun]] provided detailed accounts of their journeys and the geography of the regions they visited. Turkish geographer, [[Mahmud al-Kashgari]] drew a world map on a linguistic basis, and later so did [[Piri Reis]] ([[Piri Reis map]]). Further, Islamic scholars translated and [[interpreting|interpreted]] the earlier works of the [[Ancient Rome|Romans]] and the [[ancient Greece|Greeks]] and established the [[House of Wisdom]] in [[Baghdad]] for this purpose.<ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=Science and Scholarship in Al-Andalus|last=|first=|date=||publisher=IslamiCity|accessdate=10 November 2016}}</ref> [[Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi|Abū Zayd al-Balkhī]], originally from [[Balkh]], founded the "Balkhī school" of terrestrial mapping in [[Baghdad]].<ref name="E61-3">{{Cite journal|last=Edson|first=Evelyn|last2=Savage-Smith|first2=Emilie|title=Medieval Views of the Cosmos|url=|journal=International Journal of the Classical Tradition|publisher=[[University of Oxford]]|publication-date=Winter 2007|volume=13:3|pages=61–3|jstor=30222166|access-date=10 November 2016}}</ref> Suhrāb, a late tenth century Muslim geographer accompanied a book of geographical coordinates, with instructions for making a rectangular world map with [[equirectangular projection]] or cylindrical equidistant projection.<ref name = E61-3/>{{Verify source|date=October 2011}}

[[Abu Rayhan Biruni]] (976-1048) first described a polar equi-[[azimuthal equidistant projection]] of the [[celestial sphere]].<ref>{{Cite journal|last=King|first=David A.|year=1996|editor-last=Rashed|editor-first=Roshdi|title=Astronomy and Islamic society: Qibla, gnomics and timekeeping|url=|journal=Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science|volume=1|pages=128–184|isbn=0-203-71184-X|access-date=10 November 2016}}</ref> He was regarded as the most skilled when it came to mapping cities and measuring the distances between them, which he did for many cities in the [[Middle East]] and the [[Indian subcontinent]]. He often combined astronomical readings and mathematical equations, in order to develop methods of pin-pointing locations by recording degrees of [[latitude]] and [[longitude]]. He also developed similar techniques when it came to measuring the heights of [[mountain]]s, depths of the [[valley]]s, and expanse of the [[horizon]]. He also discussed [[human geography]] and the [[planetary habitability]] of the [[Earth]]. He also calculated the [[latitude]] of Kath, [[Khwarezm]], using the maximum altitude of the Sun, and solved a complex [[Geodesy|geodesic]] equation in order to accurately compute the [[Earth]]'s [[circumference]], which were close to modern values of the Earth's circumference.<ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=Abu Rayhan al-Biruni|last=Aber|first=James Sandusky|date=2003||publisher=[[Emporia State University]]|access-date=10 November 2016}}</ref> His estimate of 6,339.9&nbsp;km for the [[Earth radius]] was only 16.8&nbsp;km less than the modern value of 6,356.7&nbsp;km. In contrast to his predecessors, who measured the Earth's circumference by sighting the Sun simultaneously from two different locations, [[al-Biruni]] developed a new method of using [[trigonometry|trigonometric]] calculations, based on the angle between a [[plain]] and [[mountain]] top, which yielded more accurate measurements of the Earth's circumference, and made it possible for it to be measured by a single person from a single location.<ref>{{Cite book|url=|title=Avicenna|last=Goodman|first=Lenn Evan|publisher=Routledge|year=1992|isbn=0-415-01929-X|location=Great Britain|pages=31|quote=It was Biruni, not Avicenna, who found a way for a single man, at a single moment, to measure the earth's circumference, by trigonometric calculations based on angles measured from a mountaintop and the plain beneath it - thus improving on Eratosthenes' method of sighting the sun simultaneously from two different sites, applied in  the ninth century by astronomers of the Khalif al-Ma'mun.|access-date=10 November 2016|via=}}</ref>

[[File:Alexander von Humboldt-selfportrait.jpg|thumb|Self portrait of [[Alexander von Humboldt]], one of the early pioneers of geography as an academic subject in modern sense]]
The European [[Age of Discovery]] during the 16th and the 17th centuries, where many new lands were discovered and accounts by European explorers such as [[Christopher Columbus]], [[Marco Polo]], and [[James Cook]] revived a desire for both accurate geographic detail, and more solid theoretical foundations in Europe. The problem facing both explorers and geographers was finding the latitude and longitude of a geographic location. The problem of latitude was solved long ago but that of longitude remained; agreeing on what zero meridian should be was only part of the problem. It was left to [[John Harrison]] to solve it by inventing the chronometer [[Harrison Number Four|H-4]] in 1760, and later in 1884 for the [[International Meridian Conference]] to adopt by convention the [[Greenwich meridian]] as zero meridian.<ref>{{Cite book|url=|title=Voyages that changed the world|last=Aughton|first=Peter|publisher=[[Penguin Group]]|year=2009|isbn=978-1-84724-004-0|location=|page=164|quote=|access-date=10 November 2016|via=}}</ref>

