ENGLISH - HINDI CONTENT TRANSLATION ANALYSIS

Made By: Nisha Aggarwal

(Outreachy Task for WikiMedia: 'Better understand the impact of Content Translation Tools')

Sections:

Aim of notebook

The notebook aims at better understanding the impact of Content Translation Tool which has supported the creation of over 400,000 articles across a large variety of Wikipedia language projects. For English to Hindi Language Translation, it has helped creating over 2,000 articles. However what part of the tool works well, and what not, is under study.

The notebook touches upon some analysis to serve as a basis for further study.

A word on Notebook

The notebook is mainly divided into two parts:

  • First is, Create CSV Files which creates 'translations.csv' from all the translations information that can be obtained through cxpublishedtranslations API by combining results through calls with different offset values. It also adds attributes like pageViews, editCounts, size at time of translations and current Sizes of both Hindi and English versions of article.
  • Second is, Analysis which is divided into Quantitative and Qualitative analysis. Quantitative analysis tries to study relations between various attributes of all translated articles, while qualitative analysis carefully chooses specific articles which provide some interesting observations, that can be further generalised.

The notebook contains several markdowns labelled Observations, in both CREATE CSV FILES and ANALYSIS sections which tries to give an insight into what the author observed after studying some previous cells' output. Please pay attention to the observations. Sometimes Observations and Previous cell's output may appear merged, but are not.

At the end of notebook, conclusion and some points unexplored in notebook are provided.

PART 1: CREATE CSV FILES

1. Imports

%%capture
# Do not show output of this cell

# Install python-mwviews
!pip install git+https://github.com/mediawiki-utilities/python-mwviews.git

# Imports
import gzip
import json
import re
import csv
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

import mwapi
import mwviews
import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

import warnings

# Ignore warnings
warnings.filterwarnings('ignore')

2. Create a new session

# Create English and Hindi Sessions

english_session = mwapi.Session(host='https://en.wikipedia.org',
                        user_agent='mwapi (python) -- nisha outreachy applicant content translation')

hindi_session = mwapi.Session(host='https://hi.wikipedia.org',
                        user_agent='mwapi (python) -- nisha outreachy applicant content translation')

3. Getting translations data for all translations in cxpublishedtranslations

# Various offsetValues bring translations to the present date, can also be done by iteratively adding 500 to each.

offsetValues = [0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000]
# Define new dataframe

df = pd.DataFrame(columns=['translationId', 'sourceTitle', 'targetTitle', 'sourceRevisionId', 'targetRevisionId', 'publishedDate', 'sourceURL', 'targetURL', 'any', 'human', 'mt', 'mtSectionsCount'])
# For each offset value, get translations from "English" to "Hindi" using cxpublishedtranslations API

for offsetValue in offsetValues:
    
    parameters = {'action':'query',
              'format':'json',
              'list':'cxpublishedtranslations',
              'from':'en',
              'to':'hi',
              'limit':500,
              'offset':offsetValue}
    
    res = english_session.get(parameters)
    
    smalldf = pd.DataFrame(res['result']['translations'], columns=['translationId', 'sourceTitle', 'targetTitle', 'sourceRevisionId', 'targetRevisionId', 'publishedDate', 'sourceURL', 'targetURL', 'stats'])
    
    # Splitting stats dictionary column into separate columns ('any', 'human', 'mt', 'mtSectionsCount')
    smalldf = pd.concat([smalldf.drop(['stats'], axis=1), smalldf['stats'].apply(pd.Series)], axis=1)
    
    #Concatenate df and smalldf
    df = pd.concat([df, smalldf], axis = 0).drop_duplicates().reset_index(drop = True)
df.head()
any human mt mtSectionsCount publishedDate sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetRevisionId targetTitle targetURL translatedSectionsCount translationId
0 1.000000 0.812002 0.187998 1.0 20150521173037 0 Rohni River //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rohni River 0 रोहिणी नदी //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/रोहिणी नदी NaN 39636
1 0.461297 0.264291 0.197006 3.0 20150521220341 0 K. R. Meera //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K. R. Meera 0 के॰आर॰ मीरा //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/के॰आर॰ मीरा NaN 39660
2 0.051829 0.051542 0.000287 1.0 20150713044500 0 Member of parliament //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Member of parliament 0 संसद के सदस्य //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/संसद के सदस्य NaN 39717
3 0.265306 0.131091 0.134215 3.0 20150531131155 0 Jatt & Juliet //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jatt & Juliet 0 जट्ट एंड जूलिएट //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/जट्ट एंड जूलिएट NaN 39722
4 0.958561 0.462422 0.496139 9.0 20150624065128 0 Administrative division //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Administrative division 0 प्रशासनिक प्रभाग //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/प्रशासनिक प्रभाग NaN 40042
# Length of df, i.e number of articles that use content translation according to cxpublishedtranslations API
len(df)
2124

4. Load Dump File

# Load data from dump file to parallel_corpus

json_str = ""
with gzip.open('cx-corpora.en2hi.text.json.gz', 'rt') as fin:
    for line in fin:
        json_str += line.strip()
        
# remove repetitive commas
json_str = re.sub(',{2,}', ',', json_str)

parallel_corpus = json.loads(json_str)
# Dump file statistics

print("Descriptive statistics:")
print("{0} translated sections.".format(len(parallel_corpus)))
print("{0} translated articles.".format(len(set(sec['id'].split('/')[0] for sec in parallel_corpus))))
mt_counts = {}
for sec in parallel_corpus:
    if sec['mt']:
        service = sec['mt']['engine']
        mt_counts[service] = mt_counts.get(service, 0) + 1
    else:
        mt_counts['no-mt'] = mt_counts.get('no-mt', 0) + 1
print("Machine translation services used: {0}".format(mt_counts))
Descriptive statistics:
12577 translated sections.
1725 translated articles.
Machine translation services used: {'no-mt': 4776, 'Yandex': 6735, 'scratch': 27, 'Google': 1039}

Observation:

  • NOT all the results accumulated in df are present in dump file (For example: Source title: Paytm and translation id: 57809)
  • 1725 translated articles in dump file, while 2124 in df

5. Add view count column (View Count assumed from 1 Jan 2015 to 22 March 2019)

  • p.top_articles() will return the top articles, either originally created using content translation or not, we do not need them now
  • When pageview API returns nothing useful, number of views is set to np.nan
  • englishViewCount - View Counts for English version of article
  • hindiViewCount - View Counts for Hindi version of article
from mwviews.api import PageviewsClient
p = PageviewsClient(user_agent='mwviews (python) -- nisha outreachy applicant content translation')
%%capture
# The errors shown in the cell are handled using try and catch, capture just doesn't show output of this cell

englishViewCountList = []
hindiViewCountList = []

for index, row in df.iterrows():
    # English View Count (source language)
    
    sourceTitle = row['sourceTitle']
    englishViewCount = 0
    
    try:
        views_dict = p.article_views('en.wikipedia', sourceTitle, granularity='monthly', start='20150101', end='20190322')

        values = list(views_dict.values())

        for diction in values:
            view = list(diction.values())
            if (view[0]):
                englishViewCount += int(view[0])
        
    except Exception:
        # pageView API returned nothing useful
        englishViewCount = np.nan
        message = "pageview API returned nothing useful"
    else:
        #Useful
        message = "Useful"
    
    englishViewCountList.append(englishViewCount)
    
    # Hindi View Count (target language)
    
    targetTitle = row['targetTitle']
    hindiViewCount = 0
    message = ""
    try:
        views_dict = p.article_views('hi.wikipedia', targetTitle, granularity='monthly', start='20150101', end='20190322')

        values = list(views_dict.values())

        for diction in values:
            view = list(diction.values())
            if (view[0]):
                hindiViewCount += int(view[0])
        
    except Exception:
        # pageView API returned nothing useful
        hindiViewCount = np.nan
        message = "pageview API returned nothing useful"
    else:
        #Useful
        message = "Useful"
    
    hindiViewCountList.append(hindiViewCount)

df['englishViewCount'] = englishViewCountList
df['hindiViewCount'] = hindiViewCountList
df.head()
any human mt mtSectionsCount publishedDate sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetRevisionId targetTitle targetURL translatedSectionsCount translationId englishViewCount hindiViewCount
0 1.000000 0.812002 0.187998 1.0 20150521173037 0 Rohni River //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rohni River 0 रोहिणी नदी //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/रोहिणी नदी NaN 39636 25712.0 5357.0
1 0.461297 0.264291 0.197006 3.0 20150521220341 0 K. R. Meera //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K. R. Meera 0 के॰आर॰ मीरा //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/के॰आर॰ मीरा NaN 39660 136660.0 1230.0
2 0.051829 0.051542 0.000287 1.0 20150713044500 0 Member of parliament //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Member of parliament 0 संसद के सदस्य //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/संसद के सदस्य NaN 39717 1215271.0 974.0
3 0.265306 0.131091 0.134215 3.0 20150531131155 0 Jatt & Juliet //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jatt & Juliet 0 जट्ट एंड जूलिएट //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/जट्ट एंड जूलिएट NaN 39722 289870.0 6078.0
4 0.958561 0.462422 0.496139 9.0 20150624065128 0 Administrative division //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Administrative division 0 प्रशासनिक प्रभाग //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/प्रशासनिक प्रभाग NaN 40042 1093295.0 9442.0

6. Add edit count column (hindiEditCount and englishEditCount), sizes at time of Translation (engSizeAtTrans, hinSizeAtTrans)

Observation:

  • For some articles, the sourceRevisionId and the target RevisionId DO NOT (Especially when sourceRevisionId and targetRevisionId are 0) exist in the revision history, leading to API error, if rvstartid set to them.
  • This is the reason, instead of rvstartid, rvstart is used, which is timestamp
  • englishEditCount - No. of edits on English article since it was translated into Hindi
  • engSizeAtTrans - Size of English article when it was translated.
  • hindiEditCount - No. of edits on Hindi article since it was translated from English
  • hinSizeAtTrans - Size of Hindi article when it was translated.
englishEditCountList = []
hindiEditCountList = []
engSizeAtTransList = []
hinSizeAtTransList = []

for index, row in df.iterrows():
    
    # English Edit Count (Source Language)
    sourceTitle = row['sourceTitle']
    englishEditCount = 0
    message = ""
    engSizeAtTrans = 0
    
    revision_parameters = {
        "action": "query",
        "prop": "revisions",
        "titles": sourceTitle,
        "rvprop": "timestamp|user|ids|comment|size",
        "rvlimit": 500,
        "rvstart": row['publishedDate'],
        "rvslots": "main",
        "formatversion": "2",
        "format": "json",
        "rvdir": "newer",
        "redirects": True
    }
    revisions = english_session.get(revision_parameters)
    if 'query' in revisions.keys() and 'revisions' in revisions['query']['pages'][0].keys():
        # Number of edit counts
        englishEditCount = int(len(revisions['query']['pages'][0]['revisions']))
        # Size at the time of translation
        engSizeAtTrans = revisions['query']['pages'][0]['revisions'][0]['size']
    else:
        englishEditCount = np.nan
        engSizeAtTrans = np.nan
        
    englishEditCountList.append(englishEditCount)
    engSizeAtTransList.append(engSizeAtTrans)
    
     # Hindi Edit Count (Target Language)
    targetTitle = row['targetTitle']
    hindiEditCount = 0
    hinSizeAtTrans = 0
    
    revision_parameters = {
        "action": "query",
        "prop": "revisions",
        "titles": targetTitle,
        "rvprop": "timestamp|user|ids|comment|size",
        "rvlimit": 500,
        "rvstart": row['publishedDate'],
        "rvslots": "main",
        "formatversion": "2",
        "format": "json",
        "rvdir": "newer",
        "redirects": True
    }
    revisions = hindi_session.get(revision_parameters)
    if 'query' in revisions.keys() and 'revisions' in revisions['query']['pages'][0].keys():
        # IMPORTANT: As df contains articles translated from English to Hindi via content translation, the number of edits in Hindi also contains the edit which created the Hindi article
        hindiEditCount = int(len(revisions['query']['pages'][0]['revisions']))
        # Size at the time of translation
        hinSizeAtTrans = revisions['query']['pages'][0]['revisions'][0]['size']
    else:
        hindiEditCount = np.nan
        hinSizeAtTrans = np.nan
        
    hindiEditCountList.append(hindiEditCount)
    hinSizeAtTransList.append(hinSizeAtTrans)
    
df['englishEditCount'] = englishEditCountList
df['engSizeAtTrans'] = engSizeAtTransList
df['hindiEditCount'] = hindiEditCountList
df['hinSizeAtTrans'] = hinSizeAtTransList
df.head()
any human mt mtSectionsCount publishedDate sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetRevisionId targetTitle targetURL translatedSectionsCount translationId englishViewCount hindiViewCount englishEditCount engSizeAtTrans hindiEditCount hinSizeAtTrans
0 1.000000 0.812002 0.187998 1.0 20150521173037 0 Rohni River //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rohni River 0 रोहिणी नदी //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/रोहिणी नदी NaN 39636 25712.0 5357.0 12.0 4235.0 5.0 6697.0
1 0.461297 0.264291 0.197006 3.0 20150521220341 0 K. R. Meera //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K. R. Meera 0 के॰आर॰ मीरा //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/के॰आर॰ मीरा NaN 39660 136660.0 1230.0 80.0 11341.0 6.0 6712.0
2 0.051829 0.051542 0.000287 1.0 20150713044500 0 Member of parliament //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Member of parliament 0 संसद के सदस्य //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/संसद के सदस्य NaN 39717 1215271.0 974.0 279.0 31591.0 18.0 50165.0
3 0.265306 0.131091 0.134215 3.0 20150531131155 0 Jatt & Juliet //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jatt & Juliet 0 जट्ट एंड जूलिएट //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/जट्ट एंड जूलिएट NaN 39722 289870.0 6078.0 85.0 13312.0 8.0 2955.0
4 0.958561 0.462422 0.496139 9.0 20150624065128 0 Administrative division //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Administrative division 0 प्रशासनिक प्रभाग //hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/प्रशासनिक प्रभाग NaN 40042 1093295.0 9442.0 129.0 7251.0 1.0 10446.0

7. Add current English Size and current Hindi size of article

  • currEngSize - current English size of article
  • currHinSize - current Hindi size of article
# Done using finding the latest revision size, could not find any direct API for doing this.
currEngSizeList = []
currHinSizeList = []

for index, row in df.iterrows():
    
    # Current size of English article
    sourceTitle = row['sourceTitle']
    currEngSize = 0
    
    revision_parameters = {
        "action": "query",
        "prop": "revisions",
        "titles": sourceTitle,
        "rvprop": "timestamp|user|ids|comment|size",
        "rvlimit": 1,
        "rvslots": "main",
        "formatversion": "2",
        "format": "json",
        "rvdir": "older",   # For latest
        "redirects": True
    }
    revisions = english_session.get(revision_parameters)
    if 'query' in revisions.keys() and 'revisions' in revisions['query']['pages'][0].keys():
        currEngSize = revisions['query']['pages'][0]['revisions'][0]['size']
    else:
        currEngSize = np.nan
        
    currEngSizeList.append(currEngSize)
    
     # Current size of Hindi article
    targetTitle = row['targetTitle']
    currHinSize = 0
    
    revision_parameters = {
        "action": "query",
        "prop": "revisions",
        "titles": targetTitle,
        "rvprop": "timestamp|user|ids|comment|size",
        "rvlimit": 1,
        "rvslots": "main",
        "formatversion": "2",
        "format": "json",
        "rvdir": "older",    # For latest
        "redirects": True
    }
    revisions = hindi_session.get(revision_parameters)
    if 'query' in revisions.keys() and 'revisions' in revisions['query']['pages'][0].keys():
        currHinSize = revisions['query']['pages'][0]['revisions'][0]['size']
    else:
        currHinSize = np.nan

    currHinSizeList.append(currHinSize)

df['currEngSize'] = currEngSizeList
df['currHinSize'] = currHinSizeList
df.head()
any human mt mtSectionsCount publishedDate sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetRevisionId targetTitle ... translatedSectionsCount translationId englishViewCount hindiViewCount englishEditCount engSizeAtTrans hindiEditCount hinSizeAtTrans currEngSize currHinSize
0 1.000000 0.812002 0.187998 1.0 20150521173037 0 Rohni River //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rohni River 0 रोहिणी नदी ... NaN 39636 25712.0 5357.0 12.0 4235.0 5.0 6697.0 4589.0 6825.0
1 0.461297 0.264291 0.197006 3.0 20150521220341 0 K. R. Meera //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K. R. Meera 0 के॰आर॰ मीरा ... NaN 39660 136660.0 1230.0 80.0 11341.0 6.0 6712.0 15018.0 7734.0
2 0.051829 0.051542 0.000287 1.0 20150713044500 0 Member of parliament //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Member of parliament 0 संसद के सदस्य ... NaN 39717 1215271.0 974.0 279.0 31591.0 18.0 50165.0 41304.0 50221.0
3 0.265306 0.131091 0.134215 3.0 20150531131155 0 Jatt & Juliet //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jatt & Juliet 0 जट्ट एंड जूलिएट ... NaN 39722 289870.0 6078.0 85.0 13312.0 8.0 2955.0 12390.0 3920.0
4 0.958561 0.462422 0.496139 9.0 20150624065128 0 Administrative division //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Administrative division 0 प्रशासनिक प्रभाग ... NaN 40042 1093295.0 9442.0 129.0 7251.0 1.0 10446.0 7415.0 10446.0

5 rows × 21 columns

df.info()
<class 'pandas.core.frame.DataFrame'>
RangeIndex: 2124 entries, 0 to 2123
Data columns (total 21 columns):
any                        2124 non-null float64
human                      2124 non-null float64
mt                         2124 non-null float64
mtSectionsCount            2124 non-null float64
publishedDate              2124 non-null object
sourceRevisionId           2124 non-null object
sourceTitle                2124 non-null object
sourceURL                  2124 non-null object
targetRevisionId           2124 non-null object
targetTitle                2124 non-null object
targetURL                  2124 non-null object
translatedSectionsCount    346 non-null float64
translationId              2124 non-null object
englishViewCount           2120 non-null float64
hindiViewCount             1733 non-null float64
englishEditCount           1841 non-null float64
engSizeAtTrans             1841 non-null float64
hindiEditCount             1919 non-null float64
hinSizeAtTrans             1919 non-null float64
currEngSize                2087 non-null float64
currHinSize                2026 non-null float64
dtypes: float64(13), object(8)
memory usage: 348.5+ KB

8. Convert to csv

# Convert to CSV
df.to_csv('translations.csv', index = False)

PART 2: ANALYSIS

0. Preliminaries

%%capture
!pip install git+https://github.com/mediawiki-utilities/python-mwviews.git

# Imports
import gzip
import json
import re
import csv
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
plt.style.use('seaborn-deep')
plt.rcParams['figure.figsize'] = [15, 8]

import mwapi
import mwviews
import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

import pprint
# Create new sessions

english_session = mwapi.Session(host='https://en.wikipedia.org',
                        user_agent='mwapi (python) -- nisha outreachy applicant content translation')
hindi_session = mwapi.Session(host='https://hi.wikipedia.org',
                        user_agent='mwapi (python) -- nisha outreachy applicant content translation')
# Load dump file

json_str = ""
with gzip.open('cx-corpora.en2hi.text.json.gz', 'rt') as fin:
    for line in fin:
        json_str += line.strip()
# remove repetitive commas
json_str = re.sub(',{2,}', ',', json_str)
parallel_corpus = json.loads(json_str)
# Read translations.csv

df = pd.read_csv('translations.csv')
df.head()
any human mt mtSectionsCount publishedDate sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetRevisionId targetTitle ... translatedSectionsCount translationId englishViewCount hindiViewCount englishEditCount engSizeAtTrans hindiEditCount hinSizeAtTrans currEngSize currHinSize
0 1.000000 0.812002 0.187998 1.0 20150521173037 0 Rohni River //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rohni River 0 रोहिणी नदी ... NaN 39636 25712.0 5357.0 12.0 4235.0 5.0 6697.0 4589.0 6825.0
1 0.461297 0.264291 0.197006 3.0 20150521220341 0 K. R. Meera //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K. R. Meera 0 के॰आर॰ मीरा ... NaN 39660 136660.0 1230.0 80.0 11341.0 6.0 6712.0 15018.0 7734.0
2 0.051829 0.051542 0.000287 1.0 20150713044500 0 Member of parliament //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Member of parliament 0 संसद के सदस्य ... NaN 39717 1215271.0 974.0 279.0 31591.0 18.0 50165.0 41304.0 50221.0
3 0.265306 0.131091 0.134215 3.0 20150531131155 0 Jatt & Juliet //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jatt & Juliet 0 जट्ट एंड जूलिएट ... NaN 39722 289870.0 6078.0 85.0 13312.0 8.0 2955.0 12390.0 3920.0
4 0.958561 0.462422 0.496139 9.0 20150624065128 0 Administrative division //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Administrative division 0 प्रशासनिक प्रभाग ... NaN 40042 1093295.0 9442.0 129.0 7251.0 1.0 10446.0 7415.0 10446.0

5 rows × 21 columns

# Sort according to hindiViewCount

sorted_df = df.sort_values(ascending=False, by='hindiViewCount').reset_index(drop = True)
sorted_df.head()
any human mt mtSectionsCount publishedDate sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetRevisionId targetTitle ... translatedSectionsCount translationId englishViewCount hindiViewCount englishEditCount engSizeAtTrans hindiEditCount hinSizeAtTrans currEngSize currHinSize
0 0.449331 0.000000 0.449331 26.0 20160908182541 738333337 Pakistan //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakistan 3151377 पाकिस्तान ... NaN 201438 19338427.0 742838.0 500.0 306834.0 212.0 39889.0 378249.0 42634.0
1 0.649281 0.648625 0.000656 3.0 20170802082159 793497261 Blue Whale (game) //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue Whale (game) 3539070 ब्लू व्हेल (खेल) ... NaN 354337 12356182.0 200481.0 368.0 73706.0 63.0 11075.0 49842.0 11752.0
2 0.962195 0.026270 0.935925 23.0 20160814104042 734364906 India at the Olympics //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India at the Olympics 3131179 ओलम्पिक में भारत ... NaN 191400 2701823.0 189305.0 316.0 20203.0 31.0 42608.0 30257.0 40949.0
3 1.114298 0.615430 0.498868 36.0 20180503092337 839246237 Kamal Nath //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamal Nath 3786332 कमल नाथ ... NaN 469251 853907.0 165479.0 274.0 19053.0 38.0 28702.0 25578.0 30259.0
4 0.878437 0.433423 0.445013 2.0 20150808130114 0 Paytm //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paytm 0 पेटीऍम ... NaN 57809 4196921.0 162855.0 500.0 6458.0 60.0 6304.0 25657.0 8578.0

5 rows × 21 columns

1. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

1.1 Plot Translations, Deletions and Drafts per month

parameters = {
    'action':'query',
    'list':'contenttranslationlangtrend',
    'source':'en',
    'target':'hi',
    'interval':'month'     # monthly trends
}
langTrend = english_session.get(parameters)
langTrend['query']['contenttranslationlangtrend'].keys()
dict_keys(['translations', 'drafts', 'deletions'])
import datetime

# Plot scatter plot
for dict in langTrend['query']['contenttranslationlangtrend']['translations']:
    date = datetime.datetime.strptime(dict['date'],'%Y-%m-%d').date()
    delta = dict['delta']
    plt.scatter(date, delta, c='blue', label = 'translations')
for dict in langTrend['query']['contenttranslationlangtrend']['drafts']:
    date = datetime.datetime.strptime(dict['date'],'%Y-%m-%d').date()
    delta = dict['delta']
    plt.scatter(date, delta, c='yellow', label = 'drafts')
for dict in langTrend['query']['contenttranslationlangtrend']['deletions']:
    date = datetime.datetime.strptime(dict['date'],'%Y-%m-%d').date()
    delta = dict['delta']
    plt.scatter(date, delta, c='red', label ='deletions')
    
from collections import OrderedDict

# Show only distinct labels
handles, labels = plt.gca().get_legend_handles_labels()
by_label = OrderedDict(zip(labels, handles))
plt.legend(by_label.values(), by_label.keys())

plt.title("Language trend from English to Hindi conversion")
plt.show()

Observation:

  • Although many articles are translated from English to Hindi using Content Translation, a large number of such articles are deleted too.
  • However, in recent time, translations are more than deletions, which MAYBE because of increasing quality of Content Translation.
  • It is also suspected from the graph that deletions is captured over non-Content Translation too.

1.2 Relation between English Size at Translation and Hindi Size at Translation

# Create new dataframe with only 'engSizeAtTrans' and 'hinSizeAtTrans'
size_df = df[['engSizeAtTrans', 'hinSizeAtTrans']]
# Plot scatter plot
plt.scatter(df['engSizeAtTrans'], df['hinSizeAtTrans'], s=10)
plt.xlabel('English Size at Translation')
plt.ylabel('Hindi Size at Translation')
plt.show()
# Correlation matrix between engSizeAtTrans and hinSizeAtTrans
size_df.corr()
engSizeAtTrans hinSizeAtTrans
engSizeAtTrans 1.000000 0.431993
hinSizeAtTrans 0.431993 1.000000

Observation:

  • Both variables are positively correlated.
  • However, English Size at Translation and Hindi Size at Translation is not an accurate measure, because it works on bytes count (which might be different for both languages, if ASCII used for English and Unicode for Hindi, i.e Hindi characters occupying more space than English character, not sure though), while word count should be used, which is already captured by 'any'. Let's look at it.

1.3 Comparing any, human and mt values

# Create dataframe with only 'any', 'human', 'mt', 'mtSectionsCount'
stats_df = df[['any', 'human', 'mt', 'mtSectionsCount']]
stats_df.head()
any human mt mtSectionsCount
0 1.000000 0.812002 0.187998 1.0
1 0.461297 0.264291 0.197006 3.0
2 0.051829 0.051542 0.000287 1.0
3 0.265306 0.131091 0.134215 3.0
4 0.958561 0.462422 0.496139 9.0
# Statistics of stats_df
stats_df.describe()
any human mt mtSectionsCount
count 2.124000e+03 2.124000e+03 2124.000000 2124.000000
mean 1.815121e+20 4.342653e+15 1.417367 8.345104
std 8.181991e+21 2.001301e+17 31.949546 14.781117
min 0.000000e+00 0.000000e+00 0.000000 0.000000
25% 3.664601e-01 6.712190e-02 0.010660 2.000000
50% 7.391342e-01 2.822543e-01 0.133241 4.000000
75% 9.429318e-01 6.239874e-01 0.478608 9.000000
max 3.770379e+23 9.223372e+18 1036.242337 270.000000

Observation:

  • Mean is a very high value, but std is high too, suggesting that only a few of the articles are contributing to the high value of mean.
# Those articles with 'any'>2
(df[df['any']>2]).sort_values(by = 'any', ascending = True)
any human mt mtSectionsCount publishedDate sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetRevisionId targetTitle ... translatedSectionsCount translationId englishViewCount hindiViewCount englishEditCount engSizeAtTrans hindiEditCount hinSizeAtTrans currEngSize currHinSize
1529 2.095064e+00 2.084095e+00 0.010969 1.0 20180526042804 842245995 Subhash Yadav //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subhash Yadav 3807631 सुभाष यादव ... NaN 480215 22270.0 2485.0 14.0 2819.0 8.0 1604.0 4312.0 3633.0
1379 3.100447e+00 3.082358e+00 0.018089 7.0 20180317145901 816301347 Gilbert Strang //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilbert Strang 3740854 Gilbert Strang ... NaN 444233 183079.0 NaN 4.0 8913.0 NaN NaN 9075.0 NaN
1786 4.647768e+00 4.163459e+00 0.484309 26.0 20181208162741 872349953 Vishnu Wagh //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vishnu Wagh 4043226 Vishnu Wagh ... NaN 571628 25730.0 NaN 55.0 20250.0 NaN NaN 24752.0 NaN
296 1.534783e+01 5.217391e-01 14.826087 2.0 20160521175425 715401047 Ujjain division //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ujjain division 3073964 उज्जैन संभाग ... NaN 155567 26618.0 NaN 7.0 787.0 15.0 1834.0 856.0 1952.0
786 2.149318e+01 2.142392e+01 0.069255 4.0 20170402060027 772533049 Vidya Arankalle //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vidya Arankalle 3440516 विद्या अर्नाकले ... NaN 298976 3968.0 202.0 2.0 1432.0 6.0 1704.0 1589.0 1931.0
26 1.044260e+03 1.044260e+03 0.000000 0.0 20150625183525 0 Dayanatpur //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dayanatpur 0 दयानतपुर ... NaN 45932 1832.0 279.0 3.0 2156.0 3.0 913.0 2151.0 1056.0
27 1.552517e+06 1.552106e-01 410.292683 3.0 20150627175542 0 Gajuwaka //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gajuwaka 0 गाजुवाका ... NaN 46887 57423.0 924.0 105.0 4934.0 1.0 1447.0 8161.0 1447.0
25 3.746682e+21 3.746682e+14 963.651096 4.0 20150625180120 0 Malkapuram //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malkapuram 0 मल्कापुरम ... NaN 45892 10518.0 657.0 27.0 3482.0 13.0 4727.0 4694.0 7138.0
28 4.747049e+21 4.748338e+13 1036.242337 3.0 20150630094534 0 Nabakalebara 2015 //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nabakalebara 2015 0 नबकलेबर २०१५ ... NaN 47833 47420.0 NaN 47.0 21353.0 10.0 11990.0 23141.0 11893.0
24 3.770379e+23 9.223372e+18 4.320280 2.0 20150626160215 0 Kendriya Vidyalaya, No. 2, Nausena Baugh, Vizag //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kendriya Vidyalaya, No... 0 केंद्रीय विद्यालय नं २, नौसेना बाग, विशाखापट्टणम ... NaN 45873 6667.0 1666.0 15.0 3220.0 24.0 5504.0 3306.0 6314.0

10 rows × 21 columns

Observations:

  • Only 10 articles out of 2000 have 'any' > 2, in which only 3 have 'any' > 10
  • Focussing on article at index = 971, sourceTitle = 'Malkapuram'
# Plot histogram of 'any', 'human' and 'mt' for all articles excluding those with 'any'>2
plt.hist([df['any'][~(df['any']>2)], df['human'][~(df['any']>2)], df['mt'][~(df['any']>2)]], bins = 20, label=['any', 'human', 'mt'])
plt.legend(loc='upper right')
plt.show()

Observation:

  • Most of the articles have 'any' count around 1
  • No perfect ratio between 'human' and 'mt'.
# Plotting top 50 articles (according to Hindi View Count) 'any', 'mt' and 'human' count
plt.plot(sorted_df.loc[:50, 'any'], label='any')
plt.plot(sorted_df.loc[:50, 'mt'], label='mt')
plt.plot(sorted_df.loc[:50, 'human'], label='human')

plt.legend(loc='center right', bbox_to_anchor=(1.25, 0.5),
          ncol=1, fancybox=True, shadow=True);
plt.title('human vs mt graph')

plt.show()
# Those articles with 'mt'>'human'
df[df['mt']>df['human']].head()
any human mt mtSectionsCount publishedDate sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetRevisionId targetTitle ... translatedSectionsCount translationId englishViewCount hindiViewCount englishEditCount engSizeAtTrans hindiEditCount hinSizeAtTrans currEngSize currHinSize
3 0.265306 0.131091 0.134215 3.0 20150531131155 0 Jatt & Juliet //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jatt & Juliet 0 जट्ट एंड जूलिएट ... NaN 39722 289870.0 6078.0 85.0 13312.0 8.0 2955.0 12390.0 3920.0
4 0.958561 0.462422 0.496139 9.0 20150624065128 0 Administrative division //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Administrative division 0 प्रशासनिक प्रभाग ... NaN 40042 1093295.0 9442.0 129.0 7251.0 1.0 10446.0 7415.0 10446.0
5 0.850433 0.297016 0.553417 3.0 20150526073913 0 Hetukar Jha //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hetukar Jha 0 हेतुकर झा ... NaN 40259 9440.0 1902.0 51.0 7623.0 7.0 9252.0 32899.0 9593.0
7 0.523670 0.000000 0.523670 8.0 20150526200433 0 Operation Maitri //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation Maitri 0 ऑपरेशन मैत्री ... NaN 40372 76736.0 3886.0 31.0 14400.0 11.0 1034.0 14810.0 2347.0
11 0.275128 0.076335 0.198793 9.0 20150909083517 0 National Disaster Response Force //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National Disaster Resp... 0 राष्ट्रीय आपदा अनुक्रिया बल ... NaN 41235 459254.0 23951.0 124.0 36315.0 11.0 9715.0 64389.0 10384.0

5 rows × 21 columns

# Those articles with 'mt'<'human'
df[df['mt']<df['human']].head()
any human mt mtSectionsCount publishedDate sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetRevisionId targetTitle ... translatedSectionsCount translationId englishViewCount hindiViewCount englishEditCount engSizeAtTrans hindiEditCount hinSizeAtTrans currEngSize currHinSize
0 1.000000 0.812002 0.187998 1.0 20150521173037 0 Rohni River //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rohni River 0 रोहिणी नदी ... NaN 39636 25712.0 5357.0 12.0 4235.0 5.0 6697.0 4589.0 6825.0
1 0.461297 0.264291 0.197006 3.0 20150521220341 0 K. R. Meera //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K. R. Meera 0 के॰आर॰ मीरा ... NaN 39660 136660.0 1230.0 80.0 11341.0 6.0 6712.0 15018.0 7734.0
2 0.051829 0.051542 0.000287 1.0 20150713044500 0 Member of parliament //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Member of parliament 0 संसद के सदस्य ... NaN 39717 1215271.0 974.0 279.0 31591.0 18.0 50165.0 41304.0 50221.0
6 1.000000 0.634096 0.365904 2.0 20150526190751 0 2015 India heat wave //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2015 India heat wave 0 भारत में ऊष्मा लहर २०१५ ... NaN 40353 7952.0 4315.0 314.0 5104.0 20.0 7596.0 22092.0 11204.0
8 0.898413 0.807483 0.090931 5.0 20150531135639 0 Bhanwarlal Sharma //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhanwarlal Sharma 0 WT:Articles for creation/भंवर लाल शर्मा ... NaN 41100 2950.0 1.0 42.0 5812.0 NaN NaN 5619.0 NaN

5 rows × 21 columns

Observations:

  • Neither mt nor human prevails the other, because it depends on the content translator and the output produced by machine translation (whether it is able to remove grammatical errors)
# Correlation matrix of 'any', 'human', 'mt' and 'mtSectionsCount'
stats_df.corr()
any human mt mtSectionsCount
any 1.000000 0.999872 0.017320 -0.009480
human 0.999872 1.000000 0.002003 -0.009319
mt 0.017320 0.002003 1.000000 -0.006731
mtSectionsCount -0.009480 -0.009319 -0.006731 1.000000

Observations:

  • 'any' and 'human' are highly correlated, i.e. as number of words in Hindi article compared to that of English article continues, the human contribution also increases significantly.
  • 'any' and 'mt' are low correlated, signifying that machine translation serves as only a basis for translation
  • Why 'mtSectionsCount' is negatively correlated with 'any', 'human' and 'mt' is unclear.

1.4 Comparison of HindiEditCount and EnglishEditCount

# Plot histogram of 'englishEditCount' and 'hindiEditCount'
plt.hist([df['englishEditCount'][~np.isnan(df['englishEditCount'])], df['hindiEditCount'][~np.isnan(df['hindiEditCount'])]], bins = 50, label = ['English Edit Count', 'Hindi Edit Count'])
plt.xlabel('Number of edits')
plt.ylabel('Number of articles')
plt.legend(loc='upper right')
plt.show()

Observation:

  • Many Hindi articles have about 1-10 edits, but the number of edits (Hindi) decreases very fastly, while edits in English articles, although also decreasing fastly, is pretty existent even at 400-500 edits.
## Plotting hindi and english edit count most viewed 100 articles in Hindi (that use content translation) 
plt.plot(sorted_df.loc[:100, 'englishEditCount'], label='English Edit Count')
plt.plot(sorted_df.loc[:100, 'hindiEditCount'], label='Hindi Edit Count')
plt.legend(loc='center right', bbox_to_anchor=(1.25, 0.5), ncol=1, fancybox=True, shadow=True);
plt.title('hindiEditCount vs englishEditCount')
plt.show()

Observations:

  • More edits are made in English language compared to Hindi

1.5 Current Sizes vs Sizes at time of translation

# Scatter plot of English size at translation vs current English Size
plt.subplot(1, 2, 1)
plt.scatter(df['engSizeAtTrans'], df['currEngSize'], s=10)
plt.xlabel('English Size at Translation')
plt.ylabel('Current English Size')

# Scatter plot of Hindi size at translation vs current Hindi Size
plt.subplot(1, 2, 2)
plt.scatter(df['hinSizeAtTrans'], df['currHinSize'], s=10)
plt.xlabel('Hindi Size at Translation')
plt.ylabel('Current Hindi Size')

plt.show()

Observations:

  • English version of articles usually see a larger change in their sizes which is generally an increase in their size.
  • However, Hindi versions of articles don't see that much change in size, and mostly decrease in size, indicating towards deletion of substandard content.

2. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

2.1 Specific Article Analysis: Pakistan (Most viewed article in Hindi which uses Content Translation)

# Translation information of 'Pakistan'
df[df['sourceTitle'] == 'Pakistan']
any human mt mtSectionsCount publishedDate sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetRevisionId targetTitle ... translatedSectionsCount translationId englishViewCount hindiViewCount englishEditCount engSizeAtTrans hindiEditCount hinSizeAtTrans currEngSize currHinSize
484 0.449331 0.0 0.449331 26.0 20160908182541 738333337 Pakistan //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakistan 3151377 पाकिस्तान ... NaN 201438 19338427.0 742838.0 500.0 306834.0 212.0 39889.0 378249.0 42634.0

1 rows × 21 columns

# Get location of Pakistan
location_Pakistan = (df.index[df['sourceTitle'] == 'Pakistan'])[0]
location_Pakistan
484
# Get edits on पाकिस्तान ('Pakistan' in Hindi) since it was translated (translation included)
revision_parameters = {
    "action": "query",
    "prop": "revisions",
    "titles": df.loc[location_Pakistan, 'targetTitle'],
    "rvprop": "timestamp|user|ids|comment|size",
    "rvlimit": 10,          # Limit set to 10 only, actually many revisions
    "rvstart": df.loc[location_Pakistan, 'publishedDate'],     # From published date
    "rvslots": "main",
    "formatversion": "2",
    "format": "json",
    "rvdir": "newer",
    "redirects": True
}
revisions = hindi_session.get(revision_parameters)

pprint.pprint(revisions)
{'continue': {'continue': '||', 'rvcontinue': '20161031043602|3185392'},
 'query': {'pages': [{'ns': 0,
                      'pageid': 877,
                      'revisions': [{'comment': '[[Special:Contributions/Nav1991neo|Nav1991neo]] '
                                                '([[User '
                                                'talk:Nav1991neo|वार्ता]]) '
                                                'द्वारा किए बदलाव 3151377 को '
                                                'पूर्ववत किया',
                                     'parentid': 3151377,
                                     'revid': 3151453,
                                     'size': 39889,
                                     'timestamp': '2016-09-08T18:35:32Z',
                                     'user': 'Nav1991neo'},
                                    {'anon': True,
                                     'comment': '/* खेल */',
                                     'parentid': 3151453,
                                     'revid': 3157505,
                                     'size': 39931,
                                     'timestamp': '2016-09-18T09:05:59Z',
                                     'user': '182.66.12.11'},
                                    {'comment': '[[Special:Contributions/182.66.12.11|182.66.12.11]] '
                                                '([[User '
                                                'talk:182.66.12.11|Talk]]) के '
                                                'संपादनों को हटाकर '
                                                '[[User:Nav1991neo|Nav1991neo]] '
                                                'के आखिरी अवतरण को पूर्ववत '
                                                'किया',
                                     'parentid': 3157505,
                                     'revid': 3157510,
                                     'size': 39889,
                                     'timestamp': '2016-09-18T09:22:59Z',
                                     'user': 'स'},
                                    {'anon': True,
                                     'comment': '',
                                     'parentid': 3157510,
                                     'revid': 3158701,
                                     'size': 39857,
                                     'timestamp': '2016-09-21T03:27:25Z',
                                     'user': '2602:30A:C0FF:A6E0:DCF5:BFCA:AFC6:3D99'},
                                    {'anon': True,
                                     'comment': '',
                                     'parentid': 3158701,
                                     'revid': 3162038,
                                     'size': 39865,
                                     'timestamp': '2016-09-26T02:40:31Z',
                                     'user': '27.97.45.177'},
                                    {'comment': '[[Special:Contributions/27.97.45.177|27.97.45.177]] '
                                                '([[User '
                                                'talk:27.97.45.177|वार्ता]]) '
                                                'द्वारा किए बदलाव 3162038 को '
                                                'पूर्ववत किया',
                                     'parentid': 3162038,
                                     'revid': 3162091,
                                     'size': 39857,
                                     'timestamp': '2016-09-26T04:51:17Z',
                                     'user': 'स'},
                                    {'anon': True,
                                     'comment': '/* पकिस्तान का इस्लामीकरण */ '
                                                'व्याकरण में सुधार',
                                     'parentid': 3162091,
                                     'revid': 3167247,
                                     'size': 39825,
                                     'timestamp': '2016-10-01T21:22:33Z',
                                     'user': '93.169.242.47'},
                                    {'anon': True,
                                     'comment': '/* खेल */ व्याकरण में सुधार',
                                     'parentid': 3167247,
                                     'revid': 3167251,
                                     'size': 39838,
                                     'timestamp': '2016-10-01T21:28:37Z',
                                     'user': '93.169.242.47'},
                                    {'anon': True,
                                     'comment': '',
                                     'parentid': 3167251,
                                     'revid': 3184849,
                                     'size': 39862,
                                     'timestamp': '2016-10-30T03:17:53Z',
                                     'user': '101.60.138.199'},
                                    {'comment': 'वर्तनी/व्याकरण\xa0सुधार',
                                     'parentid': 3184849,
                                     'revid': 3184889,
                                     'size': 39877,
                                     'timestamp': '2016-10-30T05:08:05Z',
                                     'user': 'Surenders25'}],
                      'title': 'पाकिस्तान'}]}}

Observations:

  • The content translation (सामग्री अनुवाद) for this page is done only for experiment. The very next edit undoes the content translation
# Revisions from the very start for sorted_df.loc[0], i.e. Pakistan
revision_parameters = {
    "action": "query",
    "prop": "revisions",
    "titles": df.loc[location_Pakistan, 'targetTitle'],
    "rvprop": "timestamp|user|ids|comment|size",
    "rvlimit": 10,           # Limit set to 10, actually many revisions
    "rvslots": "main",
    "formatversion": "2",
    "format": "json",
    "rvdir": "newer",
    "redirects": True
}
revisions = hindi_session.get(revision_parameters)

pprint.pprint(revisions)
{'continue': {'continue': '||', 'rvcontinue': '20041213035216|4826'},
 'query': {'pages': [{'ns': 0,
                      'pageid': 877,
                      'revisions': [{'comment': '',
                                     'parentid': 0,
                                     'revid': 560,
                                     'size': 3347,
                                     'timestamp': '2004-02-20T09:34:06Z',
                                     'user': 'Hemanshu~hiwiki'},
                                    {'anon': True,
                                     'comment': '',
                                     'parentid': 560,
                                     'revid': 561,
                                     'size': 3353,
                                     'timestamp': '2004-02-20T09:36:11Z',
                                     'user': '203.115.74.70'},
                                    {'comment': '',
                                     'parentid': 561,
                                     'revid': 1884,
                                     'size': 262,
                                     'timestamp': '2004-02-20T09:36:44Z',
                                     'user': 'Hemanshu~hiwiki'},
                                    {'anon': True,
                                     'comment': '',
                                     'parentid': 1884,
                                     'revid': 1905,
                                     'size': 501,
                                     'timestamp': '2004-06-05T01:00:42Z',
                                     'user': '65.0.98.150'},
                                    {'comment': '',
                                     'parentid': 1905,
                                     'revid': 2760,
                                     'size': 525,
                                     'timestamp': '2004-06-05T16:30:41Z',
                                     'user': 'Hemanshu~hiwiki'},
                                    {'comment': 'stub + removing ZWJ +utfying',
                                     'parentid': 2760,
                                     'revid': 3692,
                                     'size': 645,
                                     'timestamp': '2004-07-25T17:36:53Z',
                                     'user': 'Spundun'},
                                    {'comment': '[[Category:देश]]',
                                     'parentid': 3692,
                                     'revid': 4190,
                                     'size': 668,
                                     'timestamp': '2004-10-17T21:42:45Z',
                                     'user': 'Yann'},
                                    {'comment': 'robot  '
                                                'Adding:th,no,pt,ru,cy,et,eu,it,simple,ms,ur,fi',
                                     'parentid': 4190,
                                     'revid': 4823,
                                     'size': 914,
                                     'timestamp': '2004-11-10T20:54:51Z',
                                     'user': 'Hashar'},
                                    {'comment': '',
                                     'parentid': 4823,
                                     'revid': 4824,
                                     'size': 30198,
                                     'timestamp': '2004-12-13T03:47:39Z',
                                     'user': 'विजय ठाकुर'},
                                    {'comment': '',
                                     'parentid': 4824,
                                     'revid': 4825,
                                     'size': 30218,
                                     'timestamp': '2004-12-13T03:51:16Z',
                                     'user': 'विजय ठाकुर'}],
                      'title': 'पाकिस्तान'}]}}
# Get earliest publish date in English and content translation date
(revisions['query']['pages'][0]['revisions'][0]['timestamp'], df.loc[location_Pakistan, 'publishedDate'])
('2004-02-20T09:34:06Z', 20160908182541)

Observations:

  • The oldest edit date is 2004 which is much before the date content translation was done (2016), indicating that translation might be experimental

  • So some translation ids have been included in dump files, but their translations have NOT been eventually retained.