The 18th and the 19th centuries were the times when geography became recognized as a discrete [[List of academic disciplines|academic discipline]], and became part of a typical [[university]] curriculum in [[Europe]] (especially [[Paris]] and [[Berlin]]). The development of many geographic societies also occurred during the 19th century, with the foundations of the [[Société de Géographie]] in 1821,<ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=Société de Géographie, Paris, France|last=|first=|date=||publisher=Société de Géographie|language=French|accessdate=10 November 2016}}</ref> the [[Royal Geographical Society]] in 1830,<ref>{{Cite web|url= |title=About Us |last= |first= |date= | |publisher=[[Royal Geographical Society]] |accessdate=10 November 2016 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl= |archivedate=18 October 2016 |df= }}</ref> [[Russian Geographical Society]] in 1845,<ref>{{Cite web|url= |title=Русское Географическое Общество (основано в 1845 г.) |last= |first= |date= | |publisher=[[Russian Geological Society]] |language=Russian |archive-url= |archive-date=2012-05-24 |dead-url=yes |accessdate=10 November 2016 |df= }}</ref> [[American Geographical Society]] in 1851,<ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=History|last=|first=|date=||publisher=The American Geographical Society|accessdate=10 November 2016}}</ref> and the [[National Geographic Society]] in 1888.<ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=National Geographic Society|last=|first=|date=||publisher=U.S. Department of State|accessdate=10 November 2016}}</ref> The influence of [[Immanuel Kant]], [[Alexander von Humboldt]], [[Carl Ritter]], and [[Paul Vidal de la Blache]] can be seen as a major turning point in geography from a philosophy to an academic subject.

Over the past two centuries, the advancements in technology with computers have led to the development of [[geomatics]]. and new practices such as participant observation and geostatistics being incorporated into geography's portfolio of tools. In the West during the 20th century, the discipline of geography went through four major phases: [[environmental determinism]], [[regional geography]], the [[quantitative revolution]], and [[critical geography]]. The strong interdisciplinary links between geography and the sciences of [[geology]] and [[botany]], as well as [[economics]], [[sociology]] and [[demographics]] have also grown greatly, especially as a result of Earth System Science that seeks to understand the world in a holistic view.

==Notable geographers==<!-- Please respect chronoogial order -->
{{Main article|List of geographers|List of Graeco-Roman geographers}}
[[File:Gerardus Mercator3.jpg|thumb|[[Gerardus Mercator]]]]
* [[Eratosthenes]] (276BC - 194BC) - calculated the size of the Earth.
* [[Strabo]] (64/63 BC – ca. AD 24) -  wrote [[Geographica]], one of the first books outlining the study of geography.
* [[Ptolemy]] (c.90–c.168) - compiled Greek and Roman knowledge into the book [[Geographia]].
* [[Al Idrisi]] (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي; Latin: Dreses) (1100–1165/66) - author of Nuzhatul Mushtaq.
* [[Gerardus Mercator]] (1512–1594) - innovative [[cartography|cartographer]] produced the [[mercator projection]]
* [[Alexander von Humboldt]] (1769–1859) - Considered Father of modern geography, published the Kosmos and founder of the sub-field biogeography.
* [[Carl Ritter]] (1779–1859) - Considered Father of modern geography. Occupied the first chair of geography at Berlin University.
* [[Arnold Henry Guyot]] (1807–1884) - noted the structure of glaciers and advanced understanding in [[Glacial motion|glacier motion]], especially in fast ice flow.
* [[William Morris Davis]] (1850–1934) - father of American geography and developer of the [[cycle of erosion]].
* [[Paul Vidal de la Blache]] (1845–1918) - founder of the French school of geopolitics and wrote the principles of human geography.
* Sir [[Halford Mackinder|Halford John Mackinder]] (1861–1947) - Co-founder of the [[London School of Economics|LSE]], [[Geographical Association]]
* [[Ellen Churchill Semple]] (1863–1932) - She was America's first influential female geographer.
* [[Carl O. Sauer]] (1889–1975) - Prominent cultural geographer
* [[Walter Christaller]] (1893–1969) - human geographer and inventor of [[Central place theory]].
* [[Yi-Fu Tuan]] (1930-) - Chinese-American scholar credited with starting Humanistic Geography as a discipline.
* [[Karl Butzer|Karl W. Butzer]] (1934-) -  An influential German-American geographer, cultural ecologist and environmental archaeologist.
* [[David Harvey (geographer)|David Harvey]] (1935-) - Marxist geographer and author of theories on spatial and urban geography, winner of the [[Lauréat Prix International de Géographie Vautrin Lud|Vautrin Lud Prize]].
* [[Edward Soja]] (1941-2015) - Noted for his work on regional development, planning and governance along with coining the terms [[Synekism]] and Postmetropolis, winner of the [[Lauréat Prix International de Géographie Vautrin Lud|Vautrin Lud Prize]].
* [[Michael Frank Goodchild]] (1944-) - prominent GIS scholar and winner of the RGS founder's medal in 2003.
* [[Doreen Massey (geographer)|Doreen Massey]] (1944-2016) - Key scholar in the space and places of [[globalization]] and its pluralities, winner of the [[Lauréat Prix International de Géographie Vautrin Lud|Vautrin Lud Prize]].
* [[Nigel Thrift]] (1949-) - originator of [[non-representational theory]].

==Institutions and societies==
* [[American Geographical Society]] (U.S.)
* [[Anton Melik Geographical Institute]] (Slovenia)
* [[Association of American Geographers|Association of American Geographers (AAG)]]
* [[National Geographic Society]] (U.S.)
* [[Royal Canadian Geographical Society]] (Canada)
* [[Royal Geographical Society]] (UK)
* [[Russian Geographical Society]] (Russia)
* [[Royal Danish Geographical Society]] (Denmark)

* ''[[African Geographical Review]]''
* ''[[Geographical Review]]''

==Notes and references==

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{{Use British (Oxford) English|date=August 2016}}

[[Category:Geography| ]]
[[Category:Earth sciences]]
[[Category:Social sciences]]
[[Category:Main topic classifications]]
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