2.2 Specific Article Analysis: Indus Waters Treaty (Chosen because it has a good number of edits and pageviews)

# Translation Information of 'Indus Waters Treaty'
df[df['sourceTitle'] == 'Indus Waters Treaty']
any human mt mtSectionsCount publishedDate sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetRevisionId targetTitle ... translatedSectionsCount translationId englishViewCount hindiViewCount englishEditCount engSizeAtTrans hindiEditCount hinSizeAtTrans currEngSize currHinSize
503 0.954379 0.002603 0.951776 31.0 20160928103311 741562161 Indus Waters Treaty //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus Waters Treaty 3163591 सिंधु जल समझौता ... NaN 209186 1092749.0 114684.0 311.0 19759.0 51.0 40034.0 39370.0 42403.0

1 rows × 21 columns

# Get location of Indus Waters Treaty
location_iwt = (df.index[df['sourceTitle'] == 'Indus Waters Treaty'])[0]
location_iwt
503
# Show 'englishViewCount', 'hindiViewCount', 'englishEditCount' and 'hindiEditCount' for Indus Waters Treaty
print (df.loc[location_iwt, 'englishViewCount'])
print (df.loc[location_iwt, 'hindiViewCount'])
print (df.loc[location_iwt, 'englishEditCount'])
print (df.loc[location_iwt, 'hindiEditCount'])
1092749.0
114684.0
311.0
51.0
# Get edits for सिंधु जल समझौता ('Indus Waters Treaty' in Hindi) since it was translated (translation included)
revision_parameters = {
    "action": "query",
    "prop": "revisions",
    "titles": df.loc[location_iwt, 'targetTitle'],
    "rvprop": "timestamp|user|ids|comment|size|tags",
    "rvlimit": 10,       # Limit set to 10 only, actually many revisions
    "rvstart": df.loc[location_iwt, 'publishedDate'],    # From published date
    "rvslots": "main",
    "formatversion": "2",
    "format": "json",
    "rvdir": "newer",
    "redirects": True
}
revisions = hindi_session.get(revision_parameters)
pprint.pprint(revisions)
{'continue': {'continue': '||', 'rvcontinue': '20160929042112|3164134'},
 'query': {'pages': [{'ns': 0,
                      'pageid': 744825,
                      'revisions': [{'comment': '"[[:en:Special:Redirect/revision/741562161|Indus '
                                                'Waters Treaty]]" पृष्ठ का '
                                                'अनुवाद करके निर्मित किया गया',
                                     'parentid': 0,
                                     'revid': 3163591,
                                     'size': 40034,
                                     'tags': ['contenttranslation'],
                                     'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:33:11Z',
                                     'user': 'Anamdas'},
                                    {'comment': '',
                                     'parentid': 3163591,
                                     'revid': 3163597,
                                     'size': 40424,
                                     'tags': [],
                                     'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:39:19Z',
                                     'user': 'Anamdas'},
                                    {'comment': '',
                                     'parentid': 3163597,
                                     'revid': 3163598,
                                     'size': 40431,
                                     'tags': [],
                                     'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:39:50Z',
                                     'user': 'Anamdas'},
                                    {'comment': '',
                                     'parentid': 3163598,
                                     'revid': 3163763,
                                     'size': 40439,
                                     'tags': [],
                                     'timestamp': '2016-09-28T13:59:08Z',
                                     'user': 'Anamdas'},
                                    {'comment': '',
                                     'parentid': 3163763,
                                     'revid': 3163766,
                                     'size': 40423,
                                     'tags': [],
                                     'timestamp': '2016-09-28T14:04:05Z',
                                     'user': 'Anamdas'},
                                    {'comment': '',
                                     'parentid': 3163766,
                                     'revid': 3163767,
                                     'size': 40406,
                                     'tags': [],
                                     'timestamp': '2016-09-28T14:04:52Z',
                                     'user': 'Anamdas'},
                                    {'comment': '/* संधि पर पुनर्विचार */',
                                     'parentid': 3163767,
                                     'revid': 3163768,
                                     'size': 40340,
                                     'tags': [],
                                     'timestamp': '2016-09-28T14:06:31Z',
                                     'user': 'Anamdas'},
                                    {'comment': '/* प्रावधान */',
                                     'parentid': 3163768,
                                     'revid': 3163778,
                                     'size': 39727,
                                     'tags': [],
                                     'timestamp': '2016-09-28T14:23:28Z',
                                     'user': 'Anamdas'},
                                    {'comment': '/* प्रावधान */',
                                     'parentid': 3163778,
                                     'revid': 3163783,
                                     'size': 39776,
                                     'tags': [],
                                     'timestamp': '2016-09-28T14:26:41Z',
                                     'user': 'Anamdas'},
                                    {'comment': '',
                                     'parentid': 3163783,
                                     'revid': 3163784,
                                     'size': 39839,
                                     'tags': [],
                                     'timestamp': '2016-09-28T14:27:42Z',
                                     'user': 'Anamdas'}],
                      'title': 'सिंधु जल समझौता'}]}}

Observations:

  • Most of the initial edits are made by the content translator, which are followed by bot edits.
  • A significant edit is of 21 February 2019 at 16:34 which diverges a line in complete meaning from English and Hindi Wikipedia.

21 Feb 19 Edit

It can be seen that while in English Wikipedia, it continues to be the same as previous edit which translates as:

Since the ratification of the treaty in 1960, India and Pakistan have not engaged in any water wars

The said edit changes the line to (in Hindi Wikipedia, translated as, )

Since the ratification of the treaty in 1960, there have been tensions between India and Pakistan over Kashmir issue.

Which highlights the CULTURAL DIFFERENCES that might exist between the two versions if done massively.

# Get 'source', 'mt' and 'user' for each of the translated section of Indus Waters Treaty using contenttranslationcorpora
parallel_corpus_parameters = {'action':'query',
                              'format':'json',
                              'list':'contenttranslationcorpora',
                              'translationid':str(df.loc[location_iwt, 'translationId']),
                              'striphtml':True}
parallel_corpus_res = english_session.get(parallel_corpus_parameters)
parallel_corpus_res
{'batchcomplete': '',
 'query': {'contenttranslationcorpora': {'sections': {'mwAQ': {'sequenceid': 1,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'The Indus river basin',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:28:26Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'सिंधु नदी बेसिन',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:28:26Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwBQ': {'sequenceid': 6,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'The Indus Waters Treaty is a water-distribution treaty between India and Pakistan, brokered by the World Bank (then the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development).[1][2] The treaty was signed in Karachi on September 19, 1960 by Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru and President of Pakistan Ayub Khan.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:28:46Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'की सिंधु जल संधि के लिए एक पानी के वितरण संधि के बीच भारत और पाकिस्तान, मध्यस्थता द्वारा विश्व बैंक (फिर अंतरराष्ट्रीय बैंक के लिए पुनर्निर्माण और विकास).[1][2] इस संधि में हस्ताक्षर किए गए थे कराची में 19 सितंबर, 1960 से भारत के प्रधानमंत्री जवाहरलाल नेहरू और पाकिस्तान के राष्ट्रपति अयूब खानहै ।',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:28:46Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwEQ': {'sequenceid': 19,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'According to this agreement, control over the three "eastern" rivers — the Beas, the Ravi and the Sutlej — was given to India, while control over the three "western" rivers — the Indus, the Chenab and the Jhelum — to Pakistan. More controversial, however, were the provisions on how the waters were to be shared. Since Pakistan\'s rivers flow through India first, the treaty allowed India to use them for irrigation, transport and power generation, while laying down precise regulations for Indian building projects along the way. The treaty was a result of Pakistani fear that, since the source rivers of the Indus basin were in India, it could potentially create droughts and famines in Pakistan, especially at times of war.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:28:47Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'इस समझौते के अनुसार, नियंत्रण के तीन "पूर्वी" नदियों — ब्यास, रावी और सतलुज — दिया गया था भारत के लिए है, जबकि पर नियंत्रण तीन "पश्चिमी" नदियों — सिंधु, चिनाब और झेलम — पाकिस्तान के लिए. अधिक विवादास्पद है, हालांकि, थे प्रावधानों पर कैसे जल रहे थे करने के लिए साझा किया जा सकता है । के बाद से पाकिस्तान की नदियों के प्रवाह के माध्यम से भारत पहली, संधि की अनुमति के लिए भारत के लिए उन्हें का उपयोग सिंचाई, परिवहन और बिजली उत्पादन, नीचे बिछाने, जबकि सटीक नियमों के लिए परियोजनाओं के निर्माण के लिए जिस तरह से साथ. संधि का परिणाम था पाकिस्तानी डर है कि, के बाद से स्रोत नदियों की सिंधु बेसिन थे भारत में, यह संभवतः सकता है बनाने के लिए सूखे और अकाल में पाकिस्तान पर विशेष रूप से युद्ध के समय.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:28:47Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwGw': {'sequenceid': 33,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Since the ratification of the treaty in 1960, India and Pakistan have not engaged in any water wars. Most disagreements and disputes have been settled via legal procedures, provided for within the framework of the treaty. The treaty is considered to be one of the most successful watersharing endeavours in the world today, even though analysts acknowledge the need to update certain technical specifications and expand the scope of the document to include climate change.[3] As per the provisions in the treaty, India can use only 20% of the total water carried by the Indus river.[4][5][6]',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:29:48Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'के बाद से अनुसमर्थन की संधि, 1960 में भारत और पाकिस्तान में नहीं लगे हुए किसी भी पानी युद्धों. सबसे असहमति और विवादों का निपटारा किया गया है के माध्यम से कानूनी प्रक्रियाओं, के लिए प्रदान के ढांचे के भीतर संधि है । संधि माना जाता है एक के सबसे सफल watersharing प्रयासों की आज की दुनिया में, यहां तक कि हालांकि विश्लेषकों को स्वीकार करते हैं की जरूरत है अद्यतन करने के लिए कुछ तकनीकी विनिर्देशों और विस्तार की गुंजाइश दस्तावेज़ शामिल करने के लिए जलवायु परिवर्तनहै । [3] के रूप में प्रावधानों के अनुसार इस संधि में भारत का उपयोग कर सकते हैं केवल 20% के कुल पानी के द्वारा किया जाता सिंधु नदी है.[4][5][6]',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:29:48Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwHg': {'sequenceid': 40,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Provisions',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:29:57Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'प्रावधानों',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:29:57Z'},
     'user': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'प्रावधान',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:32:49Z'}},
    'mwHw': {'sequenceid': 42,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'The Indus system of rivers comprises three western rivers — the Indus, the Jhelum and Chenab — and three eastern rivers — the Sutlej, the Beas and the Ravi. The treaty, under Article 5.1, envisages the sharing of waters of the rivers Ravi, Beas, Sutlej, Jhelum and Chenab which join the Indus River on its left bank (eastern side) in Pakistan. According to this treaty, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej, which constitute the eastern rivers, are allocated for exclusive use by India before they enter Pakistan. However, a transition period of 10 years was permitted in which India was bound to supply water to Pakistan from these rivers until Pakistan was able to build the canal system for utilization of waters of Jhelum, Chenab and the Indus itself, allocated to it under the treaty. Similarly, Pakistan has exclusive use of the western rivers Jhelum, Chenab and Indus. Pakistan also received one-time financial compensation for the loss of water from the eastern rivers. Since March 31, 1970, after the 10-year moratorium, India has secured full rights for use of the waters of the three rivers[7] allocated to it.[8][9] The treaty resulted in partitioning of the rivers rather than sharing of their waters.[10]',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:03Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'सिंधु सिस्टम की नदियों में शामिल हैं तीन पश्चिमी नदियों — सिंधु, झेलम और चिनाब और तीन पूर्वी नदियों सतलुज, ब्यास और रावी. संधि के तहत, अनुच्छेद 5.1, परिकल्पना के पानी के बंटवारे की नदियों रावी, ब्यास, सतलुज, झेलम और चिनाब में शामिल होने के जो सिंधु नदी पर अपनी बाईं बैंक (पूर्वी पक्ष) पाकिस्तान में है । इस के अनुसार संधि, रावी, ब्यास और सतलुज, जो गठन के पूर्वी नदियों, आवंटित कर रहे हैं के लिए अनन्य उपयोग के द्वारा भारत इससे पहले कि वे प्रवेश पाकिस्तान. हालांकि, एक संक्रमण की अवधि 10 साल की अनुमति दी थी, जिसमें भारत बाध्य किया गया था करने के लिए पानी की आपूर्ति के लिए पाकिस्तान से इन नदियों तक पाकिस्तान में सक्षम था का निर्माण करने के लिए नहर प्रणाली के उपयोग के लिए पानी की झेलम, चिनाब और सिंधु ही है, यह करने के लिए आवंटित संधि के तहत. इसी तरह, पाकिस्तान अनन्य उपयोग के पश्चिमी नदियों झेलम, चिनाब और सिंधु है । पाकिस्तान भी प्राप्त एक बार वित्तीय नुकसान के लिए मुआवजा के पानी से पूर्वी नदियों. के बाद से 31 मार्च, 1970, के बाद 10 साल की रोक, भारत में सुरक्षित पूरा अधिकार के उपयोग के लिए पानी की तीन नदियों[7] यह करने के लिए आवंटित.[8][9] इस संधि के परिणामस्वरूप विभाजन नदियों के बजाय साझा करने के अपने पानी है । [10]',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:03Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwIQ': {'sequenceid': 52,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'The countries agree to exchange data and co-operate in matters related to the treaty. For this purpose, treaty creates the Permanent Indus Commission, with a commissioner appointed by each country.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:12Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'देशों को सहमत करने के लिए डेटा का आदान-प्रदान और सहयोग से संबंधित मामलों में करने के लिए संधि की है । इस प्रयोजन के लिए, संधि बनाता है स्थायी सिंधु आयोग, के साथ एक आयुक्त द्वारा नियुक्त प्रत्येक देश.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:12Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwIw': {'sequenceid': 56,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'History and background',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:20Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'इतिहास और पृष्ठभूमि',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:20Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwJA': {'sequenceid': 58,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'The waters of the Indus basin begin in Tibet and the Himalayan mountains in the states of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. They flow from the hills through the states of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir and Sindh, converging in Pakistan and emptying into the Arabian Sea south of Karachi. Where once there was only a narrow strip of irrigated land along these rivers, developments over the last century have created a large network of canals and storage facilities that provide water for more than 26\xa0million acres (110,000\xa0km2), the largest irrigated area of any one river system in the world.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:20Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'पानी की सिंधु बेसिन में शुरू तिब्बत और हिमालय पर्वत के राज्यों में जम्मू-कश्मीर और हिमाचल प्रदेश. वे से प्रवाह पहाड़ियों के माध्यम से के राज्यों पंजाब, हिमाचल प्रदेश और जम्मू और कश्मीर और सिंधमें converging पाकिस्तान और खाली में अरब सागर के दक्षिण में कराची. जहां एक बार वहाँ गया था केवल एक संकरी पट्टी सिंचित भूमि के साथ इन नदियों के घटनाक्रम पिछली सदी में बनाया है के एक बड़े नेटवर्क नहरों और भंडारण की सुविधा प्रदान करते हैं कि पानी के लिए अधिक से अधिक 26 लाख एकड़ (110,000 किमी2), सबसे बड़ा सिंचित क्षेत्र के किसी भी एक नदी प्रणाली दुनिया में.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:20Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwLQ': {'sequenceid': 69,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'The partition of British India created a conflict over the plentiful waters of the Indus basin. The newly formed states were at odds over how to share and manage what was essentially a cohesive and unitary network of irrigation. Furthermore, the geography of partition was such that the source rivers of the Indus basin were in India. Pakistan felt its livelihood threatened by the prospect of Indian control over the tributaries that fed water into the Pakistani portion of the basin. Where India certainly had its own ambitions for the profitable development of the basin, Pakistan felt acutely threatened by a conflict over the main source of water for its cultivable land.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:26Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'को ब्रिटिश भारत के विभाजन बनाया एक संघर्ष पर भरपूर मात्रा में पानी की सिंधु बेसिन. नवगठित राज्यों बाधाओं पर थे करने के लिए कैसे पर साझा और प्रबंधित किया गया था क्या अनिवार्य रूप से एक जोड़नेवाला और एकात्मक नेटवर्क की सिंचाई. इसके अलावा, के भूगोल विभाजन किया गया था कि इस तरह के स्रोत नदियों की सिंधु बेसिन थे. पाकिस्तान महसूस किया अपनी आजीविका की धमकी दी है की संभावना से भारतीय पर नियंत्रण सहायक नदियों तंग आ गया है कि पानी में पाकिस्तान के हिस्से के बेसिन. जहां भारत निश्चित रूप से अपने स्वयं की महत्वाकांक्षा के लिए लाभदायक विकास के बेसिन, पाकिस्तान तीव्रता से महसूस किया की धमकी दी एक संघर्ष पर मुख्य पानी के स्रोत के लिए अपनी कृषि योग्य भूमि है ।',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:26Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwMA': {'sequenceid': 77,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'During the first years of partition, the waters of the Indus were apportioned by the Inter-Dominion Accord of May 4, 1948. This accord required India to release sufficient waters to the Pakistani regions of the basin in return for annual payments from the government of Pakistan. The accord was meant to meet immediate requirements and was followed by negotiations for a more permanent solution. However, neither side was willing to compromise their respective positions and negotiations reached a stalemate. From the Indian point of view, there was nothing that Pakistan could do to prevent India from any of the schemes to divert the flow of water in the rivers.[11] Pakistan wanted to take the matter to the International Court of Justice, but India refused, arguing that the conflict required a bilateral resolution.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:30Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'पहले साल के दौरान विभाजन के जल सिंधु थे apportioned द्वारा अंतर-डोमिनियन समझौते की 4 मई, 1948. इस समझौते की आवश्यकता भारत में रिलीज करने के लिए पर्याप्त पानी के लिए पाकिस्तानी क्षेत्र के बेसिन में वापसी के लिए वार्षिक भुगतान से पाकिस्तान की सरकार है । समझौते का मतलब था पूरा करने के लिए तत्काल आवश्यकताओं और द्वारा पीछा किया गया था बातचीत के लिए एक अधिक स्थायी समाधान है । हालांकि, न तो पक्ष में तैयार किया गया था, समझौता करने के लिए उनके संबंधित पदों और वार्ता एक गतिरोध पर पहुंच गया है । भारतीय से देखने की बात है, वहाँ कुछ भी नहीं था कि पाकिस्तान क्या कर सकता है को रोकने के लिए भारत से किसी भी योजनाओं के प्रवाह को हटाने के पानी की नदियों में है । [11] पाकिस्तान ले जाना चाहता था, इस मामले को अंतरराष्ट्रीय न्यायालय के न्यायाधीश, लेकिन भारत से इनकार कर दिया, उनका तर्क है कि संघर्ष की आवश्यकता एक द्विपक्षीय संकल्प है ।',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:30Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwMg': {'sequenceid': 85,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'World Bank involvement',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:36Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'विश्व बैंक की भागीदारी',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:36Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwMw': {'sequenceid': 87,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': "In this same year, David Lilienthal, formerly the chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority and of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, visited the region to write a series of articles for Collier's magazine. Lilienthal had a keen interest in the subcontinent and was welcomed by the highest levels of both Indian and Pakistani governments. Although his visit was sponsored by Collier's, Lilienthal was briefed by state department and executive branch officials, who hoped that Lilienthal could help bridge the gap between India and Pakistan and also gauge hostilities on the subcontinent. During the course of his visit, it became clear to Lilienthal that tensions between India and Pakistan were acute, but also unable to be erased with one sweeping gesture. He wrote in his journal:",
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:40Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'इस एक ही वर्ष में, डेविड Lilienthal, पूर्व अध्यक्ष के टेनेसी वैली प्राधिकरण और अमेरिकी परमाणु ऊर्जा आयोगका दौरा किया क्षेत्र के लिए लेख की एक श्रृंखला लिखने के लिए खनक पत्रिका है । Lilienthal में गहरी रुचि थी उपमहाद्वीप और द्वारा स्वागत किया गया था के उच्चतम स्तर दोनों भारतीय और पाकिस्तानी सरकारों का है । हालांकि अपनी यात्रा के द्वारा प्रायोजित किया गया था खनक के, Lilienthal के बारे में बताया था के द्वारा राज्य विभाग और कार्यकारी शाखा के अधिकारियों, जो आशा व्यक्त की है कि Lilienthal मदद कर सकता है की खाई को पाटने भारत और पाकिस्तान के बीच और भी गेज शत्रुता उपमहाद्वीप पर है । कोर्स के दौरान अपनी यात्रा की, यह स्पष्ट हो गया के लिए Lilienthal है कि तनाव के बीच भारत और पाकिस्तान के थे, तीव्र, लेकिन यह भी करने में असमर्थ हो सकता है मिट के साथ एक व्यापक संकेत है । उन्होंने लिखा अपनी पत्रिका में:',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:40Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwOg': {'sequenceid': 97,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'India and Pakistan were on the verge of war over Kashmir. There seemed to be no possibility of negotiating this issue until tensions abated. One way to reduce hostility . . . would be to concentrate on other important issues where cooperation was possible. Progress in these areas would promote a sense of community between the two nations which might, in time, lead to a Kashmir settlement. Accordingly, I proposed that India and Pakistan work out a program jointly to develop and jointly to operate the Indus Basin river system, upon which both nations were dependent for irrigation water. With new dams and irrigation canals, the Indus and its tributaries could be made to yield the additional water each country needed for increased food production. In the article I had suggested that the World Bank might use its good offices to bring the parties to agreement, and help in the financing of an Indus Development program.[12]:93',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:45Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'भारत और पाकिस्तान के कगार पर थे युद्ध खत्म हो गई है । वहाँ लग रहा था होना करने के लिए कोई संभावना नहीं के साथ बातचीत कर इस मुद्दे को जब तक तनाव abated. एक तरह से कम करने के लिए दुश्मनी । है । है । होगा पर ध्यान केंद्रित करने के लिए अन्य महत्वपूर्ण मुद्दों पर जहां सहयोग से संभव हो गया था । इन क्षेत्रों में प्रगति को बढ़ावा मिलेगा एक समुदाय की भावना दोनों देशों के बीच जो हो सकता है, समय में, का नेतृत्व करने के लिए एक कश्मीर के निपटान. तदनुसार, मैं प्रस्ताव रखा है कि भारत और पाकिस्तान के बाहर काम के एक कार्यक्रम में संयुक्त रूप से विकसित करने के लिए और संयुक्त रूप से संचालित करने के लिए सिंधु बेसिन नदी प्रणाली है, जिस पर दोनों देशों निर्भर थे, सिंचाई के लिए पानी. के साथ नए बांधों और सिंचाई नहरों, सिंधु और उसकी सहायक नदियों में किया जा सकता है उपज के लिए अतिरिक्त पानी प्रत्येक देश के लिए आवश्यक वृद्धि हुई खाद्य उत्पादन. मैं लेख में सुझाव दिया था कि विश्व बैंक का उपयोग हो सकता है अपने अच्छे कार्यालयों के लिए लाने के लिए पार्टियों के समझौते, और मदद के वित्त पोषण में एक सिंधु विकास कार्यक्रम है । [12]:93',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:45Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwPA': {'sequenceid': 105,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Lilienthal\'s idea was well received by officials at the World Bank, and, subsequently, by the Indian and Pakistani governments. Eugene R. Black, then president of the World Bank, told Lilienthal that his proposal "makes good sense all round". Black wrote that the Bank was interested in the economic progress of the two countries and had been concerned that the Indus dispute could only be a serious handicap to this development. India\'s previous objections to third party arbitration were remedied by the Bank\'s insistence that it would not adjudicate the conflict but rather work as a conduit for agreement.[13]',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:49Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'Lilienthal के विचार अच्छी तरह से प्राप्त किया गया था पर अधिकारियों द्वारा विश्व बैंक, और बाद में, द्वारा, भारतीय और पाकिस्तानी सरकारों का है । यूजीन आर ब्लैक, तो विश्व बैंक के अध्यक्ष से कहा, Lilienthal है कि उसके प्रस्ताव "अच्छा समझ में आता है सभी दौर". काले लिखा था कि बैंक में रुचि थी, आर्थिक प्रगति के दो देशों में किया गया था और चिंतित है कि सिंधु विवाद हो सकता है केवल एक गंभीर बाधा है, इस विकास के लिए. भारत के पिछले आपत्ति करने के लिए तीसरे पक्ष की मध्यस्थता थे remedied बैंक द्वारा की जिद है कि यह नहीं होगा निर्णय के साथ संघर्ष, लेकिन बल्कि के रूप में काम के लिए एक नाली समझौता.[13]',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:49Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwPw': {'sequenceid': 112,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Black also made a distinction between the "functional" and "political" aspects of the Indus dispute. In his correspondence with Indian and Pakistan leaders, Black asserted that the Indus dispute could most realistically be solved if the functional aspects of disagreement were negotiated apart from political considerations. He envisioned a group that tackled the question of how best to utilize the waters of the Indus Basin, leaving aside questions of historic rights or allocations.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:54Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': ', भी के बीच एक अंतर "कार्यात्मक" और "राजनीतिक" के पहलुओं सिंधु विवाद है । पत्राचार में उनके साथ भारत और पाकिस्तान के नेताओं, ब्लैक ने कहा कि सिंधु विवाद कर सकता है सबसे वास्तविक हल किया जा सकता है, तो कार्यात्मक पहलुओं के बारे में असहमति पर बातचीत कर रहे थे के अलावा राजनीतिक कारणों से. उन्होंने कल्पना की है कि एक समूह को घेरने की कोशिश की है सबसे अच्छा कैसे के सवाल का उपयोग करने के लिए पानी की सिंधु बेसिन छोड़ रहा है, एक तरफ सवालों के ऐतिहासिक अधिकार या आवंटन.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:30:54Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwQA': {'sequenceid': 116,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': "Black proposed a Working Party made up of Indian, Pakistani and World Bank engineers. The World Bank delegation would act as a consultative group, charged with offering suggestions and speeding dialogue. In his opening statement to the Working Party, Black spoke of why he was optimistic about the group's success:",
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:31:02Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'काले प्रस्तावित काम कर रहे एक पार्टी बना, भारतीय, पाकिस्तानी और विश्व बैंक के इंजीनियरों. विश्व बैंक के प्रतिनिधिमंडल के रूप में कार्य करेगा एक सलाहकार समूह, के साथ आरोप लगाया सुझावों की पेशकश की है और तेजी से संवाद है । अपने उद्घाटन वक्तव्य में काम करने के लिए पार्टी, बात की थी क्यों की वह था के बारे में आशावादी समूह की सफलता:',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:31:02Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwQQ': {'sequenceid': 120,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': "One aspect of Mr. Lilienthal's proposal appealed to me from the first. I mean his insistence that the Indus problem is an engineering problem and should be dealt with by engineers. One of the strengths of the engineering profession is that, all over the world, engineers speak the same language and approach problems with common standards of judgment.[12]:110",
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:31:02Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'का एक पहलू श्री Lilienthal के प्रस्ताव की अपील करने के लिए मेरे से पहले. मेरा मतलब है, उसकी जिद है कि सिंधु समस्या है एक इंजीनियरिंग समस्या है और के साथ निपटा जाना चाहिए इंजीनियरों द्वारा. की शक्तियों में से एक इंजीनियरिंग पेशे में है कि, दुनिया भर में सभी इंजीनियरों एक ही भाषा बोलते हैं और दृष्टिकोण के साथ समस्या आम मानकों का निर्णय किया है । [12]:110',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:31:02Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwQw': {'sequenceid': 124,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': "Black's hopes for a quick resolution to the Indus dispute were premature. While the Bank had expected that the two sides would come to an agreement on the allocation of waters, neither India nor Pakistan seemed willing to compromise their positions. While Pakistan insisted on its historical right to waters of all the Indus tributaries and that half of West Punjab was under threat of desertification, the Indian side argued that the previous distribution of waters should not set future allocation. Instead, the Indian side set up a new basis of distribution, with the waters of the Western tributaries going to Pakistan and the Eastern tributaries to India. The substantive technical discussions that Black had hoped for were stymied by the political considerations he had expected to avoid.",
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:31:08Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'ब्लैक की उम्मीद के लिए एक त्वरित समाधान के लिए सिंधु विवाद थे, समय से पहले. जबकि बैंक को उम्मीद थी कि दोनों पक्षों के लिए आ जाएगा एक समझौते के आवंटन पर पानी, न तो भारत और न ही पाकिस्तान लग रहा था, समझौता करने के लिए तैयार अपने पदों. जबकि पाकिस्तान पर जोर दिया है अपनी ऐतिहासिक करने के लिए सही पानी के सभी सहायक नदियों सिंधु और है कि आधे के पश्चिम पंजाब गया था, की धमकी के तहत मरुस्थलीकरण, भारतीय पक्ष ने तर्क दिया कि पिछले वितरण का पानी नहीं होना चाहिए सेट के भविष्य के आवंटन. इसके बजाय, भारतीय पक्ष की स्थापना के लिए एक नया आधार के वितरण के साथ, पानी के पश्चिमी सहायक नदियों के साथ जा रहा करने के लिए पाकिस्तान और पूर्वी सहायक नदियों के लिए भारत. मूल तकनीकी चर्चा है कि, आशा व्यक्त की थी के लिए stymied थे द्वारा राजनीतिक कारणों से वह उम्मीद थी से बचने के लिए.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:31:08Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwRg': {'sequenceid': 132,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'The World Bank soon became frustrated with this lack of progress. What had originally been envisioned as a technical dispute that would quickly untangle itself started to seem intractable. India and Pakistan were unable to agree on the technical aspects of allocation, let alone the implementation of any agreed upon distribution of waters. Finally, in 1954, after nearly two years of negotiation, the World bank offered its own proposal, stepping beyond the limited role it had apportioned for itself and forcing the two sides to consider concrete plans for the future of the basin. The proposal offered India the three eastern tributaries of the basin and Pakistan the three western tributaries. Canals and storage dams were to be constructed to divert waters from the western rivers and replace the eastern river supply lost by Pakistan.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:31:15Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'विश्व बैंक जल्द ही निराश हो गया की इस कमी के साथ प्रगति. क्या था मूल रूप से अनुरूप किया गया है के रूप में एक तकनीकी विवाद होता है कि जल्दी सुलझाना ही शुरू कर दिया लग रहे करने के लिए असभ्य है । भारत और पाकिस्तान में असमर्थ थे पर सहमत करने के लिए तकनीकी पहलुओं के आवंटन, अकेले चलो किसी के कार्यान्वयन पर सहमति के वितरण पर आधारित है । अंत में, 1954 में, के बाद लगभग दो साल की बातचीत, विश्व बैंक की पेशकश की है अपने स्वयं के प्रस्ताव, कदम से परे सीमित भूमिका यह apportioned था खुद के लिए और मजबूर दोनों पक्षों पर विचार करने के लिए ठोस योजना के भविष्य के लिए बेसिन. प्रस्ताव की पेशकश की भारत के तीन पूर्वी सहायक नदियों के बेसिन और पाकिस्तान के तीन पश्चिमी सहायक नदियों के साथ । नहरों और भंडारण बांधों थे करने के लिए निर्माण किया जा सकता है हटाने के लिए पानी से पश्चिमी नदियों और की जगह पूर्वी नदी की आपूर्ति खो दिया है और पाकिस्तान द्वारा.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:31:15Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwRw': {'sequenceid': 139,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': "While the Indian side was amenable to the World Bank proposal, Pakistan found it unacceptable. The World Bank allocated the eastern rivers to India and the western rivers to Pakistan. This new distribution did not account for the historical usage of the Indus basin, or the fact that West Punjab's Eastern districts could turn into desert, and repudiated Pakistan's negotiating position. Where India had stood for a new system of allocation, Pakistan felt that its share of waters should be based on pre-partition distribution. The World Bank proposal was more in line with the Indian plan and this angered the Pakistani delegation. They threatened to withdraw from the Working Party, and negotiations verged on collapse.",
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:31:21Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'जबकि भारतीय पक्ष में था करने के लिए उत्तरदायी विश्व बैंक के प्रस्ताव, पाकिस्तान पाया कि यह अस्वीकार्य है । विश्व बैंक आवंटित पूर्वी नदियों के लिए भारत और पश्चिमी नदियों पाकिस्तान के लिए. इस नए वितरण नहीं किया था के लिए खाते में ऐतिहासिक उपयोग की सिंधु बेसिन, या तथ्य यह है कि पश्चिम पंजाब के पूर्वी जिलों में बदल सकता है, रेगिस्तान और पाटा पाकिस्तान की बातचीत की स्थिति है । जहां भारत खड़ा था के लिए एक नई प्रणाली का आवंटन, पाकिस्तान महसूस किया है कि अपने हिस्से के पानी पर आधारित होना चाहिए पूर्व-विभाजन वितरण. विश्व बैंक का प्रस्ताव किया गया था और अधिक के साथ लाइन में भारतीय योजना है और इस से नाराज है पाकिस्तानी प्रतिनिधिमंडल. वे धमकी से वापस लेने के लिए काम कर पार्टी है, और वार्ता पर verged पतन.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:31:21Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwSA': {'sequenceid': 146,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'However, neither side could afford the dissolution of talks. The Pakistani press met rumors of an end to negotiation with talk of increased hostilities; the government was ill-prepared to forego talks for a violent conflict with India and was forced to reconsider its position. India was also eager to settle the Indus issue; large development projects were put on hold by negotiations, and Indian leaders were eager to divert water for irrigation.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:31:26Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'हालांकि, न तो पक्ष को बर्दाश्त कर सकता है के विघटन बातचीत की । पाकिस्तानी प्रेस से मुलाकात की अफवाहें करने के लिए एक अंत के साथ बातचीत की बात करते हैं, शत्रुता में वृद्धि हुई; सरकार बीमार था-तैयार करने के लिए छोड़ वार्ता के लिए एक हिंसक संघर्ष के साथ भारत और मजबूर किया गया था करने के लिए अपनी स्थिति पर पुनर्विचार. भारत के लिए भी उत्सुक बसा सिंधु मुद्दा; बड़ी विकास परियोजनाओं पर डाल रहे थे पकड़ वार्ता, और भारतीय नेताओं के लिए उत्सुक थे पानी हटाने के लिए सिंचाई ।',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:31:26Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwSQ': {'sequenceid': 150,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'In December 1954, the two sides returned to the negotiating table. The World Bank proposal was transformed from a basis of settlement to a basis for negotiation and the talks continued, stop and go, for the next six years.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:31:31Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'दिसम्बर 1954, दोनों पक्षों के लिए लौट आए बातचीत की मेज पर. विश्व बैंक के प्रस्ताव से बदल गया था एक आधार के निपटान के लिए एक आधार के लिए बातचीत और वार्ता जारी रखा है, बंद करो और जाओ, अगले छह वर्षों के लिए.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:31:31Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwSg': {'sequenceid': 153,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'One of the last stumbling blocks to an agreement concerned financing for the construction of canals and storage facilities that would transfer water from the western rivers to Pakistan. This transfer was necessary to make up for the water Pakistan was giving up by ceding its rights to the eastern rivers. The World Bank initially planned for India to pay for these works, but India refused. The Bank responded with a plan for external financing supplied mainly by the United States and the United Kingdom. This solution cleared the remaining stumbling blocks to agreement, and the Treaty was signed by the leaders of both countries in 1960.[14]',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:29:26Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'एक अंतिम ठोकरें खाते हुए चल ब्लॉक करने के लिए एक समझौते चिंतित वित्त पोषण के लिए नहरों के निर्माण और भंडारण की सुविधा है कि स्थानांतरण होगा पानी से पश्चिमी नदियों पाकिस्तान के लिए. इस हस्तांतरण के लिए आवश्यक था के लिए बनाने के लिए पानी पाकिस्तान दे रहा था द्वारा ceding के लिए अपने अधिकारों पूर्वी नदियों. विश्व बैंक शुरू में की योजना बनाई भारत के लिए भुगतान करने के लिए इन के लिए काम करता है, लेकिन भारत से इनकार कर दिया है । बैंक के साथ प्रतिक्रिया व्यक्त की एक योजना के लिए बाह्य वित्त पोषण की आपूर्ति मुख्य रूप से संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका और यूनाइटेड किंगडम. इस समाधान को मंजूरी दे दी शेष ठोकरें खाते हुए चल ब्लॉक करने के लिए समझौते और संधि पर हस्ताक्षर किया गया था के नेताओं द्वारा दोनों देशों में 1960.[14]',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:29:26Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwSw': {'sequenceid': 159,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Treaty provisions',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:29:17Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'संधि के प्रावधानों के',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:29:17Z'},
     'user': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'संधि के प्रावधान',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:32:46Z'}},
    'mwTA': {'sequenceid': 161,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'The agreement set up the Permanent Indus Commission to adjudicate any future disputes arising over the allocation of waters. The Commission has survived three wars and provides an ongoing mechanism for consultation and conflict resolution through inspection, exchange of data and visits. The Commission is required to meet regularly to discuss potential disputes as well as cooperative arrangements for the development of the basin. Either party must notify the other of plans to construct any engineering works which would affect the other party and to provide data about such works. In cases of disagreement, a neutral expert is called in for mediation and arbitration. While neither side has initiated projects that could cause the kind of conflict that the Commission was created to resolve, the annual inspections and exchange of data continue, unperturbed by tensions on the subcontinent.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:29:17Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'समझौते की स्थापना की स्थायी सिंधु आयोग के निर्णय करने के लिए भविष्य में किसी भी उत्पन्न होने वाले विवादों के आवंटन से अधिक पानी है । आयोग बच गया है तीन युद्धों प्रदान करता है और चल रहे एक तंत्र के लिए परामर्श और संघर्ष के संकल्प निरीक्षण के माध्यम से, डेटा के आदान-प्रदान और यात्राओं. आयोग की आवश्यकता को पूरा करने के लिए नियमित रूप से चर्चा करने के लिए संभावित विवादों के रूप में अच्छी तरह के रूप में सहकारी व्यवस्था के विकास के लिए बेसिन. या तो पार्टी को सूचित करना चाहिए अन्य योजनाओं के निर्माण के लिए किसी भी इंजीनियरिंग काम करता है जो को प्रभावित करेगा अन्य पार्टी और डेटा प्रदान करने के लिए इस तरह के बारे में काम करता है. असहमति की स्थिति में, एक तटस्थ विशेषज्ञ में कहा जाता है के लिए मध्यस्थता और मध्यस्थता है । जबकि न तो पक्ष शुरू की परियोजनाओं के कारण हो सकता है कि इस तरह के संघर्ष है कि आयोग बनाया गया था को हल करने के लिए, वार्षिक निरीक्षण और डेटा के आदान-प्रदान जारी रखने के लिए, बेफिक्र द्वारा तनाव उपमहाद्वीप पर है ।',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:29:17Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwTg': {'sequenceid': 169,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Treaty under scrutiny',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:29:09Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'संधि के तहत जांच',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:29:09Z'},
     'user': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'संधि पर पुनर्विचार',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:32:13Z'}},
    'mwTw': {'sequenceid': 171,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'In aftermath of 2016 Uri attack India reviewed treaty and its provisions and led to several changes[15]',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:29:09Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'में के बाद 2016 उड़ी हमले भारत संधि की समीक्षा की और इसके प्रावधानों और नेतृत्व करने के लिए कई परिवर्तन[15]',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:29:09Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwUQ': {'sequenceid': 174,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'See also',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:29:03Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'यह भी देखें',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:29:03Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwUg': {'sequenceid': 176,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Baglihar Dam Effects of global warming Kishanganga Hydroelectric Plant India–Pakistan relations',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:29:03Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'Baglihar बांध ग्लोबल वार्मिंग के प्रभाव Kishanganga पनबिजली संयंत्र भारत–पाकिस्तान के संबंधों में',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:29:03Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwWw': {'sequenceid': 189,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Sources',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:28:53Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'सूत्रों',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:28:53Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwXA': {'sequenceid': 191,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Barrett, Scott, "Conflict and Cooperation in Managing International Water Resources," Policy Research Working Paper 1303, The World Bank, May 1994. Michel, Aloys Arthur, The Indus Rivers: A Study of the Effects of Partition, Yale University Press: New Haven, 1967. Verghese, B.G., Waters of Hope, Oxford and IBH Publishing: New Delhi, 1990.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:28:53Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'बैरेट, स्कॉट, "संघर्ष और सहयोग के प्रबंधन में अंतरराष्ट्रीय जल संसाधन," नीति अनुसंधान काम कर कागज 1303, विश्व बैंक, मई 1994 है । मिशेल, Aloys आर्थर, सिंधु नदियों: एक अध्ययन के प्रभाव के विभाजन, येल यूनिवर्सिटी प्रेस: New Haven, 1967. वर्गीज, बी जी में, जल की उम्मीद है, और ऑक्सफोर्ड IBH प्रकाशन: नई दिल्ली, 1990.',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:28:53Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwYA': {'sequenceid': 198,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'References',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:28:47Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'संदर्भ',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:28:47Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwYQ': {'sequenceid': 200,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': '↑ "Text of \'Indus Water Treaty\', Ministry of water resources, Govt. of India". Retrieved 2013-02-01.\xa0 ↑ War over water The Guardian, Monday 3 June 2002 01.06 BST ↑ Strategic Foresight Group, The Indus Equation Report ↑ C.A. Brebbia (4 September 2013). Water and Society II. WIT Press. pp.\xa0103–. ISBN\xa0978-1-84564-742-1.\xa0 ↑ Map Workbook. FK Publications. pp.\xa027–. ISBN\xa0978-81-89611-79-8.\xa0 ↑ Biswaroop Roy Chowdhury. Memory Unlimited. Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. pp.\xa0148–. ISBN\xa0978-81-8419-017-5.\xa0 ↑ Shreyan, Sengupta. "Transboundary water disputes" (PDF). ETH Zurich. ETH Zurich. Retrieved 24 September 2013.\xa0 ↑ Garg, Santosh Kumar (1999). International and interstate river water disputes. Laxmi Publications. pp.\xa054–55. ISBN\xa081-7008-068-1. Retrieved 2010-04-14.\xa0 ↑ "Indus Waters Treaty 1960" (pdf). Site Resources; World Bank. pp.\xa01–24.\xa0 ↑ "Water Sharing Conflicts Between Countries, and Approaches to Resolving Them" (PDF). Honolulu: Global Environment and Energy in the 21st century. p.\xa098. Archived from the original (pdf) on August 21, 2007. Retrieved 2010-04-14.\xa0 ↑ What Indus water treaty means By Dr Adam Nayyar, DAWN[dead link] 1 2 Gulhati, Niranjan D., The Indus Waters Treaty: An Exercise in International Mediation, Allied Publishers: Bombay, 1973. ↑ Mason, Edward Sagendorph; Asher, Robert E. (1973). The World Bank Since Bretton Woods (First ed.). Wawshington: The Brookings Institution. p.\xa0612. ISBN\xa09780815720300. Retrieved 28 October 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Indus water treaty". http://web.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 28 October 2014.\xa0 External link in |website= (help) ↑ How India plans to use Indus Water Treaty to turn the heat on Pakistan',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:28:47Z'},
     'mt': None,
     'user': {'engine': None,
      'content': '↑ "Text of \'Indus Water Treaty\', Ministry of water resources, Govt. of India". Retrieved 2013-02-01.\xa0 ↑ War over water The Guardian, Monday 3 June 2002 01.06 BST ↑ Strategic Foresight Group, The Indus Equation Report ↑ C.A. Brebbia (4 September 2013). Water and Society II. WIT Press. pp.\xa0103–. ISBN\xa0978-1-84564-742-1.\xa0 ↑ Map Workbook. FK Publications. pp.\xa027–. ISBN\xa0978-81-89611-79-8.\xa0 ↑ Biswaroop Roy Chowdhury. Memory Unlimited. Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. pp.\xa0148–. ISBN\xa0978-81-8419-017-5.\xa0 ↑ Shreyan, Sengupta. "Transboundary water disputes" (PDF). ETH Zurich. ETH Zurich. Retrieved 24 September 2013.\xa0 ↑ Garg, Santosh Kumar (1999). International and interstate river water disputes. Laxmi Publications. pp.\xa054–55. ISBN\xa081-7008-068-1. Retrieved 2010-04-14.\xa0 ↑ "Indus Waters Treaty 1960" (pdf). Site Resources; World Bank. pp.\xa01–24.\xa0 ↑ "Water Sharing Conflicts Between Countries, and Approaches to Resolving Them" (PDF). Honolulu: Global Environment and Energy in the 21st century. p.\xa098. Archived from the original (pdf) on August 21, 2007. Retrieved 2010-04-14.\xa0 ↑ What Indus water treaty means By Dr Adam Nayyar, DAWN[dead link] 1 2 Gulhati, Niranjan D., The Indus Waters Treaty: An Exercise in International Mediation, Allied Publishers: Bombay, 1973. ↑ Mason, Edward Sagendorph; Asher, Robert E. (1973). The World Bank Since Bretton Woods (First ed.). Wawshington: The Brookings Institution. p.\xa0612. ISBN\xa09780815720300. Retrieved 28 October 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Indus water treaty". http://web.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 28 October 2014.\xa0 External link in |website= (help) ↑ How India plans to use Indus Water Treaty to turn the heat on Pakistan',
      'timestamp': '2016-09-28T10:28:47Z'}}}}}}

Observations:

  • In the given translation, user has not made many changes to the content translation done, which leads to MANY grammatical changes and non-sensical sentences initially.
  • This is the reason, the same user has made subsequent initial edits.
# Get 'any', 'human' and 'mt' counts for Indus Waters Treaty
(df.loc[location_iwt, 'any'], df.loc[location_iwt, 'human'], df.loc[location_iwt, 'mt'])
(0.95437922271121, 0.0026033595735449, 0.95177586313767)

Observations:

  • The 'any', 'human' and 'mt' counts only specify the initial values, calculated when the content translation process is carried out. Any further changes have not been reflected in any measure.
  • In this case, as initially most of the machine translated outputs are accepted, 'mt' is very high.
# Get 'source', 'mt' and 'target' for each translated section of Indus Waters Treaty using dump file
for translated_section in parallel_corpus:
    if translated_section['id'].split('/')[0] == str(df.loc[location_iwt, 'translationId']):
        print(translated_section, '\n')
{'id': '209186/mwHg', 'sourceLanguage': 'en', 'targetLanguage': 'hi', 'source': {'content': 'Provisions'}, 'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex', 'content': 'प्रावधानों'}, 'target': {'content': 'प्रावधान'}} 

{'id': '209186/mwSw', 'sourceLanguage': 'en', 'targetLanguage': 'hi', 'source': {'content': 'Treaty provisions'}, 'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex', 'content': 'संधि के प्रावधानों के'}, 'target': {'content': 'संधि के प्रावधान'}} 

{'id': '209186/mwTg', 'sourceLanguage': 'en', 'targetLanguage': 'hi', 'source': {'content': 'Treaty under scrutiny'}, 'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex', 'content': 'संधि के तहत जांच'}, 'target': {'content': 'संधि पर पुनर्विचार'}} 

{'id': '209186/mwYQ', 'sourceLanguage': 'en', 'targetLanguage': 'hi', 'source': {'content': '↑ "Text of \'Indus Water Treaty\', Ministry of water resources, Govt. of India". Retrieved 2013-02-01.\xa0 ↑ War over water The Guardian, Monday 3 June 2002 01.06 BST ↑ Strategic Foresight Group, The Indus Equation Report ↑ C.A. Brebbia (4 September 2013). Water and Society II. WIT Press. pp.\xa0103–. ISBN\xa0978-1-84564-742-1.\xa0 ↑ Map Workbook. FK Publications. pp.\xa027–. ISBN\xa0978-81-89611-79-8.\xa0 ↑ Biswaroop Roy Chowdhury. Memory Unlimited. Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. pp.\xa0148–. ISBN\xa0978-81-8419-017-5.\xa0 ↑ Shreyan, Sengupta. "Transboundary water disputes" (PDF). ETH Zurich. ETH Zurich. Retrieved 24 September 2013.\xa0 ↑ Garg, Santosh Kumar (1999). International and interstate river water disputes. Laxmi Publications. pp.\xa054–55. ISBN\xa081-7008-068-1. Retrieved 2010-04-14.\xa0 ↑ "Indus Waters Treaty 1960" (pdf). Site Resources; World Bank. pp.\xa01–24.\xa0 ↑ "Water Sharing Conflicts Between Countries, and Approaches to Resolving Them" (PDF). Honolulu: Global Environment and Energy in the 21st century. p.\xa098. Archived from the original (pdf) on August 21, 2007. Retrieved 2010-04-14.\xa0 ↑ What Indus water treaty means By Dr Adam Nayyar, DAWN[dead link] 1 2 Gulhati, Niranjan D., The Indus Waters Treaty: An Exercise in International Mediation, Allied Publishers: Bombay, 1973. ↑ Mason, Edward Sagendorph; Asher, Robert E. (1973). The World Bank Since Bretton Woods (First ed.). Wawshington: The Brookings Institution. p.\xa0612. ISBN\xa09780815720300. Retrieved 28 October 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Indus water treaty". http://web.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 28 October 2014.\xa0 External link in |website= (help) ↑ How India plans to use Indus Water Treaty to turn the heat on Pakistan'}, 'mt': None, 'target': {'content': '↑ "Text of \'Indus Water Treaty\', Ministry of water resources, Govt. of India". Retrieved 2013-02-01.\xa0 ↑ War over water The Guardian, Monday 3 June 2002 01.06 BST ↑ Strategic Foresight Group, The Indus Equation Report ↑ C.A. Brebbia (4 September 2013). Water and Society II. WIT Press. pp.\xa0103–. ISBN\xa0978-1-84564-742-1.\xa0 ↑ Map Workbook. FK Publications. pp.\xa027–. ISBN\xa0978-81-89611-79-8.\xa0 ↑ Biswaroop Roy Chowdhury. Memory Unlimited. Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. pp.\xa0148–. ISBN\xa0978-81-8419-017-5.\xa0 ↑ Shreyan, Sengupta. "Transboundary water disputes" (PDF). ETH Zurich. ETH Zurich. Retrieved 24 September 2013.\xa0 ↑ Garg, Santosh Kumar (1999). International and interstate river water disputes. Laxmi Publications. pp.\xa054–55. ISBN\xa081-7008-068-1. Retrieved 2010-04-14.\xa0 ↑ "Indus Waters Treaty 1960" (pdf). Site Resources; World Bank. pp.\xa01–24.\xa0 ↑ "Water Sharing Conflicts Between Countries, and Approaches to Resolving Them" (PDF). Honolulu: Global Environment and Energy in the 21st century. p.\xa098. Archived from the original (pdf) on August 21, 2007. Retrieved 2010-04-14.\xa0 ↑ What Indus water treaty means By Dr Adam Nayyar, DAWN[dead link] 1 2 Gulhati, Niranjan D., The Indus Waters Treaty: An Exercise in International Mediation, Allied Publishers: Bombay, 1973. ↑ Mason, Edward Sagendorph; Asher, Robert E. (1973). The World Bank Since Bretton Woods (First ed.). Wawshington: The Brookings Institution. p.\xa0612. ISBN\xa09780815720300. Retrieved 28 October 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Indus water treaty". http://web.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 28 October 2014.\xa0 External link in |website= (help) ↑ How India plans to use Indus Water Treaty to turn the heat on Pakistan'}} 

Observations:

  • Comparison between the parallel translations of this particular article (Indus Waters Treaty) show that dump file's output and that from contenttranslationcorpora differ significantly.
  • The dump file contains relatively very few sections than the output by content translation corpora.

2.3 Specific Article Analysis : Education in India

# Translation Information of 'Education in India'
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231 0.200854 0.002887 0.197968 4.0 20160218121251 704572653 Education in India //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education in India 3016724 भारत की शिक्षा प्रणाली ... NaN 118569 2929437.0 54898.0 500.0 91958.0 19.0 1384.0 112922.0 18115.0

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# Get location of 'Education in India'
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231
# Get 'source', 'mt' and 'user' for each of the translated section of Education in India using contenttranslationcorpora
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                              'list':'contenttranslationcorpora',
                              'translationid':str(df.loc[location_EiI, 'translationId']),
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parallel_corpus_res
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 'query': {'contenttranslationcorpora': {'sections': {'mwAh4': {'sequenceid': 1350,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': '↑ Estimate for India, from India, The Hindu ↑ "India Literacy Rate". UNICEF. Retrieved 10 October 2013.\xa0 1 2 "World Development Indicators: Participation in education". World Bank. Retrieved 21 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Education in India". World Bank.\xa0 ↑ India achieves 27% decline in poverty, Press Trust of India via Sify.com, 2008-09-12 ↑ "Gross enrollment ratio by level of education". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 10 December 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Global Education". University Analytics. Retrieved 10 December 2015.\xa0 1 2 "Over a quarter of enrollments in rural India are in private schools". The Hindu. Retrieved 21 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Indian education: Sector outlook" (PDF). Retrieved 23 January 2014.\xa0 ↑ Enrolment in schools rises 14% to 23 crore The Times of India (22 January 2013) ↑ Sharath Jeevan & James Townsend, Teachers: A Solution to Education Reform in India Stanford Social Innovation Review (17 July 2013) ↑ B.P. Khandelwal, Examinations and test systems at school level in India UNESCO, pages 100-114 ↑ Indian Education System: What needs to change? 1 2 3 "National Policy on Education (with modifications undertaken in 1992)" (PDF). National Council of Educational Research and Training. Retrieved 10 December 2012.\xa0 ↑ Vyas, Neena (30 June 2012). "10+2+3: A Game of Numbers?". India Today. Retrieved 10 December 2012.\xa0 ↑ Bamzai, Kaveree (24 December 2009). "1977-10+2+3 system of education: The new class structure". India Today. Retrieved 10 December 2012.\xa0 1 2 3 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 233 ↑ India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 230–234 ↑ "National University of Educational Planning and Administration". Nuepa.org. Retrieved 16 August 2012.\xa0 ↑ "NCTE\xa0: National Council For Teacher Education". Ncte-india.org. Retrieved 16 August 2012.\xa0 1 2 3 4 Blackwell, 93–94 ↑ [dead link] Archived 31 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine[dead link] ↑ flashstatistics2009-10.pdf ↑ Archived 17 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine ↑ [dead link] Archived 19 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine[dead link] 1 2 3 4 5 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 215 ↑ 100% Primary educationa, Kerala (14 January 2016). "Kerala becomes 1st Indian state to achieve 100% primary education". International Business Times. International Business Times. Retrieved 14 January 2016.\xa0 ↑ Blackwell, 94–95 ↑ Microsoft Word – Framework_Final_RMSA.doc. (PDF). Retrieved on 21 March 2011. Archived 7 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine ↑ Secondary Education. Education.nic.in. Retrieved on 21 March 2011. Archived 22 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine ↑ India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 231 1 2 Desai, Sonalde, Amaresh Dubey, Reeve Vanneman and Rukmini Banerji. 2009. "Private Schooling in India: A New Landscape," India Policy Forum Vol. 5. Pp. 1-58, Bery, Suman, Barry Bosworth and Arvind Panagariya (Editors). New Delhi: Sage ↑ "4 Montessori schools make it to top 10 list author=TNN". December 7, 2014. Retrieved August 12, 2015.\xa0 ↑ "A special report on India: Creaking, groaning: Infrastructure is India’s biggest handicap". The Economist. 11 December 2008.\xa0 ↑ Geeta Gandhi Kingdon. "The progress of school education in India" (PDF).\xa0 1 2 Amit Varma (15 January 2007). "Why India Needs School Vouchers". Wall Street Journal.\xa0 1 2 "Private Education in India can Benefit Poor People".\xa0 ↑ http://www.iscresearch.com/ 1 2 http://www.iscresearch.com/information/isc-news.aspx ↑ http://www.economist.com/news/international/21636757-english-language-schools-once-aimed-expatriates-now-cater-domestic-elites-new ↑ "RTE: Homeschooling too is fine, says Sibal". Times of India. 2010.\xa0 ↑ Singh, Y.K.; Nath, R. History of Indian education system. APH Publishing. pp.\xa0172–175. ISBN\xa0978-81-7648-932-4. Retrieved 11 January 2013.\xa0 ↑ "India Country Summary of Higher Education" (PDF). World Bank.\xa0 1 2 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 237 ↑ "Higher Education, National Informatics Centre, Government of India". Education.nic.in. Archived from the original on 16 December 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "No of Universities in India". Retrieved 25 February 2014.\xa0 ↑ "No of Colleges in India - India Education Statistics". Retrieved 25 February 2014.\xa0 ↑ Blackwell, 95–96 1 2 3 Blackwell, 96 ↑ "Govt launches Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan for bouldering Higher Education". Retrieved 7 October 2013.\xa0 ↑ The World\'s Best Engineering Schools - Business Insider ↑ Vrat, 230–231 ↑ India doesn\'t figure in world top-100 universities, Press Trust of India via timesofindia.com, 2010-09-12 ↑ "University Business". Frontline. 17 April 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Shouldering the Quality Responsibility". EDU Magazine. January 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.\xa0 ↑ Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. "PM’s address at the 150th Anniversary Function of University of Mumbai". Archived from the original on 12 January 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Education faces lawmakers’ test". livemint. 4 August 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Foreign universities - a reality check". UniversityWorldNews.com. 21 March 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Call for a national policy on internationalisation". EDU Magazine. August 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Times Higher Education". Times Higher Education. 6 October 2006. Archived from the original on 31 March 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "Asia\'s Best Science and Technology Schools". Cgi.cnn.com. 22 June 2000. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "MBA global Top 100 rankings – FT". ft.com. Retrieved 4 March 2009.\xa0 ↑ "Medical Meccas: An Oasis for India\'s Poorest | Newsweek Health for Life | Newsweek.com". Newsweek.com. Retrieved 3 November 2008.\xa0 ↑ The World\'s Best Engineering Schools - Business Insider ↑ QS University Rankings: BRICS 2013 | Top Universities ↑ Top Universities in India | Top Universities ↑ "Infrastructure: S&T Education", Science and Technology in India, 30 1 2 3 4 "Infrastructure: S&T Education", Science and Technology in India, 31 ↑ "Infrastructure: S&T Education", Science and Technology in India, 32 ↑ Nandakumar, Indu (24 November 2011). "Number of tech graduates swells; salaries at IT firms stay stagnant". The Economic Times. Retrieved 19 March 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Knowledge Professionals". Indian IT-BPO: Trends & Insights. NASSCOM. Retrieved 19 March 2012.\xa0 ↑ Anand, Geeta (5 April 2011). "India Graduates Millions, but Too Few Are Fit to Hire". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 March 2012.\xa0 ↑ Information Technology AICTE (2012) Archived 7 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine ↑ Bharucha, Jamshed (2013). "Education in South Asia: Time bomb or silver bullet?". In A. Najam & M. Yusuf (Eds.), South Asia 2060: Envisioning Regional Futures. NY: Anthem Press.\xa0 ↑ Bharucha, Jamshed (25 January 2008). "America can teach Asia a lot about science, technology, and math.". Chronicle of Higher Education, 54(20).\xa0 ↑ Growth of Technical Institutes in the Country AICTE, Govt of India ↑ "Bihar Sate open school". Retrieved 16 April 2013.\xa0 ↑ DATT, SUNDHARAM (2010). INDIAN ECONOMY. S. CHAND.\xa0 ↑ "Jamia - Centres -Centre for Distance and Open Learning - Study Centres". Jmi.ac.in. Retrieved 23 January 2014.\xa0 1 2 3 4 5 6 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 225 ↑ "Country Profiles - India". UNESCO. Retrieved 22 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ . National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2). International Institute for Population Sciences & ORC Macro. 2000.\xa0 Missing or empty |title= (help) ↑ "A special report on India: Creaking, groaning: Infrastructure is India’s biggest handicap". The Economist. 11 December 2008.\xa0 ↑ "Indian schools dwarfed in global ratings programme". Indian Express. Retrieved 15 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "India backs out of global education test for 15-year-olds". Times of India. Retrieved 14 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "India chickens out of international students assessment programme again". Times of India. Retrieved 14 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Many of India’s Poor Turn to Private Schools". New York Times. Retrieved 15 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "World Bank: Pupil-teacher ratio, primary". World Bank. Retrieved 15 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Teachers Skipping Work". World Bank. Retrieved 14 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "The Hidden Cost of Corruption: Teacher Absenteeism and Loss in Schools".\xa0 1 2 4–6 p.m. (30 October 2009). "Kremer etc. (2004), "Teacher Absence in India: A Snapshot", Journal of the European Economic Association" (PDF). Globetrotter.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "12. Report of the HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA Issues Related to Expansion, Inclusiveness, Quality and Finance, May 2008". Ugc.ac.in. Archived from the original on 22 August 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "A special report on India: An elephant, not a tiger". The Economist. 11 December 2008.\xa0 ↑ Kalyani Menon-Sen, A. K. Shiva Kumar (2001). "Women in India: How Free? How Equal?". United Nations. Archived from the original on 11 September 2006. Retrieved 24 December 2006.\xa0 ↑ Dube, L. 1988. On the construction of gender: Hindu girls in patrilineal India. In Socialization, education, and women: Explorations in gender identity,ed. K. Chanana, New Delhi: Orient Longman. ↑ "In India, Can Schools Offer Path Out Of Poverty?". 14 May 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010.\xa0 1 2 Raman, 235 ↑ Raman, 236 1 2 Raman, 238 ↑ . S. Chandrasekhar and A. Jayaraman, District Level Analysis of the Total Fertility Rate Using Indian Census Data (viewed on 9 March 2011), http://paa2004.princeton.edu/download.asp?submissionId=41578 ↑ Women Education in India, (viewed on 9 March 2011), http://www.slideshare.net/siddharth4mba/women-education-in-india ↑ Literacy Rate and Gender Gap in Sechduled Castes in India, (viewed on 9 March 2011), http://www.capabilityapproach.com/pubs/NavjeetKaur.pdf ↑ Nutrition in India, Viewed on 11 March 2011, http://www.icosgroup.net/static/foodsec/text/accscnun_indiacasestudy.pdf ↑ Landscaping Women\'s Empowerment through Learning and Education in India, A study, Viewed on 11 March 2011,http://dasra.org/n/forwebsite/factsheet/Landscaping_Women_Empowerment_Report.pdf ↑ Saraswathi, T.S. & Verma, Suman. Adolescence in India: \'\'Street Urchins or Silicon Valley Millionaires?\'\' pg. 17 from Brown, B. Bradford, Larson, Reed W, & Saraswathi, T.S., The World\'s Youth: adolescence in eight regions of the globe. Cambridge University Press, 2002. 1 2 3 4 Setty and Ross, 120 ↑ Setty and Ross, 121 1 2 3 Setty and Ross, 122 1 2 Setty and Ross, 125 ↑ Verma, Suman; Saraswathi, T.S. (2002). The World\'s Youth: Adolescence in Eight Regions of the Globe. Cambridge, UK: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. p.\xa0117. ISBN\xa00-521-00605-8.\xa0 |access-date= requires |url= (help) ↑ De, Anuradha; Drèze, Jean (3 June 1999). Public Report on Basic Education in India. UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN\xa00195648706.\xa0 Check date values in: |access-date= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help) ↑ "Human Development Report 1999" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 1999.\xa0 Check date values in: |access-date= (help) ↑ "Human Development Report 2000" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 2000.\xa0 Check date values in: |access-date= (help) ↑ "The Science Garage - Tinker Lab". http://sciencegarage.net/. The Science Garage. Retrieved 24 February 2015.\xa0 External link in |website= (help) ↑ "U.S.A, India Announce Innovation, Science, and Technology Awards". India Education Diary. June 25, 2013.\xa0 ↑ Basu, Kaushik (29 November 2004). "Combating India\'s truant teachers". BBC. Retrieved 3 January 2010.\xa0 ↑ Singh, Shivani (7 April 2005). "Education chess: Are govt schools any better now?". The Times of India.\xa0 ↑ "\'Indian Education: creating Zombies focussed on passing exam\'".\xa0 ↑ "India". BusinessWeek.\xa0 ↑ "‘Rote system of learning still rules the roost’". ExpressIndia. 2008. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Reality Check for Parents: Preschools in India – Reviews, Top, Compare, List, Good". Preschool for Child Rights. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2014.\xa0 ↑ "44 institutions to lose deemed university status – Economy and Politics". livemint.com. 18 January 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "22 universities across India fake: UGC". ExpressIndia. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Country Strategy for India (CAS) 2009–2012" (PDF). World Bank.\xa0 1 2 3 4 Elder, 227 1 2 3 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 226–227 1 2 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 236–237 1 2 3 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 216 1 2 3 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 218 1 2 3 4 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 239 ↑ India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 223 ↑ "Network for Social Accountability". NSA. 28 December 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "345 NSA Response to Education Sector Interventions in Union Budget-UPA Rule and the Education Sector by Siba Sankar Mohanty". Nsa.org.in. 21 February 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "309: How the Working Class has Performed in the Turbulent Years of Liberalisation-A Priliminary Study of Working Class Income and Expenditure Survey1999-2000 Page-1". Nsa.org.in. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 150 1 2 Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 149–50 ↑ Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 152–154 1 2 3 Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 154 1 2 3 Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 156 ↑ Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 149 ↑ "Really Old School," Garten, Jeffrey E. New York Times, 9 December 2006.',
      'timestamp': '2016-02-18T11:18:35Z'},
     'mt': None,
     'user': {'engine': None,
      'content': '↑ Estimate for India, from India, The Hindu ↑ "India Literacy Rate". UNICEF. Retrieved 10 October 2013.\xa0 1 2 "World Development Indicators: Participation in education". World Bank. Retrieved 21 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Education in India". World Bank.\xa0 ↑ India achieves 27% decline in poverty, Press Trust of India via Sify.com, 2008-09-12 ↑ "Gross enrollment ratio by level of education". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Retrieved 10 December 2015.\xa0 ↑ "Global Education". University Analytics. Retrieved 10 December 2015.\xa0 1 2 "Over a quarter of enrollments in rural India are in private schools". The Hindu. Retrieved 21 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Indian education: Sector outlook" (PDF). Retrieved 23 January 2014.\xa0 ↑ Enrolment in schools rises 14% to 23 crore The Times of India (22 January 2013) ↑ Sharath Jeevan & James Townsend, Teachers: A Solution to Education Reform in India Stanford Social Innovation Review (17 July 2013) ↑ B.P. Khandelwal, Examinations and test systems at school level in India UNESCO, pages 100-114 ↑ Indian Education System: What needs to change? 1 2 3 "National Policy on Education (with modifications undertaken in 1992)" (PDF). National Council of Educational Research and Training. Retrieved 10 December 2012.\xa0 ↑ Vyas, Neena (30 June 2012). "10+2+3: A Game of Numbers?". India Today. Retrieved 10 December 2012.\xa0 ↑ Bamzai, Kaveree (24 December 2009). "1977-10+2+3 system of education: The new class structure". India Today. Retrieved 10 December 2012.\xa0 1 2 3 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 233 ↑ India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 230–234 ↑ "National University of Educational Planning and Administration". Nuepa.org. Retrieved 16 August 2012.\xa0 ↑ "NCTE\xa0: National Council For Teacher Education". Ncte-india.org. Retrieved 16 August 2012.\xa0 1 2 3 4 Blackwell, 93–94 ↑ [dead link] Archived 31 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine[dead link] ↑ flashstatistics2009-10.pdf ↑ Archived 17 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine ↑ [dead link] Archived 19 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine[dead link] 1 2 3 4 5 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 215 ↑ 100% Primary educationa, Kerala (14 January 2016). "Kerala becomes 1st Indian state to achieve 100% primary education". International Business Times. International Business Times. Retrieved 14 January 2016.\xa0 ↑ Blackwell, 94–95 ↑ Microsoft Word – Framework_Final_RMSA.doc. (PDF). Retrieved on 21 March 2011. Archived 7 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine ↑ Secondary Education. Education.nic.in. Retrieved on 21 March 2011. Archived 22 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine ↑ India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 231 1 2 Desai, Sonalde, Amaresh Dubey, Reeve Vanneman and Rukmini Banerji. 2009. "Private Schooling in India: A New Landscape," India Policy Forum Vol. 5. Pp. 1-58, Bery, Suman, Barry Bosworth and Arvind Panagariya (Editors). New Delhi: Sage ↑ "4 Montessori schools make it to top 10 list author=TNN". December 7, 2014. Retrieved August 12, 2015.\xa0 ↑ "A special report on India: Creaking, groaning: Infrastructure is India’s biggest handicap". The Economist. 11 December 2008.\xa0 ↑ Geeta Gandhi Kingdon. "The progress of school education in India" (PDF).\xa0 1 2 Amit Varma (15 January 2007). "Why India Needs School Vouchers". Wall Street Journal.\xa0 1 2 "Private Education in India can Benefit Poor People".\xa0 ↑ http://www.iscresearch.com/ 1 2 http://www.iscresearch.com/information/isc-news.aspx ↑ http://www.economist.com/news/international/21636757-english-language-schools-once-aimed-expatriates-now-cater-domestic-elites-new ↑ "RTE: Homeschooling too is fine, says Sibal". Times of India. 2010.\xa0 ↑ Singh, Y.K.; Nath, R. History of Indian education system. APH Publishing. pp.\xa0172–175. ISBN\xa0978-81-7648-932-4. Retrieved 11 January 2013.\xa0 ↑ "India Country Summary of Higher Education" (PDF). World Bank.\xa0 1 2 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 237 ↑ "Higher Education, National Informatics Centre, Government of India". Education.nic.in. Archived from the original on 16 December 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "No of Universities in India". Retrieved 25 February 2014.\xa0 ↑ "No of Colleges in India - India Education Statistics". Retrieved 25 February 2014.\xa0 ↑ Blackwell, 95–96 1 2 3 Blackwell, 96 ↑ "Govt launches Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan for bouldering Higher Education". Retrieved 7 October 2013.\xa0 ↑ The World\'s Best Engineering Schools - Business Insider ↑ Vrat, 230–231 ↑ India doesn\'t figure in world top-100 universities, Press Trust of India via timesofindia.com, 2010-09-12 ↑ "University Business". Frontline. 17 April 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Shouldering the Quality Responsibility". EDU Magazine. January 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.\xa0 ↑ Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. "PM’s address at the 150th Anniversary Function of University of Mumbai". Archived from the original on 12 January 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Education faces lawmakers’ test". livemint. 4 August 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Foreign universities - a reality check". UniversityWorldNews.com. 21 March 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Call for a national policy on internationalisation". EDU Magazine. August 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.\xa0 ↑ "Times Higher Education". Times Higher Education. 6 October 2006. Archived from the original on 31 March 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "Asia\'s Best Science and Technology Schools". Cgi.cnn.com. 22 June 2000. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "MBA global Top 100 rankings – FT". ft.com. Retrieved 4 March 2009.\xa0 ↑ "Medical Meccas: An Oasis for India\'s Poorest | Newsweek Health for Life | Newsweek.com". Newsweek.com. Retrieved 3 November 2008.\xa0 ↑ The World\'s Best Engineering Schools - Business Insider ↑ QS University Rankings: BRICS 2013 | Top Universities ↑ Top Universities in India | Top Universities ↑ "Infrastructure: S&T Education", Science and Technology in India, 30 1 2 3 4 "Infrastructure: S&T Education", Science and Technology in India, 31 ↑ "Infrastructure: S&T Education", Science and Technology in India, 32 ↑ Nandakumar, Indu (24 November 2011). "Number of tech graduates swells; salaries at IT firms stay stagnant". The Economic Times. Retrieved 19 March 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Knowledge Professionals". Indian IT-BPO: Trends & Insights. NASSCOM. Retrieved 19 March 2012.\xa0 ↑ Anand, Geeta (5 April 2011). "India Graduates Millions, but Too Few Are Fit to Hire". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 March 2012.\xa0 ↑ Information Technology AICTE (2012) Archived 7 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine ↑ Bharucha, Jamshed (2013). "Education in South Asia: Time bomb or silver bullet?". In A. Najam & M. Yusuf (Eds.), South Asia 2060: Envisioning Regional Futures. NY: Anthem Press.\xa0 ↑ Bharucha, Jamshed (25 January 2008). "America can teach Asia a lot about science, technology, and math.". Chronicle of Higher Education, 54(20).\xa0 ↑ Growth of Technical Institutes in the Country AICTE, Govt of India ↑ "Bihar Sate open school". Retrieved 16 April 2013.\xa0 ↑ DATT, SUNDHARAM (2010). INDIAN ECONOMY. S. CHAND.\xa0 ↑ "Jamia - Centres -Centre for Distance and Open Learning - Study Centres". Jmi.ac.in. Retrieved 23 January 2014.\xa0 1 2 3 4 5 6 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 225 ↑ "Country Profiles - India". UNESCO. Retrieved 22 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ . National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2). International Institute for Population Sciences & ORC Macro. 2000.\xa0 Missing or empty |title= (help) ↑ "A special report on India: Creaking, groaning: Infrastructure is India’s biggest handicap". The Economist. 11 December 2008.\xa0 ↑ "Indian schools dwarfed in global ratings programme". Indian Express. Retrieved 15 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "India backs out of global education test for 15-year-olds". Times of India. Retrieved 14 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "India chickens out of international students assessment programme again". Times of India. Retrieved 14 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Many of India’s Poor Turn to Private Schools". New York Times. Retrieved 15 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "World Bank: Pupil-teacher ratio, primary". World Bank. Retrieved 15 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "Teachers Skipping Work". World Bank. Retrieved 14 August 2014.\xa0 ↑ "The Hidden Cost of Corruption: Teacher Absenteeism and Loss in Schools".\xa0 1 2 4–6 p.m. (30 October 2009). "Kremer etc. (2004), "Teacher Absence in India: A Snapshot", Journal of the European Economic Association" (PDF). Globetrotter.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "12. Report of the HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA Issues Related to Expansion, Inclusiveness, Quality and Finance, May 2008". Ugc.ac.in. Archived from the original on 22 August 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "A special report on India: An elephant, not a tiger". The Economist. 11 December 2008.\xa0 ↑ Kalyani Menon-Sen, A. K. Shiva Kumar (2001). "Women in India: How Free? How Equal?". United Nations. Archived from the original on 11 September 2006. Retrieved 24 December 2006.\xa0 ↑ Dube, L. 1988. On the construction of gender: Hindu girls in patrilineal India. In Socialization, education, and women: Explorations in gender identity,ed. K. Chanana, New Delhi: Orient Longman. ↑ "In India, Can Schools Offer Path Out Of Poverty?". 14 May 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010.\xa0 1 2 Raman, 235 ↑ Raman, 236 1 2 Raman, 238 ↑ . S. Chandrasekhar and A. Jayaraman, District Level Analysis of the Total Fertility Rate Using Indian Census Data (viewed on 9 March 2011), http://paa2004.princeton.edu/download.asp?submissionId=41578 ↑ Women Education in India, (viewed on 9 March 2011), http://www.slideshare.net/siddharth4mba/women-education-in-india ↑ Literacy Rate and Gender Gap in Sechduled Castes in India, (viewed on 9 March 2011), http://www.capabilityapproach.com/pubs/NavjeetKaur.pdf ↑ Nutrition in India, Viewed on 11 March 2011, http://www.icosgroup.net/static/foodsec/text/accscnun_indiacasestudy.pdf ↑ Landscaping Women\'s Empowerment through Learning and Education in India, A study, Viewed on 11 March 2011,http://dasra.org/n/forwebsite/factsheet/Landscaping_Women_Empowerment_Report.pdf ↑ Saraswathi, T.S. & Verma, Suman. Adolescence in India: \'\'Street Urchins or Silicon Valley Millionaires?\'\' pg. 17 from Brown, B. Bradford, Larson, Reed W, & Saraswathi, T.S., The World\'s Youth: adolescence in eight regions of the globe. Cambridge University Press, 2002. 1 2 3 4 Setty and Ross, 120 ↑ Setty and Ross, 121 1 2 3 Setty and Ross, 122 1 2 Setty and Ross, 125 ↑ Verma, Suman; Saraswathi, T.S. (2002). The World\'s Youth: Adolescence in Eight Regions of the Globe. Cambridge, UK: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. p.\xa0117. ISBN\xa00-521-00605-8.\xa0 |access-date= requires |url= (help) ↑ De, Anuradha; Drèze, Jean (3 June 1999). Public Report on Basic Education in India. UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN\xa00195648706.\xa0 Check date values in: |access-date= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help) ↑ "Human Development Report 1999" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 1999.\xa0 Check date values in: |access-date= (help) ↑ "Human Development Report 2000" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 2000.\xa0 Check date values in: |access-date= (help) ↑ "The Science Garage - Tinker Lab". http://sciencegarage.net/. The Science Garage. Retrieved 24 February 2015.\xa0 External link in |website= (help) ↑ "U.S.A, India Announce Innovation, Science, and Technology Awards". India Education Diary. June 25, 2013.\xa0 ↑ Basu, Kaushik (29 November 2004). "Combating India\'s truant teachers". BBC. Retrieved 3 January 2010.\xa0 ↑ Singh, Shivani (7 April 2005). "Education chess: Are govt schools any better now?". The Times of India.\xa0 ↑ "\'Indian Education: creating Zombies focussed on passing exam\'".\xa0 ↑ "India". BusinessWeek.\xa0 ↑ "‘Rote system of learning still rules the roost’". ExpressIndia. 2008. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Reality Check for Parents: Preschools in India – Reviews, Top, Compare, List, Good". Preschool for Child Rights. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2014.\xa0 ↑ "44 institutions to lose deemed university status – Economy and Politics". livemint.com. 18 January 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "22 universities across India fake: UGC". ExpressIndia. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012.\xa0 ↑ "Country Strategy for India (CAS) 2009–2012" (PDF). World Bank.\xa0 1 2 3 4 Elder, 227 1 2 3 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 226–227 1 2 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 236–237 1 2 3 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 216 1 2 3 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 218 1 2 3 4 India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 239 ↑ India 2009: A Reference Annual (53rd edition), 223 ↑ "Network for Social Accountability". NSA. 28 December 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "345 NSA Response to Education Sector Interventions in Union Budget-UPA Rule and the Education Sector by Siba Sankar Mohanty". Nsa.org.in. 21 February 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ "309: How the Working Class has Performed in the Turbulent Years of Liberalisation-A Priliminary Study of Working Class Income and Expenditure Survey1999-2000 Page-1". Nsa.org.in. Retrieved 1 September 2010.\xa0 ↑ Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 150 1 2 Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 149–50 ↑ Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 152–154 1 2 3 Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 154 1 2 3 Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 156 ↑ Sripati and Thiruvengadam, 149 ↑ "Really Old School," Garten, Jeffrey E. New York Times, 9 December 2006.',
      'timestamp': '2016-02-18T11:18:35Z'}},
    'mwBg': {'sequenceid': 154,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: central, state, and local. Under various articles of the Indian Constitution, free and compulsory education is provided as a fundamental right to children between the ages of 6 and 14. The ratio of public schools to private schools in India is 7:5.',
      'timestamp': '2016-02-18T11:06:53Z'},
     'mt': None,
     'user': {'engine': None,
      'content': '5.',
      'timestamp': '2016-02-18T11:07:38Z'}},
    'mwDg': {'sequenceid': 164,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': "India has made progress in terms of increasing the primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately three-quarters of the population in the 7-10 age group, by 2011.[4] India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development.[5] Much of the progress, especially in higher education and scientific research, has been credited to various public institutions. While enrollment in higher education has increased steadily over the past decade, reaching a Gross Enrollment Ratio of 24% in 2013,[6] there still remains a significant distance to catch up with tertiary education enrollment levels of developed nations,[7] a challenge that will be necessary to overcome in order to continue to reap a demographic dividend from India's comparatively young population.",
      'timestamp': '2016-02-18T11:06:53Z'},
     'mt': None,
     'user': {'engine': None,
      'content': '',
      'timestamp': '2016-02-18T11:07:38Z'}},
    'mwNA': {'sequenceid': 225,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'The central and most state boards uniformly follow the "10+2+3" pattern of education.[14]:3 In this pattern, study of 12 years is done in schools or in colleges,[14]:44 and then 3 years of graduation for a bachelor\'s degree.[15] The first 10 years is further subdivided into 5 years of primary education, 3 years of upper primary, followed by 2 years of high school.[14]:5 This pattern originated from the recommendation of the Education Commission of 1964–66.[16]',
      'timestamp': '2016-02-18T11:08:50Z'},
     'mt': None,
     'user': {'engine': None,
      'content': '.[16]',
      'timestamp': '2016-02-18T11:09:37Z'}},
    'mwTQ': {'sequenceid': 265,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Primary education',
      'timestamp': '2016-02-18T11:18:35Z'},
     'mt': None,
     'user': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Primary education',
      'timestamp': '2016-02-18T11:18:35Z'}},
    'mwTg': {'sequenceid': 267,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'A primary school in Kerala, India.',
      'timestamp': '2016-02-18T11:18:35Z'},
     'mt': None,
     'user': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'A primary school in Kerala, India.',
      'timestamp': '2016-02-18T11:18:35Z'}},
    'mwUw': {'sequenceid': 273,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Indian School children',
      'timestamp': '2016-02-18T11:18:35Z'},
     'mt': None,
     'user': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Indian School children',
      'timestamp': '2016-02-18T11:18:35Z'}},
    'mwVw': {'sequenceid': 278,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'The Indian government lays emphasis on primary education, also referred to as elementary education, to children aged 6 to 14 years old.[21] The Indian government has also banned child labor in order to ensure that the children do not enter unsafe working conditions.[21] However, both free education and the ban on child labour are difficult to enforce due to economic disparity and social conditions.[21] 80% of all recognized schools at the elementary stage are government run or supported, making it the largest provider of education in the country.[22]',
      'timestamp': '2016-02-18T11:18:35Z'},
     'mt': None,
     'user': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'भारत सरकार दव्रा \xa0प्राथमिक शिक्षा,(शिशु ,आयु ६-१४) पर काफी ध्यान दिया गया है\xa0।[21] भारत सरकार\xa0दव्रा\xa0बाल\xa0मजदूरी\xa0मे\xa0भी\xa0प्रतिबंध\xa0लगा\xa0दिया\xa0है\xa0ताकि\xa0बच्चे किसी भी तरह के खतरनाक \xa0काय मे न आये।[21] \xa0.[22]',
      'timestamp': '2016-02-18T12:11:58Z'}}}}}}

Observations:

  • Some sections of the article have been included in content translation but eventually no mt and target content is there.
  • i.e. 'content' exists in 'source' but not in either 'mt' or 'user'. Eg : mwDg

2.4 Specific article analysis: Suzuki Hayabusa

# Translation Information of 'Suzuki Hayabusa'
df[df['sourceTitle'] == 'Suzuki Hayabusa']
any human mt mtSectionsCount publishedDate sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetRevisionId targetTitle ... translatedSectionsCount translationId englishViewCount hindiViewCount englishEditCount engSizeAtTrans hindiEditCount hinSizeAtTrans currEngSize currHinSize
1416 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 20180419080338 836778058 Suzuki Hayabusa //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suzuki Hayabusa 3772801 सुज़ुकी हायाबुसा ... NaN 461620 1764479.0 4713.0 44.0 72840.0 30.0 2067.0 73634.0 9198.0

1 rows × 21 columns

Observation:

  • No section has been content translated (mtSectionsCount = 0), still it has been included as content translation (because of just using the tool, maybe)

2.5 Specific article analysis: Theresa May

# Translation Information of 'Theresa May'
df[df['sourceTitle']=='Theresa May']
any human mt mtSectionsCount publishedDate sourceRevisionId sourceTitle sourceURL targetRevisionId targetTitle ... translatedSectionsCount translationId englishViewCount hindiViewCount englishEditCount engSizeAtTrans hindiEditCount hinSizeAtTrans currEngSize currHinSize
345 1.01355 0.007191 1.006359 94.0 20160717163944 730214671 Theresa May //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theresa May 3111568 थेरेसा मे ... NaN 179504 12649807.0 20221.0 500.0 99875.0 28.0 137088.0 199936.0 10287.0

1 rows × 21 columns

# Get location of 'Theresa May'
location_theresaMay = (df.index[df['sourceTitle'] == 'Theresa May'])[0]
location_theresaMay
345
# Get 'source', 'mt' and 'user' for each of the translated section of 'Theresa May' using contenttranslationcorpora
parallel_corpus_parameters = {'action':'query',
                              'format':'json',
                              'list':'contenttranslationcorpora',
                              'translationid':str(df.loc[location_theresaMay, 'translationId']),
                              'striphtml':True}
parallel_corpus_res = english_session.get(parallel_corpus_parameters)
parallel_corpus_res
{'batchcomplete': '',
 'query': {'contenttranslationcorpora': {'sections': {'mw-Q': {'sequenceid': 927,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Minister for Women and Equalities',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:37:08Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'मंत्री ने महिलाओं के लिए और Equalities',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:37:08Z'},
     'user': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'महिलाओं व समानता मंत्री',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:37:35Z'}},
    'mw-g': {'sequenceid': 929,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'May and Justine Greening speaking at Youth For Change, 19 July 2014',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:37:37Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'मई और जस्टिन हरियाली में बोल रहे युवाओं के लिए परिवर्तन, 19 जुलाई 2014',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:37:37Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mw0A': {'sequenceid': 861,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Deportation decisions',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:15Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'निर्वासन के फैसले',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:15Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mw0Q': {'sequenceid': 863,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'May, David Cameron and Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak, 14 July 2011',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:17Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'हो सकता है, डेविड कैमरून और मलेशियाई प्रधानमंत्री नजीब रजाक, 14 जुलाई 2011',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:17Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mw1w': {'sequenceid': 870,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'At the Conservative Party Conference on 4 October 2011, while arguing that the Human Rights Act needed to be amended, May gave the example of a foreign national who the Courts ruled was allowed to remain in the UK, "because—and I am not making this up—he had a pet cat". In response, the Royal Courts of Justice issued a statement, denying that this was the reason for the tribunal\'s decision in that case, and stating that the real reason was that he was in a genuine relationship with a British partner, and owning a pet cat was simply one of many pieces of evidence given to show that the relationship was "genuine". The Home Office had failed to apply its own rules for dealing with unmarried partners of people settled in the UK.[84] Amnesty International said May\'s comments only fuelled "myths and misconceptions" about the Human Rights Act and Justice Secretary Kenneth Clarke subsequently called May\'s comments "laughable and childlike."[85][86]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:20Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'पर कंजर्वेटिव पार्टी के सम्मेलन पर 4 जून 2011 की है, जबकि उनका तर्क है कि मानव अधिकार अधिनियम करने के लिए आवश्यक संशोधन किया जा सकता है, का उदाहरण दिया जो एक विदेशी नागरिक को कोर्ट ने फैसला सुनाया अनुमति दी गई थी करने के लिए ब्रिटेन में रहते हैं, "क्योंकि—और मैं नहीं कर रहा हूँ इस—वह एक पालतू बिल्ली थी". जवाब में, शाही न्याय की अदालतों में, एक बयान जारी किया इनकार करता है कि इस के लिए कारण था ट्रिब्यूनल के निर्णय के मामले में है कि, और कहा कि असली कारण यह था कि वह था के साथ एक वास्तविक संबंध एक साथी है, और एक पालतू बिल्ली के मालिक बस गया था एक के कई टुकड़े के सबूत दिखाने के लिए दिया जाता है कि रिश्ता था "वास्तविक" है । घर के कार्यालय में विफल रहा था लागू करने के लिए अपने स्वयं के नियमों के साथ निपटने के लिए अविवाहित भागीदार के लोगों को ब्रिटेन में बसे.[84] एमनेस्टी इंटरनेशनल ने कहा है हो सकता है टिप्पणी केवल शह "मिथकों और गलत धारणाओं के बारे में" मानव अधिकार अधिनियम और न्याय सचिव केनेथ क्लार्क ने बाद में कहा जाता है हो सकता है टिप्पणी "हास्यास्पद और बच्चों का सा है।"[85][86]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:20Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mw2Q': {'sequenceid': 876,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'In June 2012, May was found in contempt of court by Judge Barry Cotter, and stood accused of "totally unacceptable and regrettable behaviour", being said to have shown complete disregard for a legal agreement to free an Algerian from a UK Immigration Detention Centre. As she eventually allowed the prisoner to be freed, May avoided further sanctions including fines or imprisonment.[87][88]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:23Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'जून 2012 में, हो सकता है में पाया गया था, अदालत की अवमानना के द्वारा न्यायाधीश बैरी कोटर, और खड़ा था का आरोप लगाया, "पूरी तरह से अस्वीकार्य है और अफसोस की बात व्यवहार", कहा जा रहा है करने के लिए दिखाया गया है के लिए पूर्ण उपेक्षा एक कानूनी समझौते के लिए नि: शुल्क एक अल्जीरियाई से ब्रिटेन के एक आव्रजन हिरासत केंद्र है । के रूप में वह अंततः की अनुमति दी कैदी को मुक्त किया जा सकता है, टाला और अधिक प्रतिबंध लगाने सहित जुर्माना या कारावास.[87][88]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:23Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mw2w': {'sequenceid': 880,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': "May responded to a Supreme Court decision in November 2013 to overturn her predecessor Jacqui Smith's revocation of Iraqi-born terror suspect Al Jedda's British citizenship by ordering it to be revoked for a second time, making him the first person to be stripped twice of British citizenship.[89][90][91]",
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:25Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': "हो सकता है जवाब करने के लिए सुप्रीम कोर्ट के निर्णय नवंबर 2013 में उलट करने के लिए उसके पूर्ववर्ती Jacqui स्मिथ's के निरसन इराकी जन्मे संदिग्ध आतंकवादी अल Jedda की ब्रिटिश नागरिकता को यह आदेश देने से निरस्त हो एक दूसरी बार के लिए कर रही है, उसे पहले व्यक्ति हटाया जा करने के लिए दो बार के ब्रिटिश नागरिकता है । [89][90][91]",
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:25Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mw3Q': {'sequenceid': 883,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'May was accused by Lord Roberts of being willing to allow someone to die "to score a political point" over the deportation of mentally ill Nigerian man Isa Muazu.[92] According to Muazu\'s solicitor, May had arranged for the asylum seeker, who was said to be "near death" after a 100-day hunger strike, to be deported by a chartered private jet.[92] To strengthen the Home Office\'s tough stance an "end of life\' plan was reportedly offered to Muazu, who was one of a number of hunger strikers at the Harmondsworth Immigration Removal Centre.[93]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:27Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'हो सकता है आरोप लगाया गया था द्वारा प्रभु रॉबर्ट्स जा रहा है की अनुमति देने के लिए तैयार किसी को मरने के लिए "स्कोर करने के लिए एक राजनीतिक बात" पिछले निर्वासन के मानसिक रूप से बीमार नाइजीरियाई आदमी Isa Muazu.[92] के अनुसार Muazu के वकील हो सकता था के लिए व्यवस्था की शरण साधक, जो था कहा जा करने के लिए "के पास मौत के बाद" एक 100 दिन की भूख हड़ताल, के लिए भेजा जा सकता द्वारा एक चार्टर्ड निजी जेट.[92] को मजबूत करने के लिए घर कार्यालय के कड़ा रुख एक "जीवन का अंत\' योजना का कथित तौर पर की पेशकश करने के लिए Muazu गया था, जो एक नंबर से एक की भूख हड़तालियों पर Harmondsworth आव्रजन हटाने के लिए केंद्र.[93]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:27Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mw4A': {'sequenceid': 889,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Abu Qatada deportation',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:29Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'अबू Qatada निर्वासन',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:29Z'},
     'user': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'अबू क़तादा\xa0का निर्वासन',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:41Z'}},
    'mw4Q': {'sequenceid': 891,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Abu Qatada boards a plane for deportation to Jordan',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:31Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'अबू Qatada बोर्डों के लिए एक विमान निर्वासन के लिए जॉर्डन',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:31Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mw5Q': {'sequenceid': 896,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'On 7 July 2013, Abu Qatada, a radical cleric arrested in 2002, was deported to Jordan after a decade-long battle that had cost the nation £1.7 million in legal fees,[94] and numerous prior Home Secretaries had been unable to resolve.[95] The deportation was the result of a treaty negotiated by May in April 2013, under which Jordan agreed to give Qatada a fair trial, and to refrain from torturing him.[96]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:47Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': '7 जुलाई 2013, अबू Qatada, एक कट्टरपंथी मौलवी को गिरफ्तार किया, 2002 में निर्वासित किया गया था करने के लिए जॉर्डन के बाद एक दशक लंबे युद्ध के लिए किया था कि लागत राष्ट्र £1.7 लाख में कानूनी फीस,[94] और अनेक पूर्व गृह सचिव किया गया था हल करने में असमर्थ है । [95] निर्वासन का परिणाम था एक संधि पर बातचीत मई में अप्रैल 2013, जिसके तहत जॉर्डन देने के लिए सहमत Qatada एक निष्पक्ष परीक्षण, और से बचना करने के लिए तड़पा है । [96]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:47Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mw6A': {'sequenceid': 901,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'May has frequently pointed to Qatada\'s deportation as a triumph, guaranteeing in September 2013 that "he will not be returning to the UK", and declaring in her 2016 leadership campaign announcement that she was told that she "couldn\'t deport Abu Qatada" but that she "flew to Jordan and negotiated the treaty that got him out of Britain for good".[97][98] The Qatada deportation also shaped May\'s views on the European Convention on Human Rights and European Court of Human Rights, saying that they had "moved the goalposts" and had a "crazy interpretation of our human rights laws", as a result, May has since campaigned against the institutions, saying that British withdrawal from them should be considered.[94]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:50Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'हो सकता है बार-बार इशारा करने के लिए Qatada के निर्वासन के रूप में एक जीत की गारंटी, सितंबर 2013 में है कि "वह नहीं होगा लौटने के लिए", और घोषणा में 2016 के नेतृत्व में अभियान की घोषणा की है कि उसने बताया था कि वह "नहीं कर सका निर्वासित अबू Qatada" लेकिन यह है कि वह "के लिए उड़ान भरी और बातचीत की संधि हो गया है कि उसे ब्रिटेन के लिए अच्छा है."[97][98] के Qatada निर्वासन भी आकार का हो सकता है पर विचारों पर यूरोपीय कन्वेंशन मानव अधिकार और मानव अधिकार के यूरोपीय न्यायालय, कह रही है कि वे था "ले जाया गया गोलपोस्ट" और था एक "पागल की व्याख्या हमारे मानव अधिकार कानून", एक परिणाम के रूप में, हो सकता है के बाद से के खिलाफ अभियान चलाया संस्थानों, कह रही है कि ब्रिटिश वापसी से उन्हें माना जाना चाहिए । [94]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:50Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mw6w': {'sequenceid': 906,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Passport backlog',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:51Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'पासपोर्ट बैकलॉग',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:51Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mw7A': {'sequenceid': 908,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'In mid 2014, the Passport Office faced a backlog in developing processing passport applications, with around 30,000 applications hit by delays.[99] David Cameron suggested this had come about due to the Passport Office\'s receiving an "above normal" 300,000-rise in applications.[100] It was revealed, however, that May had been warned the year before, in July 2013, that a surge of 350,000 extra applications could occur owing to the closure of processing overseas under Chancellor Osborne\'s programme of cuts.[101] Around £674,000 was paid to staff who helped clear the backlog.[102]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:54Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'मध्य 2014 में, पासपोर्ट कार्यालय का सामना करना पड़ा बैकलॉग के विकास में प्रसंस्करण के पासपोर्ट आवेदन के साथ, चारों ओर 30,000 अनुप्रयोगों के द्वारा मारा देरी.[99] डेविड कैमरन सुझाव यह आया था के बारे में कारण करने के लिए पासपोर्ट कार्यालय के एक "सामान्य से ऊपर" 300,000 वृद्धि में अनुप्रयोगों.[100] यह पता चला था, हालांकि, हो सकता है कि चेतावनी दी गई थी इस वर्ष के पहले, जुलाई 2013 में, कि एक वृद्धि की 350,000 अतिरिक्त अनुप्रयोगों हो सकता है के कारण बंद होने के प्रसंस्करण विदेशों के तहत चांसलर ओसबोर्न के कार्यक्रम में कटौती की है । [101] चारों ओर £674,000 भुगतान किया गया था, जो कर्मचारियों के लिए मदद की बकाया स्पष्ट है । [102]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:54Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mw7Q': {'sequenceid': 913,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Birmingham schools row',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:56Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'बर्मिंघम स्कूलों पंक्ति',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:36:56Z'},
     'user': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'बर्मिंघम स्कूल विवाद',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:37:03Z'}},
    'mw7g': {'sequenceid': 915,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': "In June 2014, an inflamed public argument arose between Home Office and Education Ministers about responsibility for alleged extremism in Birmingham schools.[103][104] Prime Minister David Cameron intervened to resolve the row, insisting that May sack her Special Advisor Fiona Cunningham (now Hill) for releasing on May's website a confidential letter to May's colleagues,[105] and that Michael Gove, the Education Secretary, apologise to the Home Office's head of Security and Counter-Terrorism, Charles Farr, for uncomplimentary briefings of him appearing on the front page of The Times.[106][107]",
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:37:06Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'जून 2014 में, एक सूजन सार्वजनिक बहस के बीच पैदा हुई घर कार्यालय और शिक्षा के बारे में मंत्रियों के लिए जिम्मेदारी कथित अतिवाद बर्मिंघम में स्कूलों.[103][104] प्रधानमंत्री डेविड कैमरन के हस्तक्षेप को हल करने के लिए पंक्ति में, आग्रह है कि हो सकता बोरी उसे विशेष सलाहकार फियोना कनिंघम (अब हिल) के लिए जारी कर सकते हैं, वेबसाइट पर एक गोपनीय पत्र के लिए कर सकते हैं, सहयोगियों,[105] और है कि Michael Gove, शिक्षा सचिव, माफी माँगने के लिए घर कार्यालय के सिर की सुरक्षा और आतंकवाद का मुकाबला, चार्ल्स फार, के लिए uncomplimentary ब्रीफिंग की, उसे प्रदर्शित होने के पहले पन्ने पर इस बार.[106][107]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:37:06Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAQ4': {'sequenceid': 954,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Support for same-sex marriage',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:37:48Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'समर्थन के लिए एक ही सेक्स शादी',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:37:48Z'},
     'user': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'समलिंगी विवाह का समर्थन',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:10Z'}},
    'mwAQ8': {'sequenceid': 956,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'In May 2012, May expressed support for the introduction of same-sex marriage by recording a video for the Out4Marriage campaign.[119] May became one of the first high-profile Conservative MPs to pledge personal support for same-sex marriage. She explained, "I believe if two people care for each other, if they love each other, if they want to commit to each other... then they should be able to get married and marriage should be for everyone".[120]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:12Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'मई 2012 में, हो सकता है के लिए समर्थन व्यक्त किया की शुरूआत के एक ही सेक्स शादी के द्वारा एक वीडियो रिकॉर्डिंग के लिए Out4Marriage अभियान है । [119] हो सकता है में से एक बन गया पहला हाई प्रोफाइल रूढ़िवादी सांसदों की प्रतिज्ञा करने के लिए व्यक्तिगत समर्थन के लिए एक ही सेक्स शादी है । उन्होंने बताया, "मेरा मानना है कि अगर दो लोग एक दूसरे के लिए देखभाल, तो वे एक दूसरे से प्यार है, अगर वे चाहते हैं करने के लिए प्रतिबद्ध करने के लिए एक दूसरे को... फिर वे सक्षम होना चाहिए प्राप्त करने के लिए शादी की और शादी के लिए होना चाहिए सभी".[120]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:12Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAQA': {'sequenceid': 935,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'May held the office of Minister for Women and Equality in parallel to her office of Home Secretary from 2010 to September 2012, when this role was taken over Maria Miller.[108]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:37:41Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'मई आयोजित कार्यालय के मंत्री महिला एवं समानता के लिए समानांतर में उसके कार्यालय के गृह सचिव से 2010 के लिए जून 2012 में, जब इस भूमिका पर ले लिया था मारिया मिलर.[108]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:37:41Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAQM': {'sequenceid': 939,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'May\'s appointment as Minister for Women and Equality was criticised by some members of the LGBT rights movement,[109] because she had voted against lowering the age of consent (in 1998) and against greater adoption rights for homosexuals (in 2002), though she had voted in favour of civil partnerships.[110][111] May later stated, during an appearance on the BBC\'s Question Time, that she had "changed her mind" on gay adoption.[112] Writing for PinkNews in June 2010, May clarified her proposals for improving LGBT rights including measures to tackle homophobia in sport, advocating British society\'s need for "cultural change".[113]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:37:43Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'हो सकता है के रूप में नियुक्ति के लिए मंत्री महिला और समानता था द्वारा आलोचना के कुछ सदस्यों एलजीबीटी अधिकारों के आंदोलन,[109] क्योंकि वह खिलाफ मतदान किया था कम उम्र की सहमति (1998 में) के खिलाफ और अधिक से अधिक गोद लेने समलैंगिकों के अधिकारों (2002 में), हालांकि वह था मतदान के पक्ष में नागरिक की भागीदारी है.[110][111] बाद में कहा गया, पर एक उपस्थिति के दौरान बीबीसी के सवाल का समयहै, कि वह था "उसके मन बदल" पर गोद लेने की.[112] लेखन के लिए PinkNews जून 2010 में, हो सकता है स्पष्ट किया उसके प्रस्तावों में सुधार के लिए एलजीबीटी अधिकारों सहित उपायों से निपटने के लिए होमोफोबिया में खेल, वकालत ब्रिटिश समाज की जरूरत के लिए "सांस्कृतिक परिवर्तन"है । [113]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:37:43Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAQo': {'sequenceid': 947,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'On 2 July 2010, May stated she would be supporting the previous Labour Government\'s Anti-Discrimination Laws enshrined in the Equality Act 2010 despite having opposed it before.[114] The Equality Act came into effect in England, Wales and Scotland on 1 October 2010.[115] She did however announce that a clause she dubbed "Harman\'s Law"[116] which would have required public bodies to consider how they can reduce socio-economic inequalities when making decisions about spending and services[117] would be scrapped on the grounds that it was "unworkable".[118]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:37:45Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'पर 2 दिसंबर 2010, मई कहा गया है, वह समर्थन किया जाएगा, पिछली लेबर सरकार की भेदभाव विरोधी कानूनों में निहित समानता अधिनियम 2010 होने के बावजूद इसका विरोध किया । [114] समानता अधिनियम प्रभाव में आया, इंग्लैंड, वेल्स और स्कॉटलैंड पर 1 अक्टूबर 2010.[115] वह था, हालांकि घोषणा की थी कि एक खंड वह डब "Harman\'s कानून"[116] जो होता है आवश्यक सार्वजनिक निकायों पर विचार करने के लिए कि वे कैसे कम कर सकते हैं सामाजिक-आर्थिक असमानताओं जब निर्णय लेने के बारे में खर्च और सेवाओं के[117] के लिए किया जाएगा खत्म कर दिया है कि इस आधार पर यह किया गया था "असाध्य".[118]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:37:45Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwARI': {'sequenceid': 962,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Prime Minister',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:14Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'प्रधानमंत्री',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:14Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwARY': {'sequenceid': 979,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Leadership election',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:17Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'नेतृत्व चुनाव',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:17Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwARg': {'sequenceid': 984,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'On 30 June 2016, May announced her candidacy for the leadership of the Conservative Party to replace David Cameron, who resigned after the outcome of the European Union membership referendum. May emphasised the need for unity within the party regardless of positions about leaving the EU and said she could bring "strong leadership" and a "positive vision" for the country\'s future. Despite having backed a vote to remain in the EU, she insisted that there would be no second referendum, saying: "The campaign was fought... and the public gave their verdict. There must be no attempts to remain inside the EU, no attempts to rejoin it through the back door.... Brexit means Brexit", she said, adding that Article 50 (the formal notification of Britain\'s exit from the EU) should not be filed until the end of 2016. On the issue of immigration, she agreed that there was a need to regain more control of the numbers of people who come to Britain from Europe. Under questioning she conceded that it would not be possible totally to eliminate immigration to the UK.',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:20Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'पर 30 जून, 2016 है, हो सकता है की घोषणा की अपनी उम्मीदवारी के लिए के नेतृत्व में कंजर्वेटिव पार्टी को प्रतिस्थापित करने के लिए डेविड कैमरून, जो इस्तीफा देने के बाद परिणाम की यूरोपीय संघ की सदस्यता पर जनमत संग्रहहै । हो सकता है इस बात पर जोर दिया की जरूरत के लिए एकता पार्टी के भीतर पदों की परवाह किए बिना छोड़ने के बारे में यूरोपीय संघ और कहा कि वह ला सकता है "मजबूत नेतृत्व" और एक "सकारात्मक दृष्टि" देश के भविष्य के लिए. होने के बावजूद समर्थित एक वोट बने रहने के लिए यूरोपीय संघ में, वह जोर देकर कहा कि वहाँ होगा कोई दूसरा जनमत संग्रह, कह रही: "अभियान लड़ा गया था... और जनता उनके फैसले को दे दिया है । वहाँ होना चाहिए कोई प्रयास के अंदर रहने के लिए यूरोपीय संघ, कोई प्रयास के लिए फिर से जोड़ना है, यह के माध्यम से पीछे के दरवाजे.... Brexit मतलब Brexit", उसने कहा, उनका कहना है कि अनुच्छेद 50 (औपचारिक अधिसूचना ब्रिटेन के बाहर निकलने से यूरोपीय संघ) नहीं होना चाहिए दायर की जब तक 2016 के अंत. के मुद्दे पर आव्रजन, वह सहमत था कि वहाँ एक की जरूरत है हासिल करने के लिए और अधिक नियंत्रण की संख्या में लोग आते हैं, जो ब्रिटेन के लिए यूरोप से. पूछताछ के तहत, वह स्वीकार किया कि यह संभव नहीं होगा पूरी तरह से खत्म करने के लिए आव्रजन के लिए ब्रिटेन.',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:20Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwARs': {'sequenceid': 997,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': "In opinion polls May was regarded as the favourite choice among the public; in a Sky Data Snap Poll on 30 June 47% of people said that May was their preferred Conservative candidate to be prime minister.[121] May's supporters included a number of Cabinet ministers, such as Amber Rudd, Chris Grayling, Justine Greening, Jeremy Hunt, Michael Fallon and Patrick McLoughlin.[122]",
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:23Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'जनमत सर्वेक्षणों में हो सकता है माना जाता था के रूप में पसंदीदा विकल्प जनता के बीच; एक आकाश में डेटा स्नैप पोल पर 30 जून के 47% लोगों ने कहा कि हो सकता है किया गया था उनके पसंदीदा रूढ़िवादी उम्मीदवार हो करने के लिए प्रधानमंत्री.[121] मई के समर्थकों की एक संख्या शामिल कैबिनेट मंत्रियों, इस तरह के रूप में अंबर रुड, क्रिस Grayling, जस्टिन हरियाली, जेरेमी हंट, माइकल फैलन और पैट्रिक McLoughlin.[122]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:23Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAS8': {'sequenceid': 1030,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Responding to some calls for an early general election to confirm her mandate, "sources close to Mrs May" said there would be no such election according to the BBC.[134] In a speech after her appointment, May emphasised the term "Unionist" in the name of the Conservative Party, reminding all of "the precious, precious bond between England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland."[135] By 15 July, May had traveled to Edinburgh to meet with First Minister Nicola Sturgeon to reinforce the bond between Scotland and the rest of the country. "I’m coming here to show my commitment to preserving this special union that has endured for centuries," she explained.[136]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:34Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'प्रत्युत्तर देना करने के लिए कुछ कॉल के लिए एक प्रारंभिक आम चुनाव की पुष्टि करने के लिए उसे जनादेश, "के करीबी सूत्रों श्रीमती सकता है ने कहा कि" वहाँ कोई नहीं होगा इस तरह के चुनाव के अनुसार वी.[134] में एक भाषण के बाद उसकी नियुक्ति के साथ, हो सकता है इस बात पर जोर दिया शब्द "संघी" के नाम में कंजर्वेटिव पार्टीको याद दिलाता है, सभी के "कीमती, कीमती बांड के बीच इंग्लैंड, स्कॉटलैंड, वेल्स और उत्तरी आयरलैंड."[135] द्वारा 15 जुलाई, अगस्त के लिए कूच किया था एडिनबर्ग के साथ मिलने के लिए प्रथम मंत्री निकोला स्टर्जन को सुदृढ़ करने के लिए बांड के बीच स्कॉटलैंड और देश के बाकी है. "मैं आ रहा हूँ यहाँ के लिए अपनी प्रतिबद्धता दिखाने के संरक्षण के लिए इस विशेष संघ है कि सहा है सदियों के लिए," उसने समझाया.[136]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:34Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwASI': {'sequenceid': 1006,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'May won the first round of voting on 5 July, receiving support from 165 MPs, while Andrea Leadsom received 66 votes and Michael Gove collected 48. According to The Guardian, May was "almost certain to be among the final two candidates."[123] After the results were announced, May said she was "pleased" and "grateful" for the support of other MPs and confirmed that she wanted to unite the party and the UK, to negotiate the "best possible deal as we leave the EU", and to "make Britain work for everyone".[124] The two candidates with the fewest votes, Liam Fox and Stephen Crabb, immediately announced their support for May.[125] May came in first place in the second ballot on 7 July with an overwhelming majority of 199 MPs against 84 for Leadsom and 46 for Gove, who was eliminated.[126] Afterwards, May stated that she was delighted with her support among MPs, and she progressed to a vote of the Conservative Party membership against Leadsom[127]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:26Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'मई को होंगे मतदान के पहले दौर पर 5 जुलाई, से समर्थन प्राप्त 165 सांसदों, जबकि श्रीमती एंड्रिया लेडसोम प्राप्त 66 वोट और Michael Gove एकत्र 48. के अनुसार गार्जियन, हो सकता था, "लगभग निश्चित होना करने के लिए के बीच अंतिम दो उम्मीदवारों के लिए."[123] के बाद परिणाम की घोषणा की थी, हो सकता है उसने कहा था, "खुश" और "आभारी" के समर्थन के लिए अन्य सांसदों और पुष्टि की है कि वह एकजुट करना चाहते थे, पार्टी और ब्रिटेन बातचीत करने के लिए, "सबसे अच्छा सौदा संभव के रूप में हम छोड़ यूरोपीय संघ", और करने के लिए "ब्रिटेन में हर किसी के लिए काम".[124] दो उम्मीदवारों के साथ सबसे कम वोट, लियाम फॉक्स और स्टीफन Crabb, तुरंत घोषणा की उनके समर्थन के लिए हो सकता है । [125] मई में आया था, पहली जगह में दूसरा मतदान 7 जुलाई को एक भारी बहुमत के 199 सांसदों के खिलाफ 84 के लिए Leadsom और 46 के लिए Gove, जो समाप्त हो गया था । [126] बाद में, मई में कहा गया है कि वह खुश था के साथ उसके समर्थन में सांसदों के बीच, और वह प्रगति की है के लिए एक वोट के कंजर्वेटिव पार्टी की सदस्यता के खिलाफ Leadsom[127]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:26Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwASk': {'sequenceid': 1018,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': "On 11 July, Leadsom announced her withdrawal from the leadership contest hours after May had made her first campaign speech, citing her lack of support amongst Conservative MPs as being a hindrance to becoming a credible prime minister.[128] As the sole remaining candidate, May was declared Leader of the Conservative Party that evening.[129][130] Soon after she became Leader of the Conservative Party by default on 11 July 2016, David Cameron announced that he would tender his resignation as prime minister two days later, making May the UK's second female Prime Minister.",
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:28Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'पर 11 जुलाई, Leadsom की घोषणा की उसकी वापसी के नेतृत्व से प्रतियोगिता घंटे के बाद हो सकता है उसे बनाया था पहला अभियान भाषण का हवाला देते हुए उसे समर्थन की कमी के बीच रूढ़िवादी सांसदों के रूप में होने के नाते एक बाधा बनने के लिए एक विश्वसनीय प्रधानमंत्री.[128] के रूप में एकमात्र शेष उम्मीदवार, मई घोषित किया गया था, नेता के कंजर्वेटिव पार्टी उस शाम.[129][130] जल्द ही होने के बाद वह बन गया के नेता कंजर्वेटिव पार्टी पर डिफ़ॉल्ट रूप से 11 जुलाई, 2016, डेविड कैमरन ने घोषणा की है कि वह निविदा के रूप में अपने इस्तीफे प्रधानमंत्री दो दिनों के बाद, कर सकता है ब्रिटेन की दूसरी महिला प्रधानमंत्री.',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:28Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwASo': {'sequenceid': 1022,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Early days',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:30Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'शुरुआती दिनों',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:30Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwASs': {'sequenceid': 1024,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'After being appointed by Queen Elizabeth II on 13 July 2016, May became only the second female Prime Minister of the United Kingdom after Margaret Thatcher, and the first female British Prime Minister of the 21st century.[131][132][133] May told the media on 12 July 2016 that she was "honoured and humbled" to become Prime Minister.',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:32Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'के बाद नियुक्त किया जा रहा द्वारा महारानी एलिजाबेथ द्वितीय पर 13 जुलाई, 2016, हो सकता है बन गया है, केवल दूसरी महिला प्रधानमंत्री की यूनाइटेड किंगडम के बाद मार्गरेट थैचर, और पहली महिला प्रधानमंत्री के रूप में 21 वीं सदी । [131][132][133] हो सकता है मीडिया को बताया कि 12 जुलाई, 2016 है कि वह था "सम्मानित और दीन" प्रधानमंत्री बनने के लिए.',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:32Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwATU': {'sequenceid': 1040,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'May also appointed new Cabinet members, in "one of the most sweeping government reshuffles for decades"[137] described as "a brutal cull" by The Telegraph since several prominent members, including six of Cameron\'s ministers were removed from their posts.[138] The early appointments were interpreted both as an effort to reunite the Conservative Party in the wake of the UK\'s vote to leave the European Union, and as "a shift to the right," according to The Guardian.[139] ITV\'s Political Editor Robert Peston made the following comment: "Her rhetoric is more left-wing than Cameron\'s was, her cabinet is more right wing than his was."[140]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:36Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'भी नियुक्त नए मंत्रिमंडल के सदस्यों, "में से एक सबसे व्यापक सरकार फेरबदल दशकों के लिए,"[137] के रूप में वर्णित "एक क्रूर चुनना" टेलीग्राफ के बाद से कई प्रमुख सदस्यों, सहित छह के कैमरून के मंत्रियों से हटा दिया गया है उनके पदों.[138] जल्दी नियुक्तियों व्याख्या कर रहे थे, दोनों के रूप में एक प्रयास के पुनर्मिलन के लिए कंजर्वेटिव पार्टी के मद्देनजर ब्रिटेन के वोट छोड़ने के लिए यूरोपीय संघके रूप में, और "एक सही करने के लिए बदलाव के अनुसार," गार्जियन.[139] आईटीवी के राजनीतिक संपादक रॉबर्ट Peston निम्न टिप्पणी: "उसे लफ्फाजी है और अधिक वामपंथी तुलना में कैमरून की थी, उसे कैबिनेट है, और अधिक सही विंग उसकी तुलना में था."[140]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:36Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwATw': {'sequenceid': 1048,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Although May had supported remaining in the EU, she appointed prominent advocates of Brexit to key cabinet positions responsible for negotiating the United Kingdom withdrawal from the European Union, including Foreign Secretary, Brexit Secretary, and International Trade Secretary.[136][141] Overall, of the 25 members of the May ministry (including May), seven supported Brexit, while the other 18 supported Remain.[139] May appointed former Mayor of London Boris Johnson to Foreign Secretary, former Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change Amber Rudd to Home Secretary and former Foreign Secretary and Defence Secretary Philip Hammond as her Chancellor of the Exchequer.[142]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:39Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'हालांकि हो सकता है का समर्थन किया था शेष यूरोपीय संघ में, वह नियुक्त प्रमुख अधिवक्ताओं के Brexit करने के लिए कुंजी कैबिनेट पदों के लिए जिम्मेदार वार्ता यूनाइटेड किंगडम से वापसी यूरोपीय संघसहित, विदेश सचिव, Brexit सचिव, और अंतरराष्ट्रीय व्यापार सचिव.[136][141] कुल मिलाकर, के 25 सदस्यों के लिए हो सकता मंत्रालय सहित (मई), सात समर्थित Brexit, जबकि अन्य 18 समर्थित बने हुए हैं । [139] हो सकता नियुक्त पूर्व लंदन के मेयर बोरिस जॉनसन को विदेश सचिवके पूर्व सचिव के लिए राज्य के ऊर्जा और जलवायु परिवर्तन अंबर रुड के लिए गृह सचिव और पूर्व विदेश सचिव और रक्षा सचिव फिलिप हैमंड के रूप में उसे राजकोष के चांसलर के.[142]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:39Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAUk': {'sequenceid': 1064,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'May abolished the Department for Energy and Climate Change which means that now climate change is included in the scope of a new Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. The move was criticised by Greenpeace which expressed concern the new government failed to see the threat from climate change, by Friends of the Earth which said climate change is happening now while the new government lowers its priority and New Economics Foundation environmental economist, Stephen Devlin who said, "Tackling climate change is an era-defining challenge that must direct and determine what industries we develop, what transport infrastructure we construct, how we manage our land and what our diets look like. It requires a central co-ordinated strategy; if we leave it to the afterthoughts of other departments we will fail."[143] The future direction of May\'s government over climate change is uncertain.[144]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:42Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'हो सकता है को समाप्त कर दिया विभाग के लिए ऊर्जा और जलवायु परिवर्तन का मतलब है कि जो अब जलवायु परिवर्तन के दायरे में शामिल एक नए विभाग के लिए व्यापार, ऊर्जा और औद्योगिक रणनीतिहै । को स्थानांतरित किया गया था द्वारा आलोचना ग्रीनपीस जो चिंता व्यक्त की नई सरकार में विफल रहा है देखने के लिए जलवायु परिवर्तन से खतरा, द्वारा पृथ्वी के मित्र , जो ने कहा कि जलवायु परिवर्तन हो रहा है, जबकि अब नई सरकार को कम करती है, इसकी प्राथमिकता है और नई अर्थशास्त्र फाउंडेशन पर्यावरण अर्थशास्त्री, स्टीफन डेवलिन ने कहा, "जलवायु परिवर्तन से निबटने के युग को परिभाषित करने के लिए चुनौती है कि प्रत्यक्ष चाहिए और निर्धारित क्या हम उद्योगों का विकास, क्या परिवहन बुनियादी सुविधाओं हम निर्माण, कैसे हम हमारे प्रबंधन भूमि और क्या हमारे भोजन की तरह लग रही है । यह आवश्यकता है एक केंद्रीय समन्वित रणनीति; यदि हम यह करने के लिए छोड़ afterthoughts के अन्य विभागों में हम असफल हो जायेगी।"[143] के भविष्य की दिशा हो सकती है सरकार से जलवायु परिवर्तन अनिश्चित है । [144]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:42Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAV0': {'sequenceid': 1092,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'During her leadership campaign, May said that “We need an economy that works for everyone", pledging to crack down on executive pay by making shareholders\' votes binding rather than advisory and to put workers onto company boards,[151] policies that The Guardian describes as going further than the Labour Party\'s 2015 general election manifesto.[152]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:54Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'के दौरान नेतृत्व में अभियान, हो सकता है ने कहा कि "हम की जरूरत है एक अर्थव्यवस्था है कि काम करता है हर किसी के लिए", वचन पर नीचे दरार करने के कार्यकारी भुगतान बनाने के द्वारा शेयरधारकों\' वोट बाइंडिंग के बजाय सलाहकार और डाल करने के लिए श्रमिकों पर कंपनी के बोर्ड पर है,[151] नीतियों है कि अभिभावक के रूप में वर्णन आगे जाने की तुलना में लेबर पार्टी के 2015 के आम चुनाव के घोषणापत्र में है । [152]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:54Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAVA': {'sequenceid': 1075,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Political ideology',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:44Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'राजनीतिक विचारधारा',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:44Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAVE': {'sequenceid': 1077,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'May has identified herself with the One Nation Conservative position within her party.[145]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:46Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'हो सकता है की पहचान की है के साथ खुद को एक राष्ट्र रूढ़िवादी स्थिति के भीतर । [145]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:46Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAVM': {'sequenceid': 1080,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Describing her as a liberal Conservative, the Financial Times characterised May as a "non-ideological politician with a ruthless streak who gets on with the job", in doing so comparing her to German Chancellor Angela Merkel.[146]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:47Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'के रूप में उसका वर्णन एक उदार रूढ़िवादी, फाइनेंशियल टाइम्स मुत्यु हो सकता है के रूप में एक "गैर-वैचारिक नेता के साथ एक क्रूर लकीर हो जाता है, जो के साथ काम पर", में ऐसा करने की तुलना में उसे करने के लिए जर्मन चांसलर एंजेला मार्केल.[146]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:47Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAVg': {'sequenceid': 1085,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'In The Independent, Rebecca Glover of the Policy Innovation Research Unit contrasted May to Boris Johnson, claiming that she was "staunchly more conservative, more anti-immigration, and more isolationist" than he.[147]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:49Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'में स्वतंत्र, रेबेका ग्लोवर की नीति नवाचार अनुसंधान इकाई विषम हो सकता करने के लिए बोरिस जॉनसनका दावा है कि वह था "staunchly अधिक रूढ़िवादी है, और अधिक विरोधी आप्रवास, और अधिक isolationist" की तुलना में वह है.[147]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:49Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAVw': {'sequenceid': 1089,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'May supported the UK remaining in the EU during the 2016 referendum campaign, but did not campaign extensively in the referendum and criticised aspects of the EU in a speech.[148][149] It was speculated by political journalists that May had sought to minimise her involvement in the debate to strengthen her position as a future candidate for the Conservative party leadership.[150]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:52Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'हो सकता है समर्थित ब्रिटेन में शेष यूरोपीय संघ के दौरान 2016 में जनमत संग्रह अभियान है, लेकिन नहीं किया अभियान में बड़े पैमाने पर जनमत संग्रह और आलोचना के पहलुओं यूरोपीय संघ में एक भाषण है । [148][149] यह अनुमान लगाया गया था द्वारा राजनीतिक पत्रकारों सकता है कि मांग करने के लिए कम से कम में उसकी भागीदारी बहस को मजबूत करने के लिए उसकी स्थिति के रूप में एक भविष्य के उम्मीदवार के लिए कंजर्वेटिव पार्टी नेतृत्व.[150]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:52Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAW8': {'sequenceid': 1128,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'May was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus of type 1 in November 2012. She is treated with daily insulin injections.[161]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:08Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'हो सकता था के साथ का निदान मधुमेह के प्रकार 1 नवंबर 2012 में. वह इलाज किया जाता है के साथ दैनिक इंसुलिन इंजेक्शन के लिए । [161]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:08Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAWE': {'sequenceid': 1096,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'After she became Prime Minister, May\'s first speech espoused the left, with a promise to combat the “burning injustice” in British society and to create a union “between all of our citizens” and promising to be an advocate for the “ordinary working-class family” and not for the affluent in the UK. "The government I lead will be driven not by the interests of the privileged few but by yours. We will do everything we can to give you more control over your lives. ... When we take the big calls, we’ll think not of the powerful, but you. When we pass new laws we’ll listen not to the mighty, but to you. When it comes to taxes we’ll prioritise not the wealthy but you."[153]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:56Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'के बाद वह प्रधानमंत्री बने, मई के पहले भाषण समर्थन छोड़ दिया है, एक वादा के साथ मुकाबला करने के लिए "जल" अन्याय ब्रिटिश समाज में और पैदा करने के लिए एक "संघ के सभी के बीच, हमारे नागरिकों" और वादा किया जा करने के लिए एक वकील के लिए "साधारण काम वर्ग के परिवार" और नहीं के लिए समृद्ध ब्रिटेन में है । "सरकार मैं नेतृत्व प्रेरित किया जाएगा नहीं के हितों से विशेषाधिकार प्राप्त कुछ है लेकिन तुम्हारा है. हम सब कुछ हम कर सकते हैं देने के लिए आप पर अधिक नियंत्रण अपने जीवन पर. ... जब हम ले, कॉल, हम आपको लगता है कि नहीं के लिए शक्तिशाली है, लेकिन आप. जब हम पारित नए कानून हम सुनेंगे नहीं करने के लिए शक्तिशाली है, लेकिन आप के लिए है । जब यह आता है करने के लिए करों हम आपको प्राथमिकता नहीं अमीर लेकिन आप."[153]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:56Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAWI': {'sequenceid': 1106,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Personal life',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:59Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'व्यक्तिगत जीवन',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:38:59Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAWM': {'sequenceid': 1108,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'May has been married to Philip May, an investment banker currently employed by Capital International, since 6 September 1980; the couple have no children.[154] May has stated her regret that, for health reasons, she has not been able to have children with her husband, saying in one interview that, "You look at families all the time and you see there is something there that you don’t have".[155][156]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:02Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'हो सकता है शादी कर दिया गया है करने के लिए फिलिप हो सकता है, एक निवेश बैंकर द्वारा वर्तमान में कार्यरत कैपिटल इंटरनेशनलके बाद से, 6 अगस्त 1980; जोड़ी के बच्चों को नहीं है.[154] हो सकता है ने कहा है कि उसे अफसोस है कि, स्वास्थ्य कारणों के लिए, वह सक्षम नहीं किया गया है करने के लिए बच्चों के साथ उसके पति में कह रही है, एक साक्षात्कार में कहा कि, "तुम देखो पर परिवारों के सभी समय और तुम देखो वहाँ कुछ है कि आप की जरूरत नहीं है".[155][156]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:02Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAWY': {'sequenceid': 1113,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'May is a member of the Church of England and regularly worships at church on Sunday.[1][2][157] The daughter of an Anglican priest, the Reverend Hubert Brasier, May has said that her Christian faith "is part of me. It is part of who I am and therefore how I approach things".[158]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:03Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'हो सकता है के एक सदस्य के चर्च इंग्लैंड और नियमित रूप से लिंग पर रविवार को चर्च.[1][2][157] की बेटी एक अंगरेज़ी पुजारी, आदरणीय Hubert Brasier, हो सकता है ने कहा है कि उसे ईसाई धर्म "का हिस्सा है । यह मैं कौन हूँ का हिस्सा है और इसलिए मैं कैसे दृष्टिकोण बातें".[158]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:03Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAWs': {'sequenceid': 1121,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': "May is known for a love of fashion and in particular distinctive shoes, wearing leopard-print shoes at her 'Nasty Party' speech in 2002, as well as her final Cabinet meeting as Home Secretary in 2016. On Desert Island Discs in 2014 she chose a subscription to Vogue as her luxury item.[159] However she has been critical of the media focusing on her fashion instead of her achievements as a politician.[160]",
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:06Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': "हो सकता है के लिए जाना जाता है फैशन के एक प्यार है और विशेष रूप से विशिष्ट जूते, पहने हुए तेंदुए प्रिंट जूते पर उसे 'अश्लील पार्टी' भाषण में 2002, के रूप में अच्छी तरह के रूप में उसे अंतिम कैबिनेट बैठक में गृह सचिव 2016 में है । पर डेजर्ट द्वीप डिस्क 2014 में वह एक चुना करने के लिए सदस्यता के प्रचलन के रूप में उसके लक्जरी आइटम है । [159] हालांकि वह किया गया है के महत्वपूर्ण मीडिया पर ध्यान केंद्रित कर उसे फैशन के बजाय उसकी उपलब्धियों के लिए एक राजनीतिज्ञ के रूप में.[160]",
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:06Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAX0': {'sequenceid': 1146,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': "Prior to and since her appointment to Government, May actively supports a variety of campaigns on policy issues in her constituency and at the national level of politics. She has spoken at the Fawcett Society promoting the cross-party issue of gender equality. May was nominated as one of the Society's Inspiring Women of 2006.[167]",
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:16Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'करने से पहले और के बाद से उसे नियुक्ति करने के लिए सरकार, हो सकता है सक्रिय रूप से समर्थन करता है की एक किस्म के अभियान पर नीति के मुद्दों में निर्वाचन क्षेत्र और राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर राजनीति की है । वह में बात की है Fawcett समाज को बढ़ावा देने के पार पार्टी के मुद्दे लैंगिक समानता है । हो सकता है नामित किया गया था के रूप में समाज की महिलाओं को प्रेरित 2006 की है । [167]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:16Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAX8': {'sequenceid': 1151,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': "She is the Patron of Reading University Conservative Association, the largest political student group in Berkshire (the county of her Maidenhead constituency).[168] In February 2013, BBC Radio 4's Woman's Hour described her as Britain's second-most powerful woman after Queen Elizabeth II.[169]",
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:18Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': "वह संरक्षक के पढ़ने विश्वविद्यालय रूढ़िवादी एसोसिएशन, सबसे बड़ा राजनीतिक छात्र समूह में बर्कशायर (काउंटी की सफ़ाई निर्वाचन क्षेत्र).[168] फरवरी 2013 में, बीबीसी रेडियो 4's महिला के घंटे वर्णित के रूप में ब्रिटेन की दूसरी सबसे शक्तिशाली महिला के बाद महारानी एलिजाबेथ द्वितीयहै । [169]",
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:18Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAXM': {'sequenceid': 1134,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Since coming into prominence as a front-bench politician, May\'s public image has divided media opinion, especially from some in the traditionalist right-wing press.[162] Commenting on May\'s debut as Home Secretary, Anne Perkins of The Guardian observed that "she\'ll be nobody\'s stooge",[163] while Cristina Odone of The Daily Telegraph predicted her to be "the rising star" of the Coalition Government.[164] Allegra Stratton, then with The Guardian, praised May as showing managerial acumen.[165]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:10Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'में आने के बाद से प्रमुखता के रूप में एक सामने बेंच राजनीतिज्ञ, हो सकता है की सार्वजनिक छवि विभाजित किया गया है मीडिया की राय में, विशेष रूप से कुछ में परंपरावादी दक्षिणपंथी प्रेस.[162] पर टिप्पणी कर सकते हैं, के रूप में पहली गृह सचिव, ऐनी पर्किन्स के अभिभावक मनाया, "है कि वह हो जाएगा कोई भी कठपुतली",[163] जबकि क्रिस्टीना Odone के डेली टेलीग्राफ की भविष्यवाणी की उसे करने के लिए हो सकता है "बढ़ती स्टार" की गठबंधन सरकार है । [164] Allegra स्ट्रैटनके साथ तो, अभिभावक, प्रशंसा हो सकता है के रूप में दिखा प्रबंधकीय कौशल.[165]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:10Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAXs': {'sequenceid': 1142,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Her parliamentary expenses have been "modest" in recent years (about £15,000 from 2005 to 2009).[166]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:12Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'उसे संसदीय खर्च किया गया है "मामूली" हाल के वर्षों में (के बारे में £15,000 के लिए 2005 से 2009).[166]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:12Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAXw': {'sequenceid': 1144,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Activism and awards',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:13Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'सक्रियता और पुरस्कार',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:13Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAYU': {'sequenceid': 1158,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Titles and honours',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:19Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'खिताब और सम्मान',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:19Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAYY': {'sequenceid': 1160,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Styles',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:22Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'शैलियों',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:22Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwAYg': {'sequenceid': 1187,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Miss Theresa Brasier (1956–1980) Mrs Philip May (1980–1997) Theresa May MP (1997–2003) The Rt Hon Theresa May MP (2003–present)',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:24Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'याद थेरेसा Brasier (1956-1980) श्रीमती फिलिप मई (1980-1997) थेरेसा मई सांसद (1997-2003) Rt माननीय थेरेसा मई सांसद (2003–वर्तमान)',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:39:24Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwCQ': {'sequenceid': 531,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Theresa Mary May (née Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party. She has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Maidenhead since 1997. May identifies as a One-Nation Conservative and is characterised as a liberal Conservative.',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:28:57Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'थेरेसा मैरी मई (उर्फ़ Brasier; जन्म 1 अक्टूबर 1956) प्रधानमंत्री की यूनाइटेड किंगडम और नेता की कंजर्वेटिव पार्टीहै । वह गया है की संसद के सदस्य (सांसद) के लिए सफ़ाई - 1997 के बाद से. हो सकता है के रूप में पहचानती है एक एक-राष्ट्र रूढ़िवादी और characterised है के रूप में एक उदार रूढ़िवादीहै ।',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:28:57Z'},
     'user': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'थेरेसा मैरी\xa0मे (उर्फ़ ब्रेसियर; जन्म 1 अक्टूबर 1956) यूनाइटेड किंगडम\xa0 की प्रधानमंत्री और\xa0कंजर्वेटिव पार्टी की नेता है । वे 1997 से मेडनहैड सीट से संसद के सदस्य (सांसद) हैं। उन्हें एक एक-राष्ट्र रूढ़िवादी और एक उदार रूढ़िवादी के रूप में जाना जाता है।',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:32:36Z'}},
    'mwFA': {'sequenceid': 543,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': "The daughter of a vicar, May grew up in Oxfordshire. From 1977 until 1983, she worked for the Bank of England, and from 1985 until 1997 at the Association for Payment Clearing Services, also serving as a councillor for the London Borough of Merton's Durnsford Ward. After unsuccessful attempts to be elected to the House of Commons in 1992 and 1994, she was elected MP for Maidenhead in the 1997 general election. May served in a number of roles in the Shadow Cabinets of William Hague, Iain Duncan Smith, Michael Howard, and David Cameron, including Shadow Leader of the House of Commons and Shadow Work and Pensions Secretary. She was also Chairman of the Conservative Party from 2002 to 2003.",
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:32:42Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': "बेटी के एक पादरी, मई में पले ऑक्सफ़र्डशायर. 1977 से 1983 तक वह काम किया है के लिए बैंक ऑफ इंग्लैंड, और 1985 से 1997 तक में संघ के लिए भुगतान समाशोधन सेवाओं, यह भी एक सेवा के रूप में पार्षद के लिए लंदन के बरो मेर्टोन's Durnsford वार्ड है । असफल प्रयासों के बाद निर्वाचित किया जा करने के लिए हाउस ऑफ कॉमन्स में 1992 और 1994 में, वह निर्वाचित किया गया था के लिए सांसद मेडनहेड में 1997 के आम चुनावहै । हो सकता है की संख्या में सेवा की भूमिकाओं में छाया मंत्रिमंडल के विलियम हेग, इयान डंकन स्मिथ, माइकल हावर्ड, और डेविड कैमरनसहित छाया के नेता हाउस ऑफ कॉमन्स और छाया कार्य और पेंशन सचिव. वह भी अध्यक्ष के कंजर्वेटिव पार्टी 2002 से 2003.",
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:32:42Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwJA': {'sequenceid': 564,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'After the formation of the Coalition Government following the 2010 general election, May was appointed Home Secretary and Minister for Women and Equalities, giving up the latter role in 2012. Reappointed after the Conservative victory in the 2015 general election, she went on to become the longest-serving Home Secretary since James Chuter Ede over 60 years previously, pursuing reform of the police, taking a harder line on drug policy and introducing restrictions on immigration.[3]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:33:07Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'के बाद के गठन की गठबंधन सरकार के बाद 2010 के आम चुनाव के लिए, हो सकता है नियुक्त किया गया था गृह सचिव और मंत्री के लिए महिलाओं और Equalitiesदे रही है, उत्तरार्द्ध भूमिका में 2012. पुन: ताजपोशी के बाद रूढ़िवादी जीत में 2015 के आम चुनाव, वह चला गया पर करने के लिए सबसे लंबे समय तक सेवारत गृह सचिव के बाद से जेम्स Chuter Ede 60 से अधिक साल पहले, पीछा सुधार के पुलिस ले रही है, एक कठिन लाइन पर दवा नीति और शुरू करने पर प्रतिबंध आव्रजन.[3]',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:33:07Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwLA': {'sequenceid': 574,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': "Following the resignation of David Cameron on 24 June 2016, May announced her candidacy for the leadership of the Conservative Party and quickly emerged as the front-runner. She won the first ballot of Conservative MPs on 5 July by a significant margin, and two days later won the votes of 199 MPs, going forward to face a vote of Conservative Party members in a contest with Andrea Leadsom. Leadsom's withdrawal from the election on 11 July led to May's appointment as leader the same day. She was appointed Prime Minister two days later.",
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:33:07Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'के इस्तीफे के बाद डेविड कैमरन पर 24 जून, 2016 है, हो सकता है की घोषणा की अपनी उम्मीदवारी के लिए नेतृत्व की कंजर्वेटिव पार्टी और जल्दी से उभरा के रूप में सामने धावक है । वह जीता पहली बार मतदान के रूढ़िवादी सांसदों को 5 जुलाई को एक महत्वपूर्ण मार्जिन द्वारा, और दो दिन बाद जीता वोट के 199 सांसदों, आगे जा रहे हैं का सामना करने के लिए एक वोट के कंजर्वेटिव पार्टी के सदस्यों के साथ प्रतियोगिता में श्रीमती एंड्रिया लेडसोम. Leadsom की वापसी के चुनाव से 11 जुलाई के लिए नेतृत्व कर सकते हैं के रूप में नियुक्ति के नेता एक ही दिन है । वह प्रधानमंत्री नियुक्त किया गया था दो दिनों के बाद.',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:33:07Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwMA': {'sequenceid': 582,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': 'Early life and education',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:33:08Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'प्रारंभिक जीवन और शिक्षा',
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:33:08Z'},
     'user': None},
    'mwMQ': {'sequenceid': 584,
     'source': {'engine': None,
      'content': "Born on 1 October 1956 in Eastbourne, Sussex, May is the only child of Zaidee Mary (née Barnes; 1928–1982) and Hubert Brasier (1917–1981).[4] Her father was a Church of England clergyman who was chaplain of an Eastbourne hospital. He later became vicar of Enstone with Heythrop and finally of St Mary's at Wheatley, to the east of Oxford.[5][6][7][8]",
      'timestamp': '2016-07-17T16:33:08Z'},
     'mt': {'engine': 'Yandex',
      'content': 'पर पैदा हुआ 1 अक्टूबर 1956 में ईस्टबोर्न, ससेक्स, हो सकता है केवल बच्चे के Zaidee मैरी (उर्फ़ बार्न्स; 1928-1982) और हुबर्ट Brasier (1917-1981).[4] उसके पिता एक इंग्लैंड के चर्च के पादरी था, जो पादरी के एक ईस्टबोर्